scispace - formally typeset

Showing papers in "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America in 2001"


Patent
Abstract: A surgical system for controlled application of ultrasound energy to engaged tissue volumes for creating effective biological welds or seals in tissue. The invention provides an ultrasound transmission assembly including piezoelectric elements coupled to an elongate waveguide that is reciprocatable in an interior of an introducer. The reciprocatable waveguide assembly of the invention is adapted to have multiple functionality: (i) to couple ultrasound energy to both opposing jaws to thereby deliver energy to both sides of engaged tissues to create uniform thermal weld effects; (ii) to apply very high compressive forces to captured tissues over the length of elongate jaws by engaging substantially the entire length of the jaws, and (iii) to transect the captured tissues contemporaneous with the delivery of energy to create the thermal weld. The invention further provides for use of other energy sources to deliver thermal energy to tissue, for example microwave energy, Rf energy and laser energy, either in combination with ultrasound energy or independently.

945 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results quantify the effect of number of spectral channels on speech recognition in noise and demonstrate that most CI subjects are not able to fully utilize the spectral information provided by the number of electrodes used in their implant.
Abstract: Speech recognition was measured as a function of spectral resolution (number of spectral channels) and speech-to-noise ratio in normal-hearing (NH) and cochlear-implant(CI) listeners. Vowel, consonant, word, and sentence recognition were measured in five normal-hearing listeners, ten listeners with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant, and nine listeners with the Advanced Bionics Clarion cochlear implant. Recognition was measured as a function of the number of spectral channels (noise bands or electrodes) at signal-to-noise ratios of +15, +10, +5, 0 dB, and in quiet. Performance with three different speech processing strategies (SPEAK, CIS, and SAS) was similar across all conditions, and improved as the number of electrodes increased (up to seven or eight) for all conditions. For all noise levels, vowel and consonant recognition with the SPEAK speech processor did not improve with more than seven electrodes, while for normal-hearing listeners, performance continued to increase up to at least 20 channels. Speech recognition on more difficult speech materials (word and sentence recognition) showed a marginally significant increase in Nucleus-22 listeners from seven to ten electrodes. The average implant score on all processing strategies was poorer than scores of NH listeners with similar processing. However, the best CI scores were similar to the normal-hearing scores for that condition (up to seven channels). CI listeners with the highest performance level increased in performance as the number of electrodes increased up to seven, while CI listeners with low levels of speech recognition did not increase in performance as the number of electrodes was increased beyond four. These results quantify the effect of number of spectral channels on speech recognition in noise and demonstrate that most CI subjects are not able to fully utilize the spectral information provided by the number of electrodes used in their implant.

870 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this experiment, the intelligibility of a target phrase masked by a single competing masker phrase was measured as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with same-talker, same-sex, and different-sex target and masker voices.
Abstract: Although most recent multitalker research has emphasized the importance of binaural cues, monaural cues can play an equally important role in the perception of multiple simultaneous speech signals. In this experiment, the intelligibility of a target phrase masked by a single competing masker phrase was measured as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with same-talker, same-sex, and different-sex target and masker voices. The results indicate that informational masking, rather than energetic masking, dominated performance in this experiment. The amount of masking was highly dependent on the similarity of the target and masker voices: performance was best when different-sex talkers were used and worst when the same talker was used for target and masker. Performance did not, however, improve monotonically with increasing SNR. Intelligibility generally plateaued at SNRs below 0 dB and, in some cases, intensity differences between the target and masking voices produced substantial improvements in performance with decreasing SNR. The results indicate that informational and energetic masking play substantially different roles in the perception of competing speech messages.

828 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that a diffuse field is not devoid of phase information, but has a correlation function equal to the Green's function, and the cross-correlation between diffuse signals in two transducers is very nearly equal to an impulse applied to the other.
Abstract: A diffuse acoustic field is shown to have correlations equal to the Green’s function of the body. Simple plausibility arguments for this assertion are followed by a more detailed proof. A careful version of the statement is found to include caveats in regard to how diffuse the field truly is, the spectrum of the diffuse field, and the phase of the receivers. Ultrasonic laboratory tests confirm the assertion. The main features of the direct signal between two transducers are indeed recovered by cross correlating their responses to a diffuse field generated by a third transducer. The quality of the recovery improves with increased averaging and the use of multiple sources. Applications are discussed.

807 citations


PatentDOI
Abstract: A method for recognizing an audio sample locates an audio file that most closely matches the audio sample from a database indexing a large set of original recordings. Each indexed audio file is represented in the database index by a set of landmark timepoints and associated fingerprints. Landmarks occur at reproducible locations within the file, while fingerprints represent features of the signal at or near the landmark timepoints. To perform recognition, landmarks and fingerprints are computed for the unknown sample and used to retrieve matching fingerprints from the database. For each file containing matching fingerprints, the landmarks are compared with landmarks of the sample at which the same fingerprints were computed. If a large number of corresponding landmarks are linearly related, i.e., if equivalent fingerprints of the sample and retrieved file have the same time evolution, then the file is identified with the sample. The method can be used for any type of sound or music, and is particularly effective for audio signals subject to linear and nonlinear distortion such as background noise, compression artifacts, or transmission dropouts. The sample can be identified in a time proportional to the logarithm of the number of entries in the database; given sufficient computational power, recognition can be performed in nearly real time as the sound is being sampled.

774 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The feasibility ofRemote palpation is demonstrated experimentally using breast tissue phantoms with spherical lesion inclusions, and in vitro liver samples and the results show promise for the clinical implementation of remote palpation.
Abstract: A method of acoustic remote palpation, capable of imaging local variations in the mechanical properties of tissue, is under investigation. In this method, focused ultrasound is used to apply localized (on the order of 2 mm3) radiation force within tissue. and the resulting tissue displacements are mapped using ultrasonic correlation based methods. The tissue displacements are inversely proportional to the stiffness of the tissue, and thus a stiffer region of tissue exhibits smaller displacements than a more compliant region. In this paper, the feasibility of remote palpation is demonstrated experimentally using breast tissue phantoms with spherical lesion inclusions, and in vitro liver samples. A single diagnostic transducer and modified ultrasonic imaging system are used to perform remote palpation. The displacement images are directly correlated to local variations in tissue stiffness with higher contrast than the corresponding B-mode images. Relationships between acoustic beam parameters, lesion characteristics and radiation force induced tissue displacement patterns are investigated and discussed. The results show promise for the clinical implementation of remote palpation.

715 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present research addressed predictions from Best's perceptual assimilation model (PAM), which incorporates both contrastive phonological and noncontrastive phonetic influences from the native language in its predictions about discrimination levels for diverse types of non-native contrasts, and provided evidence for some perceptual differentiation of phonological, phonetic, and nonlinguistic information in perception ofnon-native speech.
Abstract: Classic non-native speech perception findings suggested that adults have difficulty discriminating segmental distinctions that are not employed contrastively in their own language. However, recent reports indicate a gradient of performance across non-native contrasts, ranging from near-chance to near-ceiling. Current theoretical models argue that such variations reflect systematic effects of experience with phonetic properties of native speech. The present research addressed predictions from Best’s perceptual assimilation model (PAM), which incorporates both contrastive phonological and noncontrastive phonetic influences from the native language in its predictions about discrimination levels for diverse types of non-native contrasts. We evaluated the PAM hypotheses that discrimination of a non-native contrast should be near-ceiling if perceived as phonologically equivalent to a native contrast, lower though still quite good if perceived as a phonetic distinction between good versus poor exemplars of a single native consonant, and much lower if both non-native segments are phonetically equivalent in goodness of fit to a single native consonant. Two experiments assessed native English speakers’ perception of Zulu and Tigrinya contrasts expected to fit those criteria. Findings supported the PAM predictions, and provided evidence for some perceptual differentiation of phonological, phonetic, and nonlinguistic information in perception of non-native speech. Theoretical implications for non-native speech perception are discussed, and suggestions are made for further research.

580 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Environmental Acoustics.- Acoustics of Forests and Acoustic Quality Control of Some Forest Products.- Wood and Wood-Based Materials in Architectural Acoustics.- Material Characterization.- Theory of and Experimental Methods for the Acoustic Characterization of Wood.- Elastic Constants of Wood Material.- Wood Structural Anisotropy and Ultrasonic Parameters.- Quality Assessment.- Wood Species for Musical Instruments.- Acoustic Methods as a Nondestructive Tool for Wood Quality Assessment.- Environmental Modifiers of Wood Structural Parameters Detected with Ultrasonic Waves.- Acoustic Emission.- Acousto-Ultrasonics.- High-Power Ultrasonic Treatment for Wood Processing.

472 citations


PatentDOI
Abstract: A method and system is described which allows users to identify (pre-recorded) sounds such as music, radio broadcast, commercials, and other audio signals in almost any environment. The audio signal (or sound) must be a recording represented in a database of recordings. The service can quickly identify the signal from just a few seconds of excerption, while tolerating high noise and distortion. Once the signal is identified to the user, the user may perform transactions interactively in real-time or offline using the identification information.

399 citations


PatentDOI
Abstract: A medical device assembly and method provides an ultrasound transducer mounted onto a catheter shaft. The ultrasound transducer is mounted such that there is a radial separation between the transducer and the underlying catheter shaft. The transducer is mounted on support structures which do not bridge the gap between the transducer and delivery member. The location of the support structures provides for an “airbacked” transducer that is very efficient and prevents heat build-up in the materials in contact therewith.

366 citations


PatentDOI
Abstract: Methods for generating a three-dimensional visualization image of an object, such as an internal organ, using volume visualization techniques are provided. The techniques include a multi-scan imaging method; a multi-resolution imaging method; and a method for generating a skeleton of a complex three dimension object. The applications include virtual cystoscopy, virtual laryngoscopy, virtual angiography, among others.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which perceived separation of speech and interference improves speech recognition in the free field, and indicated that the advantage of perceived separation is not limited to conditions where the interfering speech is understandable.
Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which perceived separation of speech and interference improves speech recognition in the free field. Target speech stimuli were 320 grammatically correct but nonmeaningful sentences spoken by a female talker. In the first experiment the interference was a recording of either one or two female talkers reciting a continuous stream of similar nonmeaningful sentences. The target talker was always presented from a loudspeaker directly in front (0°). The interference was either presented from the front loudspeaker (the F-F condition) or from both a right loudspeaker (60°) and the front loudspeaker, with the right leading the front by 4 ms (the F-RF condition). Due to the precedence effect, the interference in the F-RF condition was perceived to be well to the right, while the target talker was heard from the front. For both the single-talker and two-talker interference, there was a sizable improvement in speech recognition in the F-RF condition compared with the F-F condition. However, a second experiment showed that there was no F-RF advantage when the interference was noise modulated by the single- or multi-channel envelope of the two-talker masker. Results of the third experiment indicated that the advantage of perceived separation is not limited to conditions where the interfering speech is understandable.

PatentDOI
Pertti Saarinen1
Abstract: Display apparatus including a display and an orientation sensitive interface mechanism is disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, the orientation sensitive interface includes first and second loudspeaker pairs. The first loudspeaker pair includes first and second loudspeakers and the second loudspeaker pair includes the second and third loudspeaker. The first and second loudspeaker pairs are disposed along transverse directions to each other. The display apparatus comprises a switch which switches between the first loudspeaker pair and the second loudspeaker pair. By providing the respective loudspeaker pairs, and switching between them, it is possible to orient the display apparatus in transverse directions corresponding to respective loudspeaker pairs, yet maintain a substantially stereophonic reproduction for each orientation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An explicit construction and representation of the probability model have been obtained and are very well suited to algebraic calculus and to Monte Carlo numerical simulation in order to compute the transient responses of structures submitted to impulsive loads.
Abstract: A new approach is presented for analyzing random uncertainties in dynamical systems. This approach consists of modeling random uncertainties by a nonparametric model allowing transient responses of mechanical systems submitted to impulsive loads to be predicted in the context of linear structural dynamics. The information used does not require the description of the local parameters of the mechanical model. The probability model is deduced from the use of the entropy optimization principle, whose available information is constituted of the algebraic properties related to the generalized mass, damping, and stiffness matrices which have to be positive-definite symmetric matrices, and the knowledge of these matrices for the mean reduced matrix model. An explicit construction and representation of the probability model have been obtained and are very well suited to algebraic calculus and to Monte Carlo numerical simulation in order to compute the transient responses of structures submitted to impulsive loads. The fundamental properties related to the convergence of the stochastic solution with respect to the dimension of the random reduced matrix model are analyzed. Finally, an example is presented.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The theory of the dynamic bulk modulus, K(ω), of a porous rock, whose saturation occurs in patches of 100% saturation each of two different fluids, is developed within the context of the quasi-static Biot theory. The theory describes the crossover from the Biot–Gassmann–Woods result at low frequencies to the Biot–Gassmann–Hill result at high. Exact results for the approach to the low and the high frequency limits are derived. A simple closed-form analytic model based on these exact results, as well as on the properties of K(ω) extended to the complex ω-plane, is presented. Comparison against the exact solution in simple geometries for the case of a gas and water saturated rock demonstrates that the analytic theory is extremely accurate over the entire frequency range. Aside from the usual parameters of the Biot theory, the model has two geometrical parameters, one of which is the specific surface area, S/V, of the patches. In the special case that one of the fluids is a gas, the second parameter is a different, but also simple, measure of the patch size of the stiff fluid. The theory, in conjunction with relevant experiments, would allow one to deduce information about the sizes and shapes of the patches or, conversely, to make an accurate sonic-to-seismic conversion if the size and saturation values are approximately known.

PatentDOI
Hans Leysieffer1
Abstract: An at least partially implantable system for rehabilitation of a hearing disorder with at least one acoustic sensor (microphone) for picking up an acoustic sensor signal and converting the acoustic sensor signal into corresponding electrical signals, an electronic signal processing unit for audio signal processing and amplification, an electrical power supply unit which supplies individual components of the system with energy, and an output-side actuator stimulation arrangement, the actuator stimulation arrangement has a dual intracochlear arrangement in combination with a stimulator arrangement with at least one stimulator element for at least indirect mechanical stimulation of a damaged inner ear and one electrically acting stimulation electrode arrangement with at least one cochlear implant electrode for electrical stimulation of the inner ear.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A phenomenological model was developed to describe responses of high-spontaneous-rate auditory-nerve (AN) fibers, including several nonlinear response properties, which provides a tool for studying the roles of these nonlinearities in the encoding of simple and complex sounds in the responses of populations of AN fibers.
Abstract: A phenomenological model was developed to describe responses of high-spontaneous-rate auditory-nerve (AN) fibers, including several nonlinear response properties. Level-dependent gain (compression), bandwidth, and phase properties were implemented with a control path that varied the gain and bandwidth of tuning in the signal-path filter. By making the bandwidth of the control path broad with respect to the signal path, the wide frequency range of two-tone suppression was included. By making the control-path filter level dependent and tuned to a frequency slightly higher than the signal-path filter, other properties of two-tone suppression were also included. These properties included the asymmetrical growth of suppression above and below the characteristic frequency and the frequency offset of the suppression tuning curve with respect to the excitatory tuning curve. The implementation of this model represents a relatively simple phenomenological description of a single mechanism that underlies several important nonlinear response properties of AN fibers. The model provides a tool for studying the roles of these nonlinearities in the encoding of simple and complex sounds in the responses of populations of AN fibers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Calculations of speech audibility using a modified version of the articulation index showed that application of the Cambridge formula was at least partially successful in making high-frequency components of the speech audible for subjects with dead regions, and that such subjects often failed to benefit from increased audibility of thespeech at high frequencies.
Abstract: A dead region is a region of the cochlea where there are no functioning inner hair cells (IHCs) and/or neurons; it can be characterized in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the IHCs bordering that region. We examined the effect of high-frequency amplification on speech perception for subjects with high-frequency hearing loss with and without dead regions. The limits of any dead regions were defined by measuring psychophysical tuning curves and were confirmed using the TEN test described in Moore et al. [Br. J. Audiol. 34, 205-224 (2000)]. The speech stimuli were vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) nonsense syllables, using one of three vowels (/i/, /a/, and /u/) and 21 different consonants. In a baseline condition, subjects were tested using broadband stimuli with a nominal input level of 65 dB SPL. Prior to presentation via Sennheiser HD580 earphones, the stimuli were subjected to the frequency-gain characteristic prescribed by the "Cambridge" formula, which is intended to give speech at 65 dB SPL the same overall loudness as for a normal listener, and to make the average loudness of the speech the same for each critical band over the frequency range important for speech intelligibility (in a listener without a dead region). The stimuli for all other conditions were initially subjected to this same frequency-gain characteristic. Then, the speech was low-pass filtered with various cutoff frequencies. For subjects without dead regions, performance generally improved progressively with increasing cutoff frequency. This indicates that they benefited from high-frequency information. For subjects with dead regions, two patterns of performance were observed. For most subjects, performance improved with increasing cutoff frequency until the cutoff frequency was somewhat above the estimated edge frequency of the dead region, but hardly changed with further increases. For a few subjects, performance initially improved with increasing cutoff frequency and then worsened with further increases, although the worsening was significant only for one subject. The results have important implications for the fitting of hearing aids.

PatentDOI
Abstract: A computer program for execution on a computing device is provided to cross-train students in language development skills such as letter-word correspondence, word recognition, vocabulary, and sentence and paragraph comprehension. A set of programs provide an adaptive methodology for training a student in decoding (semantic, syntactic, phonological, and morphological relationships), knowledge of rhymes, synonyms, antonyms, and homophones, spelling, letter-word correspondences, sentence comprehension, grammatical comprehension, working memory, vocabulary, paragraph comprehension, and improved reading comprehension. In each program, students are presented with an animated scene that poses a question, and a set of answers. The set of answers contain a correct response, and a number of incorrect responses or foils. The student advances to more complex levels by satisfying predetermined correct thresholds. Through repetition and intensity, the student's language skills are developed.

PatentDOI
Abstract: Cells are destroyed within a subcutaneous tissue region using a transducer disposed externally adjacent to a patient's skin. The transducer emits acoustic energy that is focused at a linear focal zone within the tissue region, the acoustic energy having sufficient intensity to rupture cells within the focal zone while minimizing heating. The transducer may include one or more transducer elements having a partial cylindrical shape, a single planar transducer element coupled to an acoustic lens, or a plurality of linear transducer elements disposed adjacent one another in an arcuate or planar configuration. The transducer may include detectors for sensing cavitation occurring with the focal zone, which is correlated to the extent of cell destruction. A frame may be provided for controlling movement of the transducer along the patient's skin, e.g., in response to the extent of cell destruction caused by the transducer.

PatentDOI
Abstract: A tension-adjusting mechanism for the elongated earpieces of a stethoscope comprises a neckpiece and, for each earpiece, a pivot mechanism portion between the proximal end of the earpiece and the neckpiece, a spring mechanism portion between the proximal end of the earpiece and the neckpiece, and a tension-adjusting mechanism portion between the spring member and the neckpiece. For each earpiece, the pivot mechanism portion defines a pivot axis about which the earpiece pivots, and the spring mechanism portion comprises a resilient blade deforming upon spreading apart of the earpieces. This deformation produces a tension on the earpieces opposing to further spreading apart thereof. The tension-adjusting mechanism portion defines a plurality of interchangeable point of contacts with the resilient blades, which contact points having different positions relative to the neckpiece.

PatentDOI
Abstract: A method of operating a self service terminal (SST) (12) is described, in which the SST (12) detects characteristics of a mobile computing device held by a user (16), and configures the user interface dependent on the detected characteristics. The characteristics may include features of the mobile device, such as communication facilities, or may include user identification information. Where the user is identified, a user profile may be retrieved from a remote SST operator (14). Certain embodiments of the invention may detect devices held by a second or subsequent user (18), and retrieve the relevant user profile prior to the second user (18) interacting with the SST (12).

PatentDOI
Abstract: A system and method for the control of color-based lighting through voice control or speech recognition as well as a syntax for use with such a system. In this approach, the spoken voice (in any language) can be used to more naturally control effects without having to learn the myriad manipulation required of some complex controller interfaces. A simple control language based upon spoken words consisting of commands and values is constructed and used to provide a common base for lighting and system control.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recording of naturally produced laugh bouts recorded from 97 young adults as they watched funny video clips revealed evident diversity in production modes, remarkable variability in fundamental frequency characteristics, and consistent lack of articulation effects in supralaryngeal filtering are of particular interest.
Abstract: Remarkably little is known about the acoustic features of laughter. Here, acoustic outcomes are reported for 1024 naturally produced laugh bouts recorded from 97 young adults as they watched funny video clips. Analyses focused on temporal features, production modes, source- and filter-related effects, and indexical cues to laugher sex and individual identity. Although a number of researchers have previously emphasized stereotypy in laughter, its acoustics were found now to be variable and complex. Among the variety of findings reported, evident diversity in production modes, remarkable variability in fundamental frequency characteristics, and consistent lack of articulation effects in supralaryngeal filtering are of particular interest. In addition, formant-related filtering effects were found to be disproportionately important as acoustic correlates of laugher sex and individual identity. These outcomes are examined in light of existing data concerning laugh acoustics, as well as a number of hypotheses and conjectures previously advanced about this species-typical vocal signal.

PatentDOI
TL;DR: A method and system for responding to voice commands in a voice-command platform and the platform responsively carries out a set of system-level logic to determine that the voice command is an alias-grammar and convert the alias- Grammar into an actual grammar.
Abstract: A method and system for responding to voice commands in a voice-command platform. The platform receives a voice command during a voice command session with a user, and the platform responsively carries out a set of system-level logic. For example, the platform may determine that the voice command is an alias-grammar (whether personal to a user, or global for the platform) and may then convert the alias-grammar into an actual grammar. As another example, the platform may determine that the voice command is a bookmark command, such as a request to save a given voice command navigation point in a centralized list of bookmarks for the user, or to recall a navigation point from the user's centralized list, and the platform may respond to the bookmark command accordingly. And as yet another example, the platform may recognize a voice command that is not defined by a voice command application currently being processed but that is instead defined globally for the voice command platform.

Patent
Abstract: An ultrasonic probe is moved to scan a volumetric region of the body. As it is moved, targets within the region are interrogated from multiple look directions. The echo data from the multiple look directions are compounded to form spatially compounded image data, which is processed for display in a three dimensional display format.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of multimethodological indices of stress among children living under 50 dB or above 60 dB (A-weighted, day-night average sound levels) in small towns and villages in Austria found children in the noisier areas had elevated resting systolic blood pressure and 8-h, overnight urinary cortisol.
Abstract: Although accumulating evidence over the past two decades points towards noise as an ambient stressor for children, all of the data emanate from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Extremely little is known about the nonauditory consequences of typical, day-to-day noise exposure among young children. The present study examined multimethodological indices of stress among children living under 50 dB or above 60 dB (A-weighted, day-night average sound levels) in small towns and villages in Austria. The major noise sources were local road and rail traffic. The two samples were comparable in parental education, housing characteristics, family size, marital status, and body mass index, and index of body fat. All of the children were prescreened for normal hearing acuity. Children in the noisier areas had elevated resting systolic blood pressure and 8-h, overnight urinary cortisol. The children from noisier neighborhoods also evidenced elevated heart rate reactivity to a discrete stressor (reading test) in the laboratory and rated themselves higher in perceived stress symptoms on a standardized index. Furthermore girls, but not boys, evidenced diminished motivation in a standardized behavioral protocol. All data except for the overnight urinary neuroendocrine indices were collected in the laboratory. The results are discussed in the context of prior airport noise and nonauditory health studies. More behavioral and health research is needed on children with typical, day-to-day noise exposure.

PatentDOI
Abstract: Multiple documents including multiple fields may be produced using a voice recognition engine to transcribe dictated notes. An embodiment of an apparatus to generate documents from a user's dictation may include a computer interface and a computer in communication with the computer interface including a voice recognition engine, a database, and a memory. A method of entry of dictation into a plurality of documents may include receiving an indication of a selection of a plurality of documents from a list of documents, receiving an indication of a field descriptor of a first field in a document, receiving dictated speech to be entered into the first field, writing transcribed text representative of the dictated speech to the first field, and writing the transcribed text to other fields having the same descriptor in each of the other selected plurality of documents.

PatentDOI
Abstract: A mirror-based audio system for a vehicle preferably includes an electrochromic interior rearview mirror system including an electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly. The electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly includes electronic circuitry for at least adjusting the reflectivity of an electrochromic reflector element. The electrochromic interior rearview mirror system further includes a plurality of microphones for receiving audio signals from within a cabin of the vehicle. The plurality of microphones generate output signals indicative of sound generated within the vehicle cabin. The microphones are positioned at the electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly, adjacent to the electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly, in an attachment to the electrochromic interior rearview mirror assembly, and/or within a module mounted to the windshield.

PatentDOI
Abstract: Systems and methods for performing a therapeutic procedure using focused ultrasound include providing a piezoelectric transducer including a plurality of transducer elements (22), such as a concave concentric ring array or a linear array of transducer elements. Drive circuitry (14) is coupled to the transducer for providing drive signals to the transducer elements at one of a plurality of discrete RF frequencies. A controller (16) is coupled to the drive circuitry for periodically changing a frequency of the drive signals to one of the plurality of discrete frequencies, while controlling a phase component of the drive signals to maintain the focus of the transducer at a primary focal zone during a single sonication.