Journal of the American Ceramic Society
About: Journal of the American Ceramic Society is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Ceramic & Sintering. It has an ISSN identifier of 0002-7820. Over the lifetime, 28715 publication(s) have been published receiving 993331 citation(s). The journal is also known as: American Ceramic Society. Journal.
Topics: Ceramic, Sintering, Microstructure, Dielectric, Grain boundary
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the application of indentation techniques to the evaluation of fracture toughness is examined critically, in two parts: the first part is focused on an approach which involves direct measurement of Vickers-produced radial cracks as a function of the indentation load.
Abstract: The application of indentation techniques to the evaluation of fracture toughness is examined critically, in two parts. In this first part, attention is focused on an approach which involves direct measurement of Vickers-produced radial cracks as a function of indentation load. A theoretical basis for the method is first established, in terms of elastic/plastic indentation fracture mechanics. It is thereby asserted that the key to the radial crack response lies in the residual component of the contact field. This residual term has important implications concerning the crack evolution, including the possibility of post indentation slow growth under environment-sensitive conditions. Fractographic observations of cracks in selected “reference” materials are used to determine the magnitude of this effect and to investigate other potential complications associated with departures from ideal indentation fracture behavior. The data from these observations provide a convenient calibration of the Indentation toughness equations for general application to other well-behaved ceramics. The technique is uniquely simple in procedure and economic in its use of material.
TL;DR: The mechanisms of tissue bonding to bioactive ceramics are beginning to be understood, which can result in the molecular design of bioceramics for interfacial bonding with hard and soft tissues.
Abstract: Ceramics used for the repair and reconstruction of diseased or damaged parts of the musculo-skeletal system, termed bioceramics, may be bioinert (alumina, zirconia), resorbable (tricalcium phosphate), bioactive (hydroxyapatite, bioactive glasses, and glass-ceramics), or porous for tissue ingrowth (hydroxyapatite-coated metals, alumina). Applications include replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons, and ligaments and repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jaw bone, spinal fusion, and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Carbon coatings are thromboresistant and are used for prosthetic heart valves. The mechanisms of tissue bonding to bioactive ceramics are beginning to be understood, which can result in the molecular design of bioceramics for interfacial bonding with hard and soft tissues. Composites are being developed with high toughness and elastic modulus match with bone. Therapeutic treatment of cancer has been achieved by localized delivery of radioactive isotopes via glass beads. Development of standard test methods for prediction of long-term (20-year) mechanical reliability under load is still needed.
TL;DR: Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications as mentioned in this paper, and the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell are discussed.
Abstract: A ceramic fuel cell in an all solid-state energy conversion device that produces electricity by electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant gases across an ionic conducting oxide. Current ceramic fuel cells use an oxygen-ion conductor or a proton conductor as the electrolyte and operate at high temperatures (>600°C). Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications. This paper reviews the science and technology of ceramic fuel cells and discusses the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell. The emphasis is given to the discussion of component materials (especially, ZrO2 electrolyte, nickel/ZrO2 cermet anode, LaMnO3 cathode, and LaCrO3 interconnect), gas reactions at the electrodes, stack designs, and processing techniques used in the fabrication of required ceramic structures.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the results given by English with those of Washburn, Shelton and Libman, indicating a discrepancy in the absolute values of log10 viscosity amounting to 0.6.
Abstract: Viscosity of Simple Soda-Silicate Glasses, 500° to 1400°C Comparison of the results given by English with those of Washburn, Shelton and Libman, indicates a discrepancy in the absolute values of log10 viscosity amounting to 0.6, those of Washburn et al., being relatively too high. If correction for this is made, the isothermal curves of log10 viscosity as a function of soda content are smooth up to 50% Na2O, showing no inflection. The observations as a function of temperature T are all represented within accidental error by an equation of the type log10η=−A+B× 103/ (T−T0) where all three constants vary regularly with the composition. Change of Viscosity of Glass (6SiO2, 2Na2O) due to Molecular Substitution of CaO, MgO and Al2O3 for Na2O The effect is clearly brought out by plotting (from the results of English) the change of log10n due to the substitution as a function of temperature. The curves each show a sharp bend at a temperature between 840° and 1050°C, which is designated the aggregation temperature Ta. If we divide these curves by the corresponding percentage substituted, we get curves for each oxide which are straight and parallel below the aggregation temperatures, the slopes (increase of change of log10n per 100°C) being −0.056 (CaO), −0.055 (MgO), −0.018 (Al2O3) per per cent oxide substituted. For substitution of 1/2 molecule the slopes are −0.325 (CaO), −0.23 (MgO) and −0.18 (Al2O3) per 100°. At the aggregation temperature the change of log10n per per cent is a minimum, 0.03 to 0.06 for CaO, 0.12 for MgO, 0.07 for Al2O3. Evidence of Aggregation in Glasses, from Viscosity Measurements . The sharp bends in the plots of change of log10n due to substitution of an oxide for Na2O, suggest the beginning of molecular aggregation at these temperatures. These aggregation temperatures are close to the devitrification temperatures, but the effect on the viscosity curves cannot be due to actual devitrification since it does not change with time. Taking the aggregation temperatures as equal to devitrification temperatures, additional isotherms are roughly sketched into the equilibrium triangle of the system Na2O─CaO─SiO2. Change of Viscosity of Glass (4SiO2, 2Na2O) due to Substitution of B2O3 for SiO2 The change of log10n (from the results of English) is plotted as a function of temperature, and also the change of log10n per per cent B2O3. The curves are more complex than for the substitution for Na2O.
TL;DR: Ferroelectric ceramics have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves. Materials based on two compositional systems, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate, have dominated the field throughout their history. The more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics, such as medical ultrasonic composites, high-displacement piezoelectric actuators (Moonies, RAINBOWS), photostrictors, and thin and thick films for piezoelectric and integrated-circuit applications have served to keep the industry young amidst its growing maturity. Various ceramic formulations, their form (bulk, films), fabrication, function (properties), and future are described in relation to their ferroelectric nature and specific areas of application.
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