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Showing papers in "Journal of the American Chemical Society in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a salting-ineffect-induced hybrid electrolyte is proposed as an effective strategy that enables both a highly reversible Zn anode and good stability and compatibility toward various cathodes.
Abstract: Anode-free metal batteries can in principle offer higher energy density, but this requires them to have extraordinary Coulombic efficiency (>99.7%). Although Zn-based metal batteries are promising for stationary storage, the parasitic side reactions make anode-free batteries difficult to achieve in practice. In this work, a salting-in-effect-induced hybrid electrolyte is proposed as an effective strategy that enables both a highly reversible Zn anode and good stability and compatibility toward various cathodes. The as-prepared electrolyte can also work well under a wide temperature range (i.e., from -20 to 50 °C). It is demonstrated that in the presence of propylene carbonate, triflate anions are involved in the Zn2+ solvation sheath structure, even at a low salt concentration (2.14 M). The unique solvation structure results in the reduction of anions, thus forming a hydrophobic solid electrolyte interphase. The waterproof interphase along with the decreased water activity in the hybrid electrolyte effectively prevents side reactions, thus ensuring a stable Zn anode with an unprecedented Coulombic efficiency (99.93% over 500 cycles at 1 mA cm-2). More importantly, we design an anode-free Zn metal battery that exhibits excellent cycling stability (80% capacity retention after 275 cycles at 0.5 mA cm-2). This work provides a universal strategy to design co-solvent electrolytes for anode-free Zn metal batteries.

139 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work developed a method for a uniform dispersion of POM single clusters into a COF, which also shows the potential of using COF-POM functional materials in the field of photocatalysis.
Abstract: Single clusters have attracted extensive research interest in the field of catalysis. However, achieving a highly uniform dispersion of a single-cluster catalyst is challenging. In this work, for the first time, we present a versatile strategy for uniformly dispersed polyoxometalates (POMs) in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) through confining POM cluster into the regular nanopores of COF by a covalent linkage. These COF-POM composites combine the properties of light absorption, electron transfer, and suitable catalytic active sites; as a result, they exhibit outstanding catalytic activity in artificial photosynthesis: that is, CO2 photoreduction with H2O as the electron donor. Among them, TCOF-MnMo6 achieved the highest CO yield (37.25 μmol g-1 h-1 with ca. 100% selectivity) in a gas-solid reaction system. Furthermore, a mechanism study based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrated that the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process occurs from the COF to the POM, and then CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation occur on the POM and COF, respectively. This work developed a method for a uniform dispersion of POM single clusters into a COF, which also shows the potential of using COF-POM functional materials in the field of photocatalysis.

114 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors report the use of hydrogen spillover-bridged water dissociation/hydrogen formation processes occurring at the synergistically hybridized Ni3S2/Cr2S3 sites to incapacitate the inhibition effect of high-current-density-induced high hydrogen coverage at the water Dissociation site and concurrently promote Volmer/Tafel processes.
Abstract: Water-alkaline electrolysis holds a great promise for industry-scale hydrogen production but is hindered by the lack of enabling hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalysts to operate at ampere-level current densities under low overpotentials. Here, we report the use of hydrogen spillover-bridged water dissociation/hydrogen formation processes occurring at the synergistically hybridized Ni3S2/Cr2S3 sites to incapacitate the inhibition effect of high-current-density-induced high hydrogen coverage at the water dissociation site and concurrently promote Volmer/Tafel processes. The mechanistic insights critically important to enable ampere-level current density operation are depicted from the experimental and theoretical studies. The Volmer process is drastically boosted by the strong H2O adsorption at Cr5c sites of Cr2S3, the efficient H2O* dissociation via a heterolytic cleavage process (Cr5c-H2O* + S3c(#) → Cr5c-OH* + S3c-H#) on the Cr5c/S3c sites in Cr2S3, and the rapid desorption of OH* from Cr5c sites of Cr2S3 via a new water-assisted desorption mechanism (Cr5c-OH* + H2O(aq) → Cr5c-H2O* + OH-(aq)), while the efficient Tafel process is achieved through hydrogen spillover to rapidly transfer H# from the synergistically located H-rich site (Cr2S3) to the H-deficient site (Ni3S2) with excellent hydrogen formation activity. As a result, the hybridized Ni3S2/Cr2S3 electrocatalyst can readily achieve a current density of 3.5 A cm-2 under an overpotential of 251 ± 3 mV in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte. The concept exemplified in this work provides a useful means to address the shortfalls of ampere-level current-density-tolerant Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts.

107 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , an S-anion-coordinated single-atom Ru-N-C was used as a model system and the S anions were identified to bond with N atoms in the second coordination shell of Ru centers, which allowed the electronic configuration of central Ru sites.
Abstract: Single-atom catalysts based on metal-N4 moieties and anchored on carbon supports (defined as M-N-C) are promising for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Among those, M-N-C catalysts with 4d and 5d transition metal (TM4d,5d) centers are much more durable and not susceptible to the undesirable Fenton reaction, especially compared with 3d transition metal based ones. However, the ORR activity of these TM4d,5d-N-C catalysts is still far from satisfactory; thus far, there are few discussions about how to accurately tune the ligand fields of single-atom TM4d,5d sites in order to improve their catalytic properties. Herein, we leverage single-atom Ru-N-C as a model system and report an S-anion coordination strategy to modulate the catalyst's structure and ORR performance. The S anions are identified to bond with N atoms in the second coordination shell of Ru centers, which allows us to manipulate the electronic configuration of central Ru sites. The S-anion-coordinated Ru-N-C catalyst delivers not only promising ORR activity but also outstanding long-term durability, superior to those of commercial Pt/C and most of the near-term single-atom catalysts. DFT calculations reveal that the high ORR activity is attributed to the lower adsorption energy of ORR intermediates at Ru sites. Metal-air batteries using this catalyst in the cathode side also exhibit fast kinetics and excellent stability.

104 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a solid-solution strategy was proposed to stabilize Cu2+ ions by incorporating them into a CeO2 matrix, which works as a self-sacrificing ingredient to protect the active sites.
Abstract: Copper is the only metal catalyst that can perform the electrocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction (CRR) to produce hydrocarbons and oxygenates. Its surface oxidation state determines the reaction pathway to various products. However, under the cathodic potential of CRR conditions, the chemical composition of most Cu-based catalysts inevitably undergoes electroreduction from Cu2+ to Cu0 or Cu1+ species, which is generally coupled with phase reconstruction and the formation of new active sites. Since the initial Cu2+ active sites are hard to retain, there have been few studies about Cu2+ catalysts for CRR. Herein we propose a solid-solution strategy to stabilize Cu2+ ions by incorporating them into a CeO2 matrix, which works as a self-sacrificing ingredient to protect Cu2+ active species. In situ spectroscopic characterization and density functional theory calculations reveal that compared with the conventionally derived Cu catalysts with Cu0 or Cu1+ active sites, the Cu2+ species in the solid solution (Cu-Ce-Ox) can significantly strengthen adsorption of the *CO intermediate, facilitating its further hydrogenation to produce CH4 instead of dimerization to give C2 products. As a result, different from most of the other Cu-based catalysts, Cu-Ce-Ox delivered a high Faradaic efficiency of 67.8% for CH4 and a low value of 3.6% for C2H4.

102 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a conformal coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PET) was used to enhance the local electric field and temperature simultaneously and dramatically improve the electric-thermal synergy desired in electrocatalysis.
Abstract: Electrochemical CO2 reduction is a promising way to mitigate CO2 emissions and close the anthropogenic carbon cycle. Among products from CO2RR, multicarbon chemicals, such as ethylene and ethanol with high energy density, are more valuable. However, the selectivity and reaction rate of C2 production are unsatisfactory due to the sluggish thermodynamics and kinetics of C-C coupling. The electric field and thermal field have been studied and utilized to promote catalytic reactions, as they can regulate the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers of reactions. Either raising the potential or heating the electrolyte can enhance C-C coupling, but these come at the cost of increasing side reactions, such as the hydrogen evolution reaction. Here, we present a generic strategy to enhance the local electric field and temperature simultaneously and dramatically improve the electric-thermal synergy desired in electrocatalysis. A conformal coating of ∼5 nm of polytetrafluoroethylene significantly improves the catalytic ability of copper nanoneedles (∼7-fold electric field and ∼40 K temperature enhancement at the tips compared with bare copper nanoneedles experimentally), resulting in an improved C2 Faradaic efficiency of over 86% at a partial current density of more than 250 mA cm-2 and a record-high C2 turnover frequency of 11.5 ± 0.3 s-1 Cu site-1. Combined with its low cost and scalability, the electric-thermal strategy for a state-of-the-art catalyst not only offers new insight into improving activity and selectivity of value-added C2 products as we demonstrated but also inspires advances in efficiency and/or selectivity of other valuable electro-/photocatalysis such as hydrogen evolution, nitrogen reduction, and hydrogen peroxide electrosynthesis.

96 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors reported the discovery of two-electron transfer in monolayer Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and revealed a new redox reaction mechanism in atomically thin Ni( OH)2 and suggested a promising path toward tuning the electron transfer numbers to multiply the capacity of relevant energy storage materials.
Abstract: The theoretical capacity of a given electrode material is ultimately determined by the number of electrons transferred in each redox center. The design of multi-electron transfer processes could break through the limitation of one-electron transfer and multiply the total capacity but is difficult to achieve because multiple electron transfer processes are generally thermodynamically and kinetically more complex. Here, we report the discovery of two-electron transfer in monolayer Ni(OH)2 nanosheets, which contrasts with the traditional one-electron transfer found in multilayer materials. First-principles calculations predict that the first oxidation process Ni2+ → Ni3+ occurs easily, whereas the second electron transfer in Ni3+ → Ni4+ is strongly hindered in multilayer materials by both the interlayer hydrogen bonds and the domain H structure induced by the Jahn-Teller distortion of the Ni3+ (t2g6eg1)-centered octahedra. In contrast, the second electron transfer can easily occur in monolayers because all H atoms are fully exposed. Experimentally, the as-prepared monolayer is found to deliver an exceptional redox capacity of ∼576 mA h/g, nearly 2 times the theoretical capacity of one-electron processes. In situ experiments demonstrate that monolayer Ni(OH)2 can transfer two electrons and most Ni ions transform into Ni4+ during the charging process, whereas bulk Ni(OH)2 can only be transformed partially. Our work reveals a new redox reaction mechanism in atomically thin Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and suggests a promising path toward tuning the electron transfer numbers to multiply the capacity of the relevant energy storage materials.

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors reveal the restructuring of the as-synthesized Cu-N4 single-atom site to the nanoparticles of ∼5 nm during the electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia, a green ammonia production route upon combined with the plasma assisted oxidation of nitrogen.
Abstract: Restructuring is ubiquitous in thermocatalysis and of pivotal importance to identify the real active site, yet it is less explored in electrocatalysis. Herein, by using operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with advanced electron microscopy, we reveal the restructuring of the as-synthesized Cu-N4 single-atom site to the nanoparticles of ∼5 nm during the electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia, a green ammonia production route upon combined with the plasma-assisted oxidation of nitrogen. The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and Cu0 and the subsequent aggregation of Cu0 single atoms is found to occur concurrently with the enhancement of the NH3 production rate, both of them are driven by the applied potential switching from 0.00 to -1.00 V versus RHE. The maximum production rate of ammonia reaches 4.5 mg cm-2 h-1 (12.5 molNH3 gCu-1 h-1) with a Faradaic efficiency of 84.7% at -1.00 V versus RHE, outperforming most of the other Cu catalysts reported previously. After electrolysis, the aggregated Cu nanoparticles are reversibly disintegrated into single atoms and then restored to the Cu-N4 structure upon being exposed to an ambient atmosphere, which masks the potential-induced restructuring during the reaction. The synchronous changes of the Cu0 percentage and the ammonia Faradaic efficiency with the applied potential suggests that the Cu nanoparticles are the genuine active sites for nitrate reduction to ammonia, which is corroborated with both the post-deposited Cu NP catalyst and density functional theory calculations.

85 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled trimetallic Fe-Co-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) was proposed for water splitting and Zn-air batteries.
Abstract: The need for enhanced energy storage and improved catalysts has led researchers to explore advanced functional materials for sustainable energy production and storage. Herein, we demonstrate a reductive electrosynthesis approach to prepare a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled trimetallic Fe-Co-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) in which the metal cations within each layer or at the interface of the two layers are linked to one another by bridging 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linkers. Tailoring catalytically active sites in an LbL fashion affords a highly porous material that exhibits excellent trifunctional electrocatalytic activities toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (ηj=10 = 116 mV), oxygen evolution reaction (ηj=10 = 254 mV), as well as oxygen reduction reaction (half-wave potential = 0.75 V vs reference hydrogen electrode) in alkaline solutions. The dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations suggest that the prominent catalytic activity of the LbL MOF toward the HER, OER, and ORR is due to the initial negative adsorption energy of water on the metal nodes and the elongated O-H bond length of the H2O molecule. The Fe-Co-Ni MOF-based Zn-air battery exhibits a remarkable energy storage performance and excellent cycling stability of over 700 cycles that outperform the commercial noble metal benchmarks. When assembled in an asymmetric device configuration, the activated carbon||Fe-Co-Ni MOF supercapacitor provides a superb specific energy and a power of up to 56.2 W h kg-1 and 42.2 kW kg-1, respectively. This work offers not only a novel approach to prepare an LbL assembled multimetallic MOF but also provides a benchmark for a multifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting and Zn-air batteries.

84 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is revealed that the optimal coordination Pt-C3 has a stronger electron-capture ability and lower Gibbs free energy difference (ΔG), resulting in promoting the reduction of adsorbed H+ and the acceleration of H2 desorption, thus exhibiting the extraordinary HER activity.
Abstract: The coordinated configuration of atomic platinum (Pt) has always been identified as an active site with high intrinsic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we purposely synthesize single vacancies in a carbon matrix (defective graphene) that can trap atomic Pt to form the Pt-C3 configuration, which gives exceptionally high reactivity for HER in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The intrinsic activity of Pt-C3 site is valued with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 26.41 s-1 and mass activity of 26.05 A g-1 at 100 mV, respectively, which are both nearly 18 times higher than those of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C. It is revealed that the optimal coordination Pt-C3 has a stronger electron-capture ability and lower Gibbs free energy difference (ΔG), resulting in promoting the reduction of adsorbed H+ and the acceleration of H2 desorption, thus exhibiting the extraordinary HER activity. This work provides a new insight on the unique coordinated configuration of dispersive atomic Pt in defective C matrix for superior HER performance.

83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Perspective aims to explore the dynamic chemistry of 1,2-dithiolanes as a versatile structural unit for the design of smart materials by summarizing the state of the art as well as providing an overview of the fundamental challenges involved in this research area and its potential future directions.
Abstract: The development of a dynamic chemistry toolbox to endow materials dynamic behavior has been key to the rational design of future smart materials. The rise of supramolecular and dynamic covalent chemistry offers many approaches to the construction of dynamic polymers and materials that can adapt, respond, repair, and recycle. Within this toolbox, the building blocks based on 1,2-dithiolanes have become an important scaffold, featuring their reversible polymerization mediated by dynamic covalent disulfide bonds, which enables a unique class of dynamic materials at the intersection of supramolecular polymers and adaptable covalent networks. This Perspective aims to explore the dynamic chemistry of 1,2-dithiolanes as a versatile structural unit for the design of smart materials by summarizing the state of the art as well as providing an overview of the fundamental challenges involved in this research area and its potential future directions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a new range of high entropy alloy (HEA) self-supported electrodes with uniform HEA nanoparticles grown on carbon cloth was experimentally prepared for glycerol oxidation reaction.
Abstract: Electrochemical glycerol oxidation reaction (GOR) is an attractive alternative anodic reaction to oxygen evolution reaction for a variety of electrolytic synthesis, thanks to the possibility of mass production of glycerol from biomass and the relative low thermodynamic potential of GOR. The development of high-activity cheap electrocatalysts toward GOR yet faces a daunting challenge. Herein, we experimentally prepare a new range of high entropy alloy (HEA) self-supported electrodes with uniform HEA nanoparticles grown on carbon cloth. The systematic electrochemical studies verify that the HEA-CoNiCuMnMo electrode exhibits attractive performance for GOR electrocatalysis with low overpotential and high selectivity toward formate products. The surface atomic configurations of HEA-CoNiCuMnMo are studied by a self-developed machine learning-based Monte Carlo simulation, which points out the catalytic active center to be Mo sites coordinated by Mn, Mo, and Ni. We further develop a hybrid alkali/acid flow electrolytic cell by pairing alkaline GOR with acidic hydrogen evolution reaction using the HEA-CoNiCuMnMo and the commercial RhIr/Ti as the anode and the cathode, respectively, which only requires an applied voltage of 0.55 V to reach an electrolytic current density of 10 mA cm-2 and maintains long-term electrolysis stability over 12 days continuous running at 50 mA cm-2 with Faraday efficiencies of over 99% for H2 in the cathode and 92% for formate production in the anode.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A recent Perspective as mentioned in this paper highlights recent advances in the development of chemically and thermally robust HOF materials and systematically discusses relevant design rules and synthesis strategies to access highly stable HOFs.
Abstract: Hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs), self-assembled from strategically pre-designed molecular tectons with complementary hydrogen-bonding patterns, are rapidly evolving into a novel and important class of porous materials. In addition to their common features shared with other functionalized porous materials constructed from modular building blocks, the intrinsically flexible and reversible H-bonding connections endow HOFs with straightforward purification procedures, high crystallinity, solution processability, and recyclability. These unique advantages of HOFs have attracted considerable attention across a broad range of fields, including gas adsorption and separation, catalysis, chemical sensing, and electrical and optical materials. However, the relatively weak H-bonding interactions within HOFs can potentially limit their stability and potential use in further applications. To that end, this Perspective highlights recent advances in the development of chemically and thermally robust HOF materials and systematically discusses relevant design rules and synthesis strategies to access highly stable HOFs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the incorporation of Lewis basic sites into a C2H6-selective MOF, enabling efficient one-step production of polymer-grade C 2H4 from ternary mixtures.
Abstract: Purification of C2H4 from a ternary C2H2/C2H6/C2H4 mixture by one-step adsorption separation is of prime importance but challenging in the petrochemical industry; however, effective strategies to design high-performance adsorbents are lacking. We herein report for the first time the incorporation of Lewis basic sites into a C2H6-selective MOF, enabling efficient one-step production of polymer-grade C2H4 from ternary mixtures. Introduction of amino groups into highly stable C2H6-selective UiO-67 can not only partition large pores into smaller cagelike pockets to provide suitable pore confinement but also offer additional binding sites to simultaneously enhance C2H2 and C2H6 adsorption capacities over C2H4. The amino-functionalized UiO-67-(NH2)2 thus exhibits exceptionally high C2H2 and C2H6 uptakes as well as benchmark C2H2/C2H4 and C2H6/C2H4 selectivities, surpassing all of the C2H2/C2H6-selective materials reported so far. Theoretical calculations combined with in situ infrared spectroscopy indicate that the synergetic effect of suitable pore confinement and functional surfaces decorated with amino groups provides overall stronger multipoint van der Waals interactions with C2H2 and C2H6 over C2H4. The exceptional performance of UiO-67-(NH2)2 was evidenced by breakthrough experiments for C2H2/C2H6/C2H4 mixtures under dry and wet conditions, providing a remarkable C2H4 productivity of 0.55 mmol g-1 at ambient conditions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the pyrrole-type CoN4 (Co-N SACDp) is mainly responsible for the 2e-ORR, while pyridine-type coN4 catalyzes the 4e- ORR.
Abstract: Electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an environment-friendly and sustainable route for obtaining a fundamental product in the chemical industry. Co–N4 single-atom catalysts (SAC) have sparkled attention for being highly active in both 2e– ORR, leading to H2O2 and 4e– ORR, in which H2O is the main product. However, there is still a lack of fundamental insights into the structure–function relationship between CoN4 and the ORR mechanism over this family of catalysts. Here, by combining theoretical simulation and experiments, we unveil that pyrrole-type CoN4 (Co–N SACDp) is mainly responsible for the 2e– ORR, while pyridine-type CoN4 catalyzes the 4e– ORR. Indeed, Co–N SACDp exhibits a remarkable H2O2 selectivity of 94% and a superb H2O2 yield of 2032 mg for 90 h in a flow cell, outperforming most reported catalysts in acid media. Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations confirm that Co–N SACDp—with weakening O2/HOO* interaction—boosts the H2O2 production.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This novel synergy of PTT with antiexosomal PD-L1 enhanced ferroptosis evoked potent antitumor immunity in B16F10 tumors and immunological memory against metastatic tumors in lymph nodes.
Abstract: Tumor-derived exosome can suppress dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells functions. Excessive secretion of exosomal programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) results in therapeutic resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy and clinical failure. Restored T cells by antiexosomal PD-L1 tactic can intensify ferroptosis of tumor cells and vice versa. Diminishing exosomal suppression and establishing a nexus of antiexosomal PD-L1 and ferroptosis may rescue the discouraging antitumor immunity. Here, we engineered phototheranostic metal-phenolic networks (PFG MPNs) by an assembly of semiconductor polymers encapsulating ferroptosis inducer (Fe3+) and exosome inhibitor (GW4869). The PFG MPNs elicited superior near-infrared II fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging tracking performance for a precise photothermal therapy (PTT). PTT-augmented immunogenic cell death relieved exosomal silencing on DC maturation. GW4869 mediated PD-L1 based exosomal inhibition revitalized T cells and enhanced the ferroptosis. This novel synergy of PTT with antiexosomal PD-L1 enhanced ferroptosis evoked potent antitumor immunity in B16F10 tumors and immunological memory against metastatic tumors in lymph nodes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this Perspective, aromatic C–H LSF is evaluated on the basis of four criteria—reactivity, chemoselectivity, site-selectivity, and substrate scope—and the author's views on current challenges as well as promising strategies and areas of growth going forward are provided.
Abstract: Late-stage functionalization of C–H bonds (C–H LSF) can provide a straightforward approach to the efficient synthesis of functionalized complex molecules. However, C–H LSF is challenging because the C–H bond must be functionalized in the presence of various other functional groups. In this Perspective, we evaluate aromatic C–H LSF on the basis of four criteria—reactivity, chemoselectivity, site-selectivity, and substrate scope—and provide our own views on current challenges as well as promising strategies and areas of growth going forward.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a Mn-doped RuO2 (Mn-RuO2) bimetallic oxide with atomic-scale dispersion of Mn atoms into the RuO 2 lattice, which exhibits remarkable activity and super durability for both the ORR and OER, with a very low potential difference (ΔE) of 0.64 V between the half-wave potential of ORR (E1/2) and the OER potential at 10 mA cm-2 (Ej10) and a negligible decay of E 1/2 and E
Abstract: The development of high-efficiency and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical for the widespread application of rechargeable zinc-air (Zn-air) batteries. This calls for rational screening of targeted ORR/OER components and precise control of their atomic and electronic structures to produce synergistic effects. Here, we report a Mn-doped RuO2 (Mn-RuO2) bimetallic oxide with atomic-scale dispersion of Mn atoms into the RuO2 lattice, which exhibits remarkable activity and super durability for both the ORR and OER, with a very low potential difference (ΔE) of 0.64 V between the half-wave potential of ORR (E1/2) and the OER potential at 10 mA cm-2 (Ej10) and a negligible decay of E1/2 and Ej10 after 250 000 and 30 000 CV cycles for ORR and OER, respectively. Moreover, Zn-air batteries using the Mn-RuO2 catalysts exhibit a high power density of 181 mW cm-2, low charge/discharge voltage gaps of 0.69/0.96/1.38 V, and ultralong lifespans of 15 000/2800/1800 cycles (corresponding to 2500/467/300 h operation time) at a current density of 10/50/100 mA cm-2, respectively. Theoretical calculations reveal that the excellent performances of Mn-RuO2 is mainly due to the precise optimization of valence state and d-band center for appropriate adsorption energy of the oxygenated intermediates.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) state was constructed in a Ru-MoO3 catalyst using CO2 hydrogenation reaction gas and at a low temperature of 250 °C, which favors the selective CO 2 hydrogenation to CO.
Abstract: Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles by support-derived materials known as the classical strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) often happens upon thermal treatment of supported metal catalysts at high temperatures (≥500 °C) and consequently lowers the catalytic performance due to blockage of metal active sites. Here, we show that this SMSI state can be constructed in a Ru-MoO3 catalyst using CO2 hydrogenation reaction gas and at a low temperature of 250 °C, which favors the selective CO2 hydrogenation to CO. During the reaction, Ru nanoparticles facilitate reduction of MoO3 to generate active MoO3-x overlayers with oxygen vacancies, which migrate onto Ru nanoparticles' surface and form the encapsulated structure, that is, Ru@MoO3-x. The formed SMSI state changes 100% CH4 selectivity on fresh Ru particle surfaces to above 99.0% CO selectivity with excellent activity and long-term catalytic stability. The encapsulating oxide layers can be removed via O2 treatment, switching back completely to the methanation. This work suggests that the encapsulation of metal nanocatalysts can be dynamically generated in real reactions, which helps to gain the target products with high activity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a comparative and mechanistic study on the use of cyclodextrins (α-, β-, and γ-CD) as electrolyte additives for rechargeable Zn batteries is presented.
Abstract: The hydrophobic internal cavity and hydrophilic external surface of cyclodextrins (CDs) render promising electrochemical applications. Here, we report a comparative and mechanistic study on the use of CD molecules (α-, β-, and γ-CD) as electrolyte additives for rechargeable Zn batteries. The addition of α-CD in aqueous ZnSO4 solution reduces nucleation overpotential and activation energy of Zn plating and suppresses H2 generation. Computational, spectroscopic, and electrochemical studies reveal that α-CD preferentially adsorbs in parallel on the Zn surface via secondary hydroxyl groups, suppressing water-induced side reactions of hydrogen evolution and hydroxide sulfate formation. Additionally, the hydrophilic exterior surface of α-CD with intense electron density simultaneously facilitates Zn2+ deposition and alleviates Zn dendrite formation. A formulated 3 M ZnSO4 + 10 mM α-CD electrolyte enables homogenous Zn plating/stripping (average Coulombic efficiency ∼ 99.90%) at 1 mA cm-2 in Zn|Cu cells and a considerable capacity retention of 84.20% after 800 cycles in Zn|V2O5 full batteries. This study provides insight into the use of supramolecular macrocycles to modulate and enhance the interface stability and kinetics of metallic anodes for aqueous battery chemistry.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , three three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with 8-connected bcu networks were designed and synthesized to selectively remove ethane from an ethylene/ethane mixture with high efficiency.
Abstract: Developing cost-/energy-efficient separation techniques for purifying ethylene from an ethylene/ethane mixture is highly important but very challenging in the industrial process. Herein, using a bottom-up [8 + 2] construction approach, we rationally designed and synthesized three three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with 8-connected bcu networks, which can selectively remove ethane from an ethylene/ethane mixture with high efficiency. These COF materials, which are fabricated by the condensation reaction of a customer-designed octatopic aldehyde monomer with linear diamino linkers, possess high crystallinity, good structural robustness, and high porosity. Attributed to the well-organized micro-sized pores with a nonpolar/inert pore environment, these COFs display high ethane adsorption capacity and good selectivity over ethylene, making them among the best ethane-selective adsorbents for ethylene purification. Their excellent ethylene/ethane separation performance is validated by dynamic breakthrough experiments with high-purity ethylene (>99.99%) produced through a single adsorption process. The separation performance surpasses all reported C2H6-selective COFs and even some benchmark metal-organic frameworks. This work provides important guidance for the design of new adsorbents for value-added gas purification.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Benefiting from the strong NIR absorption and good photothermal conversion performance of the in situ generated supramolecular perylene diimide radical anions, the hypoxia-induced PTT strategy exhibits excellent photothermal therapeutic efficiency as well as good specificity and biological safety.
Abstract: Considering that hypoxia is closely associated with tumor proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, it is of great significance to overcome hypoxia in tumor treatment. Herein, we report a hypoxia-induced specific photothermal therapy (PTT) based on the photothermal agent of supramolecular perylene diimide radical anions. Hypoxic regions in various tumors display strong reductive ability, and in such environments the supramolecular complex of a perylene diimide derivative and cucurbit[7]uril could be reduced to supramolecular perylene diimide radical anions. Benefiting from the strong NIR absorption and good photothermal conversion performance of the in situ generated supramolecular perylene diimide radical anions, the hypoxia-induced PTT strategy exhibits excellent photothermal therapeutic efficiency as well as good specificity and biological safety. Moreover, hypoxia inducible factor expression of tumors decreases to the normal level after PTT treatment. It is anticipated that such a hypoxia-induced specific PTT strategy opens new horizons for photothermal therapy against hypoxic tumors with improved specificity and safety.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , an ionic liquid (IL)-type reducing agent containing Cl- and a dihydroxyl group was employed to control the reduction process of silver (Ag) in AgNW-based flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs).
Abstract: Solution processable flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs) are urgently needed to boost the efficiency and mechanical stability of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) on a large scale. However, how to balance the optoelectronic properties and meanwhile achieve robust mechanical behavior of FTEs is still a huge challenge. Silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes, exhibiting easily tuned optoelectronic/mechanical properties, are attracting considerable attention, but their poor contacts at the junction site of the AgNWs increase the sheet resistance and reduce mechanical stability. In this study, an ionic liquid (IL)-type reducing agent containing Cl- and a dihydroxyl group was employed to control the reduction process of silver (Ag) in AgNW-based FTEs precisely. The Cl- in the IL regulates the Ag+ concentration through the formation and dissolution of AgCl, whereas the dihydroxyl group slowly reduces the released Ag+ to form metal Ag. The reduced Ag grew in situ at the junction site of the AgNWs in a twin-crystal growth mode, facilitating an atomic-level contact between the AgNWs and the reduced Ag. This enforced atomic-level contact decreased the sheet resistance, and enhanced the mechanical stability of the FTEs. As a result, the single-junction flexible OSCs based on this chemically welded FTE achieved record power conversion efficiencies of 17.52% (active area: 0.062 cm2) and 15.82% (active area: 1.0 cm2). These flexible devices also displayed robust bending and peeling durability even under extreme test conditions.

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TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper explored two virtual screening strategies to find inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease in ultralarge chemical libraries, and three inhibitors were identified in the first library screen, and five of the selected fragment elaborations showed inhibitory effects.
Abstract: Drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 could have saved millions of lives during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is now crucial to develop inhibitors of coronavirus replication in preparation for future outbreaks. We explored two virtual screening strategies to find inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease in ultralarge chemical libraries. First, structure-based docking was used to screen a diverse library of 235 million virtual compounds against the active site. One hundred top-ranked compounds were tested in binding and enzymatic assays. Second, a fragment discovered by crystallographic screening was optimized guided by docking of millions of elaborated molecules and experimental testing of 93 compounds. Three inhibitors were identified in the first library screen, and five of the selected fragment elaborations showed inhibitory effects. Crystal structures of target-inhibitor complexes confirmed docking predictions and guided hit-to-lead optimization, resulting in a noncovalent main protease inhibitor with nanomolar affinity, a promising in vitro pharmacokinetic profile, and broad-spectrum antiviral effect in infected cells.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a covalent organic framework (COF)/graphene dual-region hydrogel, containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in one material, is developed through a facile in situ growth strategy.
Abstract: Solar-driven water generation is a sustainable water treatment technology, helping to relieve global water scarcity issues. However, this technology faces great challenges due to the high energy consumption of water evaporation yielding low evaporation rates. Here, a covalent organic framework (COF)/graphene dual-region hydrogel, containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in one material, is developed through a facile in situ growth strategy. The hydrophilic COF is covering parts of the hydrophobic graphene regions. Through accurate control of both wetting regions, the hybrid hydrogel shows effective light-harvesting, tunable wettability, optimized water content, and lowered energy demand for water vaporization. Acting as solar absorber, the dual-region hydrogel exhibits a steam generation rate as high as 3.69 kg m-2 h-1 under 1 sun irradiation (1 kW m-2), which competes well with other state-of-the-art materials. Furthermore, this hydrogel evaporator can be used to produce drinkable water from seawater and sewage, demonstrating the potential for water treatment.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a novel p-type nickel-based MOF single crystal (Ni-TBAPy-SC) and its exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) nanobelts showed more efficient charge separation due to its shortened charge transfer distance and remarkably enhanced active surface areas.
Abstract: Development of water-stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for promising visible-light-driven photocatalytic water splitting is highly desirable but still challenging. Here we report a novel p-type nickel-based MOF single crystal (Ni-TBAPy-SC) and its exfoliated nanobelts (Ni-TBAPy-NB) that can bear a wide range of pH environment in aqueous solution. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate a feasible electron transfer from the H4TBAPy ligand (light-harvesting center) to the Ni-O cluster node (catalytic center), on which water splitting to produce hydrogen can be efficiently driven free of cocatalyst. Compared to the single crystal, the exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) nanobelts show more efficient charge separation due to its shortened charge transfer distance and remarkably enhanced active surface areas, resulting in 164 times of promoted water reduction activity. The optimal H2 evolution rate on the nanobelt reaches 98 μmol h-1 (ca. 5 mmol h-1 g-1) showing benchmarked apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 8.0% at 420 nm among water-stable MOFs photocatalysts.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a CsPbBr3 QD-in-perovskite matrix solids that enable high luminescent efficiency and spectral stability with an optical gap of over 2.6 eV was developed.
Abstract: The epitaxial growth of a perovskite matrix on quantum dots (QDs) has enabled the emergence of efficient red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) because it unites efficient charge transport with strong surface passivation. However, the synthesis of wide-band gap (Eg) QD-in-matrix heterostructures has so far remained elusive in the case of sky-blue LEDs. Here, we developed CsPbBr3 QD-in-perovskite matrix solids that enable high luminescent efficiency and spectral stability with an optical Eg of over 2.6 eV. We screened alloy candidates that modulate the perovskite Eg and allow heteroepitaxy, seeking to implement lattice-matched type-I band alignment. Specifically, we introduced a CsPb1-xSrxBr3 matrix, in which alloying with Sr2+ increased the Eg of the perovskite and minimized lattice mismatch. We then developed an approach to passivation that would overcome the hygroscopic nature of Sr2+. We found that bis(4-fluorophenyl)phenylphosphine oxide strongly coordinates with Sr2+ and provides steric hindrance to block H2O, a finding obtained by combining molecular dynamics simulations with experimental results. The resulting QD-in-matrix solids exhibit enhanced air- and photo-stability with efficient charge transport from the matrix to the QDs. LEDs made from this material exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 13.8% and a brightness exceeding 6000 cd m-2.

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TL;DR: This work shows an electrochemical pathway to reduce gaseous NOx that can be conducted at high reaction rates (400 mA cm-2) under ambient conditions by using renewable electricity and reveals that a high NO coverage facilitates the N-N coupling reaction.
Abstract: Mitigating nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions is critical to tackle global warming and improve air quality. Conventional NOx abatement technologies for emission control suffer from a low efficiency at near ambient temperatures. Herein, we show an electrochemical pathway to reduce gaseous NOx that can be conducted at high reaction rates (400 mA cm-2) under ambient conditions. Various transition metals are evaluated for electrochemical reduction of NO and N2O to reveal the role of electrocatalyst in determining the product selectivity. Specifically, Cu is highly selective toward NH3 formation with >80% Faradaic efficiency in NO electroreduction. Furthermore, the partial pressure study of NO electroreduction revealed that a high NO coverage facilitates the N-N coupling reaction. In acidic electrolytes, the formation of NH3 is greatly favored, whereas the N2 production is suppressed. Additional mechanistic studies were conducted by using flow electrochemical mass spectrometry to gain further insights into reaction pathways. This work provides a promising avenue toward abating gaseous NOx emissions at ambient conditions by using renewable electricity.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors present a review of recent approaches to confer stretchability to polymer semiconductors while maintaining high charge carrier mobilities, with emphasis on the control of both polymer-chain dynamics and thin-film morphology.
Abstract: Stretchable polymer semiconductors have advanced rapidly in the past decade as materials required to realize conformable and soft skin-like electronics become available. Through rational molecular-level design, stretchable polymer semiconductor films are now able to retain their electrical functionalities even when subjected to repeated mechanical deformations. Furthermore, their charge-carrier mobilities are on par with the best flexible polymer semiconductors, with some even exceeding that of amorphous silicon. The key advancements are molecular-design concepts that allow multiple strain energy-dissipation mechanisms, while maintaining efficient charge-transport pathways over multiple length scales. In this perspective article, we review recent approaches to confer stretchability to polymer semiconductors while maintaining high charge carrier mobilities, with emphasis on the control of both polymer-chain dynamics and thin-film morphology. Additionally, we present molecular design considerations toward intrinsically elastic semiconductors that are needed for reliable device operation under reversible and repeated deformation. A general approach involving inducing polymer semiconductor nanoconfinement allows for incorporation of several other desired functionalities, such as biodegradability, self-healing, and photopatternability, while enhancing the charge transport. Lastly, we point out future directions, including advancing the fundamental understanding of morphology evolution and its correlation with the change of charge transport under strain, and needs for strain-resilient polymer semiconductors with high mobility retention.

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TL;DR: In this article , a cysteine-reactive covalent ligand, EN106, was used as a recruiter for FEM1B, an E3 ligase recently discovered as the critical component of the cellular response to reductive stress.
Abstract: Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), heterobifunctional compounds that consist of protein-targeting ligands linked to an E3 ligase recruiter, have arisen as a powerful therapeutic modality for targeted protein degradation (TPD). Despite the popularity of TPD approaches in drug discovery, only a small number of E3 ligase recruiters are available for the >600 E3 ligases that exist in human cells. Here, we have discovered a cysteine-reactive covalent ligand, EN106, that targets FEM1B, an E3 ligase recently discovered as the critical component of the cellular response to reductive stress. By targeting C186 in FEM1B, EN106 disrupts recognition of the key reductive stress substrate of FEM1B, FNIP1. We further establish that EN106 can be used as a covalent recruiter for FEM1B in TPD applications by demonstrating that a PROTAC linking EN106 to the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or the kinase inhibitor dasatinib leads to the degradation of BRD4 and BCR-ABL, respectively. Our study showcases a covalent ligand that targets a natural E3 ligase–substrate binding site and highlights the utility of covalent ligand screening in expanding the arsenal of E3 ligase recruiters suitable for TPD applications.