Journal of The American Dietetic Association
About: Journal of The American Dietetic Association is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Nutrition Education. It has an ISSN identifier of 0002-8223. Over the lifetime, 11513 publications have been published receiving 332126 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The DRIs represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances.
Abstract: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI activity is a comprehensive effort undertaken to include current concepts about the role of nutrients and food components in long-term health, going beyond deficiency diseases. The DRIs consist of 4 reference intakes: the RDA, which is to be used as a goal for the individual; the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which is given to assist in advising individuals what levels of intake may result in adverse effects if habitually exceeded; the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the intake level at which the data indicate that the needs for 50% of those consuming it will not be met; and the Adequate Intake (AI), a level judged by the experts developing the reference intakes to meet the needs of all individuals in a group, but which is based on much less data and substantially more judgment than that used in establishing an EAR and subsequently the RDA. When an RDA cannot be set, an AI is given. Both are to be used as goals for an individual. Two reports have been issued providing DRIs for nutrients and food components reviewed to date: these include calcium and its related nutrients: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride; and most recently, folate, the B vitamins, and choline. The approaches used to determine the DRIs, the reference values themselves, and the plans for future nutrients and food components are discussed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98: 699–706 .
TL;DR: The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon, and the types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables.
Abstract: In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996; 96:1027-1039.
TL;DR: The HEI is a useful index of overall diet quality of the consumer and will be used by the US Department of Agriculture to monitor changes in dietary intake over time and as the basis of nutrition promotion activities for the population.
Abstract: Objective To develop an index of overall diet quality. Design The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total possible index score is 100. Methods/subjects Data from the 1989 and 1990 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals were used to analyze the HEI for a representative sample of the US population. Statistical analyses performed Frequencies, correlation coefficients, means. Results The mean HEI was 63.9; most people scored neither very high nor very low. No one component of the index dominated the HEI score. People were most likely to do poorly in the fruit, saturated fat, grains, vegetable, and total fat categories. The HEI correlated positively and significantly with most nutrients; as the total HEI increased, intake for a range of nutrients also increased. Discussion/conclusions The HEI is a useful index of overall diet quality of the consumer. The US Department of Agriculture will use the HEI to monitor changes in dietary intake over time and as the basis of nutrition promotion activities for the population. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95:1103-1108.
TL;DR: A conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices is presented.
Abstract: Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).