Journal•ISSN: 0956-5000

# Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions

About: Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Adsorption & Catalysis. It has an ISSN identifier of 0956-5000. Over the lifetime, 13834 publication(s) have been published receiving 356956 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Journal of the Chemical Society. Faraday transactions.

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Abstract: A simple theory is developed that accounts for many of the observed physical properties of micelles, both globular and rod-like, and of bilayer vesicles composed of ionic or zwitterionic amphiphiles. The main point of departure from previous theories lies in the recognition and elucidation of the role of geometric constraints in self-assembly. The linking together of thermodynamics, interaction free energies and geometry results in a general framework which permits extension to more complicated self-assembly problems.

4,296 citations

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TL;DR: Accelerated convergence techniques for the dispersion energy are found to be beneficial in improving the precision at little extra computational cost, particularly when a one centre decomposition is possible or the Ewald sum weighting towards real-space is increased.

Abstract: Algorithms for the symmetry-adapted energy minimisation of solids using analytical first and second derivatives have been devised and implemented in a new computer program GULP. These new methods are found to lead to an improvement in computational efficiency of up to an order of magnitude over the standard algorithm, which takes no account of symmetry, the largest improvement being obtained from the use of symmetry in the generation of the hessian. Accelerated convergence techniques for the dispersion energy are found to be beneficial in improving the precision at little extra computational cost, particularly when a one centre decomposition is possible or the Ewald sum weighting towards real-space is increased.

2,224 citations

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Abstract: The main results and conclusions of experimental measurements of the forces between molecularly smooth mica surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions are as follows:

1,570 citations

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Abstract: The emeraldine salt form of polyaniline, conducting in the metallic regime, can be synthesized electrochemically as a film exhibiting a well defined fibrillar morphology closely resembling that of polyacetylene. Cyclic voltammograms of chemically synthesized and electrochemically synthesized polyaniline are essentially identical. Probable chemical changes which occur and the compounds which are formed when chemically synthesized poly-aniline is electrochemically oxidized and reduced between –0.2 and 1.0 V vs. SCE in aqueous HCl solutions at pH values ranging from –2.12 (6.0 mol dm–3) to 4.0 have been deduced from cyclic voltametric studies. These are shown to be consistent with previous chemical and conductivity studies of emeraldine base and emeraldine salt forms of polyaniline. It is proposed that the emeraldine salt form of polyaniline has a symmetrical conjugated structure having extensive charge delocalization resulting from a new type of doping of an organic polymer–salt formation rather than oxidation which occurs in the p-doping of all other conducting polymer systems.

1,520 citations

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Abstract: The equations which govern the ion distributions and velocities, the electrostatic potential and the hydrodynamic flow field around a solid colloidal particle in an applied electric field are reexamined. By using the linearity of the equations which determine the electrophoretic mobility, we show that for a colloidal particle of any shape the mobility is independent of the dielectric properties of the particle and the electrostatic boundary conditions on the particle surface. The mobility depends only on the particle size and shape, the properties of the electrolyte solution in which it is suspended, and the charge inside, or electrostatic potential on, the hydrodynamic shear plane in the absence of an applied field or any macroscopic motion.New expressions for the forces acting in the particle are derived and a novel substitution is developed which leads to a significant decoupling of the governing equations. These analytic developments allow for the construction of a rapid, robust numerical scheme for the solution of the governing equations which we have applied to the case of a spherical colloidal particle in a general electrolyte solution. We describe a computer program for the conversion of mobility measurements to zeta potential for a spherical colloidal particle which is far more flexible than the Wiersema graphs which have traditionally been used for the interpretation of mobility data. Furthermore it is free of the high zeta potential convergence difficulties which limited Wiersema's calculations to moderate values of ζ. Some sample computations in typical 1:1 and 2:1 electrolytes are exhibited which illustrate the existence of a maximum in the mobility at high zeta potentials. The physical explanation of this effect is given. The importance of the mobility maximum in testing the validity of the governing equations of electrophoresis and its implications for the colloid chemist's picture of the Stern layer are briefly discussed.

1,494 citations