scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Journal of The Economic and Social History of The Orient in 2005"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century.
Abstract: The paper presents an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf. The history of pearling in the region is reviewed, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century. Economic data from the 18th�20th centuries CE is analysed in detail, to de fine the economic course of the pearling industry during that time, and assess the impact on human settlement in the region. The archaeological data for pearl fishing are then examined, from the 6th millennium BCE onwards, and compared to the historical evidence. The results of archaeological survey in the Abu Dhabi islands region are then taken as a case study, and changes in settlement patterns are related to the historical trajectory of the pearling industry. It is observed that the regional economy became overwhelmingly dependent on the pearl trade in recent centuries, and was increasingly subject to the demands of the global market.

97 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the use of neck sealings in the administration of the poll tax, which was levied upon non-Muslims, was investigated, and it was shown that at origin, neck-sealing related to other stigmatizing practices and was principally symbolic and punitive.
Abstract: Arabic and Syriac sources for early Islam, especially for seventh- and eighth-century Syria and Iraq, describe the use of neck sealings in the administration of the poll tax, which was levied upon non-Muslims This article evaluates the relevant literary, historical and material evidence, including some surviving sealings, and proposes that at origin, neck-sealing related to other stigmatizing practices, and was principally symbolic and punitive

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For some products in the Ur III period, a sufficient number of texts provide their silver equivalences, and the ancient value of the products can be estimated as discussed by the authors, but the silver values encountered in these texts do not relate to this exchange.
Abstract: For some products in the Ur III period, a sufficient number of texts provide their silver equivalences, and the ancient value of the products can be estimated. This paper suggests that we should envision two exchange systems in the Ur III period, which operated within two separate and rather different economic spheres. Local exchange took place, at a stated time and place, for the purpose of individual exchange of goods and services. Through this exchange, regular people would obtain a number of different necessities of life that were not provided by the temple and palace households. This was a barter exchange and the silver values encountered in the Ur III texts do not relate to this exchange. Silver was only used in large-scale transactions of goods and in more significant sales of real estate, humans or livestock. Although we may assume that there was a connection between the official silver equivalences and the actual values of the products and commodities in the local exchange, minor fluctuations and changes in the large-scale exchange system would not affect the bartering values in the local exchange. Nous possedons suffisamment de textes nous indiquant quel etait l'equivalent en argent de certains produits de la periode d'Ur III pour etre a meme d'estimer la valeur que ces derniers avaient dans l'antiquite. Le present article suggere qu'il nous faut imaginer, durant la periode d'Ur III, deux systemes d'echange operant dans le cadre de deux spheres economiques differentes. Les echanges locaux avaient lieu a un moment et a un endroit determines, dans le but d'echanger des biens et des services entre particuliers. Ces echanges permettaient aux gens du peuple de se procurer diverses choses necessaires a l'existence qui ne leur etaient pas fournies par l'intendance du temple et du palais. Il s'agissait d'un simple troc et la valeur en argent mentionnee dans les textes d'Ur III ne concernait pas ces echanges. L'argent n'etait utilise que lors de transactions de biens se traitant sur une grande echelle ou lors de ventes plus importantes de proprietes immobilieres, d'hommes ou de betail. Bien que l'on puisse supposer qu'il y ait eu un rapport entre l'equivalent officiel en argent et la valeur reelle des produits et des matieres premieres dans les echanges locaux, des fluctuations mineures et des changements dans le systeme d'echange a grande echelle n'affectaient pas la valeur des produits troques lors de ces echanges.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first analysis of balance pan weights at the site of Nippur in Iraq was carried out by as discussed by the authors, where a single system of weight measurement is strongly indicated in statistical analysis, in contradiction to most analyzed sites farther north, where many weight systems are simultaneously in play.
Abstract: Balance pan weights are used in both manufacture and trade and therefore are a correlate of economic activity. Ancient examples can provide insight into the nature and extent of ancient economies. Many ancient weights have been discovered at the site of Nippur in Iraq and most are here analyzed for the first time. Common weight forms at Nippur are those that are typical across the ancient Near East, but a single system of weight measurement is strongly indicated in statistical analysis. This is in contradiction to most analyzed sites farther north, where many weight systems are simultaneously in play. It seems to indicate Nippur's relative isolation within a socio-economic system, reflecting a general lack of incoming merchants or craftspeople from distant regions. Utilises a la fois dans la manufacture et le commerce, les poids de balance a plateaux representent un correlat de l'activite economique. Ceux datant de l'Antiquite peuvent donc nous donner un apercu de la nature et de l'etendue des economies antiques. Ils sont nombreux a avoir ete decouverts sur le site de Nippur, en Irak, et la plupart est ici analysee pour la premiere fois. Les formes de poids les plus communes a Nippur sont celles que l'on retrouve typiquement dans tout le Proche-Orient. Mais l'analyse statistique suggere fortement l'existence d'un systeme unique de mesure du poids, ce qui est en contradiction avec les analyses precedemment menees dans les sites plus au nord, ou plusieurs systemes de mesure etaient simultanement en vigueur. Ces elements semblent donc indiquer que Nippur etait relativement isole au sein d'un systeme socio-economique, ce qui montre que le nombre de marchants ou d'artisans exterieurs provenant de regions lointaine etait generalement peu eleve.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the intense competition between Emperor Akbar (r. 1556-1605) and his Kabul-based half-brother, Mirza Hakim (d. 1585).
Abstract: This paper examines the intense competition between Emperor Akbar (r. 1556-1605)—the effective founder of the Mughal Empire in India—and his Kabul-based half-brother, Mirza Hakim (d. 1585). A focus on this rivalry serves to highlight the critical but historically unacknowledged role played by Mirza Hakim in shaping the trajectory of Akbar's reign and also that of the Mughal Empire in India. It is also intended to underline the continued significance of connective links between Central Asia and South Asia decades after the founding of the Mughal Empire in 1526. Cet article examine la concurrence intense entre l'empereur Akbar (regne 1556-1605)—le fondateur veritable de l'empire Moghol en Inde—et son demi-frere, base a Kaboul, Mirza Hakim (d. 1585). L'etude de cette rivalite sert a souligner le role crucial mais historiquement meconnu joue par Mirza Hakim dans la definition de la trajectoire du regne d'Akbar ainsi que dans celle de l'empire Moghol en Inde. Cet expose vise aussi a relever l'importance continue des liens entre l'Asie centrale et l'Asie du sud pendant plusieurs decennies apres la fondation de l'empire Moghol en 1526.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The laws of corporate groups such as merchants, traders, religious specialists, soldiers, etc. are examined on the basis of both the normative Hindu legal texts and epigraphical sources from various parts of India as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The laws of corporate groups such as merchants, traders, religious specialists, soldiers, etc. are examined on the basis of both the normative Hindu legal texts and epigraphical sources from various parts of India. Other recent studies arguing that medieval India experienced an increasing integration of polity and society over larger core areas are corroborated from the perspective of law and legal institutions. Methodological and theoretical propositions are also raised to argue that Hindu legal texts, known as Dharmasastra, are essential to any history of law and society in medieval India, but only when their nature and purpose are properly understood. Les lois des corps sociaux, comme les marchands, les negotiants, les experts religieux, ou les soldats, sont examinees d'apres les textes normatifs du droit hindou ancien, et aussi selon des sources epigraphiques venant des diverses regions de l'lnde. D'autres etudes recentes qui affirment que l'lnde medievale a connu une integration croissante entre regime et societe dans des domaines centralises plus etendus sont ici confirmees par le biais du droit et des institu tions legales. Des arguments methodologiques et theoriques sont aussi souleves pour soutenir que les textes legals hindous, connus sous le nom de Dharmasastra, sont fondamentals a toute histoire du droit et de la societe dans l'lnde medievale, mais seulement quand leur nature et leur objet sont bien compris.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present case studies from various parts of the region which are best explained by the presence of patronage and propose a definition of the concept of patronage, based on modeles romains anciens and antropologiques modernes.
Abstract: Patronage is generally assumed by scholars to have been a universal feature of ancient Near Eastern societies, but has been neglected as a topic of serious investigation. The purpose of this study is to offer, without prior assumptions, textual evidence that establishes the exis tence of the concept of patronage. The approach is to present case studies from various parts of the region which are best explained by the presence of patronage. For these purposes patronage is narrowly defined on the basis of ancient Roman and contemporary anthropo logical models. Les historiens du Proche-Orient ancien supposent que le patronage etait un phenomene uni versel dans la region, sans que ce sujet n'ait fait l'objet d'une etude approfondie. Dans cet article je propose de presenter sans presomptions prealables des preuves textuelles que le con cept de patronage existait. L'approche est de presenter des cas concrets provenants de plusieurs parties de la region qui s'expliquent au mieux par la presence du patronage. A ces fins, j'adopte une definition etroite du patronage, a la base de modeles romains anciens et antropologiques modernes.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Armenians in India have been present in small numbers at least since the sixteenth century as mentioned in this paper, and their contacts with India received a boost following the settlement of a large number of Armenians in New Julfa that coincided with the coming of the European companies in India.
Abstract: Historical evidence points to the existence of Armenians in India in small numbers at least since the sixteenth century. Beginning with the Portuguese in that century, Europeans entered the spheres of Euro-Asian and intra-Asian trade in an increasing volume. Armenian contact with India received a boost following the settlement of a large number of Armenians in New Julfa that coincided with the coming of the European companies in India. The arrival of the Europeans opened up various possibilities for the Armenians. Consequently, Armenian trade, based to a great extent on various forms of community-based network and partnership, was not 'exclusive' in nature. In their social life too Armenians formed part of the pluralistic Christian community in India. Les donnees historiques suggerent l'existence en Inde d'un petit nombre d'Armeniens depuis le XVI e siecle. A partir de l'arrivee des Portugais a cette epoque, les Europeens ont developpe les echanges avec l'Asie et en ont penetre de plus en plus le commerce interieur. Les contacts des Armeniens avec l'Inde ont connu une rapide expansion a la suite de l'etablissement d'un nombre important d'entre eux a New Julfa, dans la mouvance de l'arrivee des compagnies europeennes qui leur offraient des possibilites variees. De ce fait, le commerce armenien, largement fonde sur diverses formes de reseaux et de partenariats internes a leur communaute, n'etait pas de nature « exclusive » . Dans leur vie sociale, aussi, les Armeniens etaient partie prenante de la communaute chretienne indienne, pluraliste.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the eunuch's institution in the court of the Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir was investigated and a variety of functions were performed in the early fourth/tenth century Abbasid court both in the harem and in ceremonial.
Abstract: This paper investigates the eunuch's institution in the court of the Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir and seeks, first, to delineate the variety of functions that the eunuchs held in the early fourth/tenth century Abbasid court both in the harem and in ceremonial; second, it investigates the careers of the eunuchs Sāfī al-Huramī and Muflih al-Khādim al-Aswad, exploring their sources of authority and their various networks which allowed them to exercise a high degree of political influence. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier l'institution "Eunuque" au coeur de la cour Abbaside du caliphe al-Muqtadir. En premier lieu nous soulignons les fonctions multiples que les eunuques performaient dans la cour abbaside (debut 4/10 eme siecle) tant au sein du harem pendant le ceremonial royal. En second lieu nous explorons plus en detail les carrieres des eunuques Sāfī al-Huramī et Muflih al-Khādim al-Aswad, identifiant les sources de leur pouvoir et les reseaux differents qui leur permirent d'exercer une veritable influence politique.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The contribution of the local Sinhalese peasantry to estate wage labour remains underestimated or, indeed, largely ignored as mentioned in this paper, despite strong evidence countering this "dualistic" viewpoint.
Abstract: It has become a firmly established belief among economic and labour historians that Sri Lanka's plantation industry rested almost exclusively on imported Tamil labour during the 19th century. Although strong evidence countering this "dualistic" viewpoint has been produced since the late 1970s—especially by Eric Meyer—, the contribution of the local Sinhalese peasantry to estate wage labour remains underestimated or, indeed, largely ignored. This article strives to support Meyer's point by bringing together old and new evidence illustrating the at times substantial Sinhalese participation in plantation wage labour. C'est une croyance bien etablie parmi les historiens economiques et du travail que l'industrie de la plantation du Sri Lanka reposait presque exclusivement sur le travail de la main-d'cuvre tamoule pendant le 19e siecle. Bien que des indications fortes contre cette perspective "dualiste" aient ete produites depuis les annees 70—particulierement par Eric Meyer—, la contribution de la paysannerie locale cinghalaise au travail salarie dans les plantations reste sous-estimee , ou en grande partie ignoree. Cet article tâche de soutenir l'opinion de Meyer en rassemblant des indications vieilles et nouvelles illustrant la participation cinghalaise parfois substantielle au travail salarie dans les plantations.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: According to the British Government in Mandate Palestine, the tendency of the fallahin (Arab peasants) to "strategic default" and the monopolistic power of local moneylenders led to high interest lending in rural areas as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: According to the British Government in Mandate Palestine, the tendency of the fallahin (Arab peasants) to "strategic default" and the monopolistic power of local moneylenders led to high interest lending in rural areas. The government sought to remedy this by assisting banks in collecting bad debts, by guaranteeing some bank loans and by imposing the maximum legal interest rate. However, the colonial perception was incorrect. Defaults were usually "involuntary" as a result of natural and occasionally man-made hazards (thus creating a high interest rate environment), and the moneylending market was "contestable." In such an environment, despite government assistance, moneylenders had a comparative advantage over banks. They were usually merchants who could easily utilise collateral on loans (crops and lands); they ignored the law of maximum interest rate and they had good information about borrowers. For these reasons moneylenders remained the main source of credit for the fallahin . D'apres le gouvernment britannique dans la Palestine sous mandat, la propension des fallahin (les paysans arabes) a se trouver en « defaut de paiement strategique » et le monopole des preteurs locaux expliquent les prets a interets eleves dans les regions rurales. Le gouvernent essaya de pallier cette situation en aidant les banques a reprendre les creances irrecouvrables, en garantissant quelques prets bancaires et en imposant un taux d'interet maximum legal. Cette interpretation coloniale etait cependant erronee. Les defauts de paiement etaient en general « involontaires » , le resultat d'aleas d'ordre naturel ou parfois humain (creant un taux d'interet eleve) et le marche du pret etait « contestable ». Dans ces circonstances, et malgre l'aide gouvernementale, les preteurs avaient un avantage par rapport aux banques. Il s'agissait en general de marchands qui pouvaient facilement faire usage des nantissements garantissant les prets (recoltes ou terrains); ils ne tenaient pas compte de la loi de taux d'interet maximum et ils etaient bien informes sur les emprunteurs. Tous ces faits expliquent pourquoi les preteurs demeuraient, pour les fallahin , la principale source de credit.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In early-modern Ottoman economy the notion of market welfare proposed here meant a system that partially fled competition and efficiency for the sake of economic stability and equity for those established within its boundaries as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: In early-modern Ottoman economy the notion of market welfare proposed here meant a system that partially sti fled competition and efficiency for the sake of economic stability and equity for those established within its boundaries. Such a system worked even in the face of political decentralization when economic regulation from "above" (Istanbul and "the state") was seemingly on the wane. Discussing available research and raising questions for future study, the article examines forms of regulation from the "middle" by local officials/notables, courts, and economic institutions in cities throughout the Empire and the role of consumers in economic regulation. The article further suggests why economic opening in a later era of integration into the world economy gradually put an end to an inward-looking, early-modern economic life. Dans l'economie ottomane du debut de l'ere moderne (17 e –18 e siecles), la notion, proposee ici, de bien-etre par le marche signifiait un systeme qui decourageait voire etouffait partiellement competition et efficacite dans le but d'assurer une stabilite et une equite economique a ceux compris dans son perimetre. Un tel systeme fonctionnait toujours meme dans un contexte de decentralisation politique, alors que la regulation economique venue « d'en haut » (d'Istanbul et de « l'Etat » ) semblait etre en train de s'affaiblir. Considerant la recherche effectuee a ce sujet et soulevant des nouvelles questions pour une future enquete, le present article etudie des formes de regulation emanant du « milieu » et etablies localement par des fonctionnaires/dignitaires, des tribunaux, et des institutions economiques dans des villes a travers l'Empire, ainsi que le role joue par les consommateurs dans ce processus. L'article tente aussi d'expliquer pourquoi l'ouverture economique durant la periode posterieure, celle de l'integration dans l'economie mondiale, a mis fin, progressivement, a une vie economique tournee vers l'interieur qui a caracterise le debut de l'ere moderne.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a case study of the artisanate in eighteenth-century Jodhpur explores the multiple identities among craft groups and argues that multiple identities of indi vidual craftsmen resulted in their perusal of heterogeneous competing agendas crosscutting caste and class affiliations.
Abstract: Through a case study of the artisanate in eighteenth-century Jodhpur, this paper explores the multiple identities among craft groups. It probes the matrix of factors that crystallised caste rather than class identities and solidarities, and enabled collective actions by craft castes in defence of their interests. It displays, however, that different contexts brought forth diverse forms of caste politics, and that behaving as unified blocs was as common as occasions that demonstrated fissures in caste identities. It therefore argues that multiple identities of indi vidual craftsmen resulted in their perusal of heterogeneous competing agendas crosscutting caste and class affiliations. The paper thereby points to the contested character of all such aggregations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article showed that no public consumption facilities such as restaurants, taverns or inns existed in medieval Cairo, due to the Egyptians' faithfulness to their own ancient practices and their indifference to pre-Islamic influences of foreign origin, and the Cairenes' compliance with the ordinances of the legal sources of Islam.
Abstract: The article shows that, contrary to a commonly accepted assumption, no public consumption facilities such as restaurants, taverns or inns existed in medieval Cairo. This was caused on the one hand by the Egyptians' faithfulness to their own ancient practices and their indifference to pre-Islamic influences of foreign origin, and on the other by the Cairenes' compliance with the ordinances of the legal sources of Islam. These two factors led to the results described in the article because they complemented each other, as Islam was rooted in the same ancient social and cultural tradition as Egypt. Dans cet article on a avance une these que – malgre une opinion bien etendue – les etablissements alimentaires, tels que les restaurants, les tavernes et les auberges, n'existaient pas au Caire medieval. Les causes de cette situation on peut expliquer, d'une part, par l'attachement des Egyptiens a leur cultures indigenes et leur indifference aux traditions culturelles etrangeres, alimentaires inclues, provenant d'une epoque preislamique; d'autre part, par le fait que le comportement des Cairots etait tres strictement lie aux ordonnances de la religion islamique, enracinees dans la meme tradition sociale et religieuse que les traditions egyptiennes. Or, on peut conclure que les evenements decrits dans cet article pouvaient avoir lieu puisque la tradition musulmane concernante les questions presentees ici etait tres strictement liee a la culture indigene.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that political considerations and socioeconomic interests influenced the tax exemption process and that the resulting unequal allocation exacerbated the famine problem in the provinces disadvantaged by the system.
Abstract: This study analyses Choson (1392-1910) state responses to protracted and severe crop failure in the late eighteenth century. Confucian ideology and an elaborate relief system made it difficult for the state to let its present tax needs override concerns for rural communities, and steadily increasing tax exemptions severely strained state finances. However, these exemptions were still far from sufficient, and this period saw constantly increasing numbers of starving people. This study argues that political considerations and socio-economic interests influenced the tax exemption process and that the resulting unequal allocation exacerbated the famine problem in the provinces disadvantaged by the system. Cette etude fait l'analyse des reponses du gouvernement Choson en vue de la faillite severe et prolongee des moissons pendant plusieurs annees vers la fin du dix-huitieme siecle. L'ideologie confuceenne, ainsi qu'un systeme d'allegements trop elabore, rendait difficile pour l'Etat de donner la priorite a ses propres besoins fiscales au-dessus de son egard pour les besoins de la communaute campagnarde, si bien que les dispenses d'impots allaient toujours en croissance, grevant severement les ressources de l'Etat. Toutefois, ces dispenses ne suffisaient jamais aux besoins, tant bien qu'a cette epoque le nombre de personnes affamees montait toujours. La presente etude pretend que les interets politiques et socio-economiques influencaient le procede des dispenses d'impots, et qu'en consequence l'allocation inegale aggravait le probleme de la famine dans les provinces desavantagees par ce systeme.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study of Mycenaean Greek and Hittite land-tenure systems is presented, based upon a systematic comparison of two groups of documents: land-registers (the so-called E-series) from Pylos and Middle Hittitic land-donations.
Abstract: The article is a comparative study of Mycenaean Greek and Hittite land-tenure systems. It is based upon a systematic comparison of two groups of documents: land-registers (the so-called E-series) from Pylos and Middle Hittite land-donations. The traditional interpretation of both Mycenaean Greek and Hittite documents is challenged and alternative interpretations are offered. Thus, on the Mycenaean side, the construction with the preposition pa-ro is reinter preted, and on the Hittite side an entirely new interpretation of a Hittite expression pir-sah hanas is offered. Both land-tenure systems are interpreted as two manifestations of compul sory labour service of small landholders attached to large agricultural estates.