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# Journal of The Optical Society of America A-optics Image Science and Vision

About: Journal of The Optical Society of America A-optics Image Science and Vision is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Scattering & Diffraction. Over the lifetime, 11676 publication(s) have been published receiving 419451 citation(s).

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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Abstract: A convolution-backprojection formula is deduced for direct reconstruction of a three-dimensional density function from a set of two-dimensional projections. The formula is approximate but has useful properties, including errors that are relatively small in many practical instances and a form that leads to convenient computation. It reduces to the standard fan-beam formula in the plane that is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and contains the point source. The algorithm is applied to a mathematical phantom as an example of its performance.

4,967 citations

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TL;DR: A closed-form solution to the least-squares problem for three or more paints is presented, simplified by use of unit quaternions to represent rotation.

Abstract: Finding the relationship between two coordinate systems using pairs of measurements of the coordinates of a number of points in both systems is a classic photogrammetric task . It finds applications i n stereoph and in robotics . I present here a closed-form solution to the least-squares problem for three or more paints . Currently various empirical, graphical, and numerical iterative methods are in use . Derivation of the solution i s simplified by use of unit quaternions to represent rotation . I emphasize a symmetry property that a solution to thi s problem ought to possess . The best translational offset is the difference between the centroid of the coordinates i n one system and the rotated and scaled centroid of the coordinates in the other system . The best scale is equal to th e ratio of the root-mean-square deviations of the coordinates in the two systems from their respective centroids . These exact results are to be preferred to approximate methods based on measurements of a few selected points . The unit quaternion representing the best rotation is the eigenvector associated with the most positive eigenvalue o f a symmetric 4 X 4 matrix . The elements of this matrix are combinations of sums of products of correspondin g coordinates of the points .

4,263 citations

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Abstract: A motion sequence may be represented as a single pattern in x–y–t space; a velocity of motion corresponds to a three-dimensional orientation in this space. Motion sinformation can be extracted by a system that responds to the oriented spatiotemporal energy. We discuss a class of models for human motion mechanisms in which the first stage consists of linear filters that are oriented in space-time and tuned in spatial frequency. The outputs of quadrature pairs of such filters are squared and summed to give a measure of motion energy. These responses are then fed into an opponent stage. Energy models can be built from elements that are consistent with known physiology and psychophysics, and they permit a qualitative understanding of a variety of motion phenomena.

3,379 citations

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TL;DR: Evidence is presented that the 2D receptive-field profiles of simple cells in mammalian visual cortex are well described by members of this optimal 2D filter family, and thus such visual neurons could be said to optimize the general uncertainty relations for joint 2D-spatial-2D-spectral information resolution.

Abstract: Two-dimensional spatial linear filters are constrained by general uncertainty relations that limit their attainable information resolution for orientation, spatial frequency, and two-dimensional (2D) spatial position. The theoretical lower limit for the joint entropy, or uncertainty, of these variables is achieved by an optimal 2D filter family whose spatial weighting functions are generated by exponentiated bivariate second-order polynomials with complex coefficients, the elliptic generalization of the one-dimensional elementary functions proposed in Gabor’s famous theory of communication [ J. Inst. Electr. Eng.93, 429 ( 1946)]. The set includes filters with various orientation bandwidths, spatial-frequency bandwidths, and spatial dimensions, favoring the extraction of various kinds of information from an image. Each such filter occupies an irreducible quantal volume (corresponding to an independent datum) in a four-dimensional information hyperspace whose axes are interpretable as 2D visual space, orientation, and spatial frequency, and thus such a filter set could subserve an optimally efficient sampling of these variables. Evidence is presented that the 2D receptive-field profiles of simple cells in mammalian visual cortex are well described by members of this optimal 2D filter family, and thus such visual neurons could be said to optimize the general uncertainty relations for joint 2D-spatial–2D-spectral information resolution. The variety of their receptive-field dimensions and orientation and spatial-frequency bandwidths, and the correlations among these, reveal several underlying constraints, particularly in width/length aspect ratio and principal axis organization, suggesting a polar division of labor in occupying the quantal volumes of information hyperspace. Such an ensemble of 2D neural receptive fields in visual cortex could locally embed coarse polar mappings of the orientation–frequency plane piecewise within the global retinotopic mapping of visual space, thus efficiently representing 2D spatial visual information by localized 2D spectral signatures.

3,294 citations

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Abstract: The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for scattering calculations, including the relationship between the DDA and other methods, is reviewed. Computational considerations, i.e., the use of complex-conjugate gradient algorithms and fast-Fourier-transform methods, are discussed. We test the accuracy of the DDA by using the DDA to compute scattering and absorption by isolated, homogeneous spheres as well as by targets consisting of two contiguous spheres. It is shown that, for dielectric materials (|m| ≲ 2), the DDA permits calculations of scattering and absorption that are accurate to within a few percent.

3,080 citations