Journal•ISSN: 0031-9015

# Journal of the Physical Society of Japan

Physical Society of Japan

About: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan is an academic journal published by Physical Society of Japan. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Magnetization & Antiferromagnetism. It has an ISSN identifier of 0031-9015. Over the lifetime, 40158 publications have been published receiving 642406 citations. The journal is also known as: Physical Society of Japan. Journal & J. Phys. Soc. Jpn..

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TL;DR: In this paper, a general type of fluctuation-dissipation theorem is discussed to show that the physical quantities such as complex susceptibility of magnetic or electric polarization and complex conductivity for electric conduction are rigorously expressed in terms of timefluctuation of dynamical variables associated with such irreversible processes.

Abstract: A general type of fluctuation-dissipation theorem is discussed to show that the physical quantities such as complex susceptibility of magnetic or electric polarization and complex conductivity for electric conduction are rigorously expressed in terms of time-fluctuation of dynamical variables associated with such irreversible processes. This is a generalization of statistical mechanics which affords exact formulation as the basis of calculation of such irreversible quantities from atomistic theory. The general formalism of this statistical-mechanical theory is examined in detail. The response, relaxation, and correlation functions are defined in quantummechanical way and their relations are investigated. The formalism is illustrated by simple examples of magnetic and conduction problems. Certain sum rules are discussed for these examples. Finally it is pointed out that this theory may be looked as a generalization of the Einstein relation.

7,090 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the electronic states of graphite ribbons with edges of two typical shapes, armchair and zigzag, were studied by performing tight binding band calculations, and it was shown that the graphite ribbon showed striking contrast in the electronic state depending on the edge shape.

Abstract: We study the electronic states of graphite ribbons with edges of two typical shapes, armchair and zigzag, by performing tight binding band calculations, and find that the graphite ribbons show striking contrast in the electronic states depending on the edge shape. In particular, a zigzag ribbon shows a remarkably sharp peak of density of states at the Fermi level, which does not originate from infinite graphite. We find that the singular electronic states arise from the partly flat bands at the Fermi level, whose wave functions are mainly localized on the zigzag edge. We reveal the puzzle for the emergence of the peculiar edge state by deriving the analytic form in the case of semi-infinite graphite with a zigzag edge. Applying the Hubbard model within the mean-field approximation, we discuss the possible magnetic structure in nanometer-scale micrographite.

2,426 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating a "hardly relaxing" system, in which many replicas with different temperatures are simultaneously simulated and a virtual process exchanging configurations of these replicas is introduced.

Abstract: We propose an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating a “hardly-relaxing” system, in which many replicas with different temperatures are simultaneously simulated and a virtual process exchanging configurations of these replicas is introduced. This exchange process is expected to let the system at low temperatures escape from a local minimum. By using this algorithm the three-dimensional ± J Ising spin glass model is studied. The ergodicity time in this method is found much smaller than that of the multi-canonical method. In particular the time correlation function almost follows an exponential decay whose relaxation time is comparable to the ergodicity time at low temperatures. It suggests that the system relaxes very rapidly through the exchange process even in the low temperature phase.

2,197 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors solved the energy levels which are important in the absorption spectra of the normal complex ions, leaving the crystalline field strength as a parameter The values of B and C (Racah's parameters) there needed are determined from the observed spectras of free ions or in some cases by extrapolation The f -values of the transitions which connect energy levels calculated are estimated and compared with the observed intensities.

Abstract: The secular determinants obtained in the previous paper are solved for the energy levels which are important in the absorption spectra of the normal complex ions, leaving the crystalline field strength as a parameter The values of B and C (Racah's parameters) there needed are determined from the observed spectra of free ions or in some cases by extrapolation The f -values of the transitions which connect the energy levels calculated are estimated and compared with the observed intensities The difference of the spectral width among absorption bands and lines is also considered using the energy diagram obtained Following the assignments determined by the above considerations, the calculated positions of lines and bands are rather in good agreement with the experimental data in divalent ions [MX 6 ] 2+ (M=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), when we adjust the crystalline field parameter D q suitably In trivalent ions [MX 6 ] 3+ (M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe), it is necessary besides the adjustment of D q to use smaller values

1,466 citations

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TL;DR: The notion of cumulants and cumulant functions was introduced in this paper, where a moment generating function of a set of stochastic variables defines the cumulus or the semi-invariants and the cumULant function, and the definition of average may be greatly generalized as far as the condition of the average of unity is unity.

Abstract: The moment generating function of a set of stochastic variables defines the cumulants or the semi-invariants and the cumulant function. It is possible, simply by formal properties of exponential functions, to generaiize to a great extent the concepts of cumulants and cumulant function. The stochastic variables to be considered need not be ordinary c -numbers but they may be q -numbers such as used in quantum mechanics. The exponential function which defines a moment generating function may be any kind of generalized exponential, for example an ordered exponential with a certain prescription for ordering q -number variables. The definition of average may be greatly generalized as far as the condition is fulfilled that the average of unity is unity. After statements of a few basic theorems these generalizations are discussed here with certain examples of application. This generalized cumulant expansion provides us with a point of view from which many existent methods in quantum mechanics and statistical mec...

1,431 citations