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Showing papers in "Journal of The Saudi Pharmaceutical Society in 2021"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of the prevalence of self-medicated drugs used for respiratory symptoms, as COVID-19 preventive, for its symptoms or once tested positive and the perception of symptom relief and demographic variables that promoteSelf-medication in Peru showed that older people have a higher frequency of antiretroviral self-Medication, respondents who currently have a job had a higher frequencies, and respondents from the Andes consumed less acetaminophen while the ones from the rainforest consumed it more.
Abstract: Self-medication impacts both negatively and positively the health of people, which has become evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-medicated drugs used for respiratory symptoms, as COVID-19 preventive, for its symptoms or once tested positive. To determine the perception of symptom relief and demographic variables that promote self-medication in Peru. We performed a cross-sectional, analytical, multicenter study in 3792 study respondents on the use, the reason for use, and perception of relief after the use of six drugs during the quarantine period. An online questionnaire was developed, pretested and submitted to the general public. Multivariable logistic regression was used to ascertain factors that influence an individual's desire to self-medicate, associations were considered significant at p < 0.05 and using region (coast, mountain and jungle) as cluster group. The majority of respondents self-medicated with acetaminophen for respiratory symptoms and mainly because they had a cold or flu. It was observed that all the surveyed drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, azithromycin, penicillin, antiretrovirals and hydroxychloroquine) were consumed for various symptoms including: fever, fatigue, cough, sneezing, muscle pain, nasal congestion, sore throat, headache and breathing difficulty. Over 90% of respondents perceived relief of at least one symptom. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older people have a higher frequency of antiretroviral self-medication, respondents who currently have a job had a higher frequency of penicillin self-medication, and that respondents from the Andes consumed less acetaminophen, while the ones from the rainforest consumed it more. There were significant percentages of self-medication, including drugs without sufficient scientific evidence. Age, region where one lived and job status were variables associated with self-medication frequency. Continuous awareness and sensitization about the risks of self-medication are warranted.

128 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview on the existing situation of the art of NLCs for future clinics is presented through exposition of their applications which shall foster their lucid use and the reported records evidently demonstrate the promise of N LCs for innovate therapeutic applications in the future.
Abstract: NLCs have provoked the incessant impulsion for the development of safe and valuable drug delivery systems owing to their exceptional physicochemical and then biocompatible characteristics. Throughout the earlier period, a lot of studies recounting NLCs based formulations have been noticeably increased. They are binary system which contains both solid and liquid lipids aiming to produce less ordered lipidic core. Their constituents particularly influence the physicochemical properties and effectiveness of the final product. NLCs can be fabricated by different techniques which are classified according to consumed energy. More utilization NLCs is essential due to overcome barriers surrounded by the technological procedure of lipid-based nanocarriers' formulation and increased information of the core mechanisms of their transport via various routes of administration. They can be used in different applications and by different routes such as oral, cutaneous, ocular and pulmonary. This review article seeks to present an overview on the existing situation of the art of NLCs for future clinics through exposition of their applications which shall foster their lucid use. The reported records evidently demonstrate the promise of NLCs for innovate therapeutic applications in the future.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study assessed the willingness of Middle Eastern Arab publics to receive COVID-19 vaccines and investigated the factors behind any reluctance to receive them, finding that only 25% of the participants were willing to receive a vaccine while 33% were hesitant.
Abstract: Background COVID-19 is a pacing pandemic that affected health systems, economy, and social life in the whole world. Currently, there is no treatment for it, but the world is in a race that yielded, in a relatively short time than usual, several approved, promising vaccines in the middle of a storm of debates because of the speed of their production and approval. Objective This study assessed the willingness of Middle Eastern Arab publics to receive COVID-19 vaccines and investigated the factors behind any reluctance to receive them. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed through social media applications in four Arab countries (Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and Iraq). Participants’ demographics, medical history, their experience with COVID-19, and their willingness to receive the available vaccines were obtained and analyzed. Results A total of 2,925 completed forms were included. Only 25% of the participants were willing to receive a vaccine while 33% were hesitant. Iraqis were the most willing to receive it while Jordanians were the least (35% and 17% of each country, respectively). Interestingly, 60% of the acceptors were ready to pay for the vaccine if not covered by governments. It was also found that American vaccines were preffered by 50% of the acceptors. However, 30% of acceptors were unsure of which vaccine is the best and 11% stated that any vaccine is good. Social media were the major source of information about COVID-19 and its vaccines. Finally, predictors of acceptance of the vaccines included living in Saudi Arabia and Iraq, being unmarried, having monthly income > $1,000, holding a medical degree, having high fear from COVID-19, feeling of being at risk of getting infected with COVID-19, and previous reception of influenza vaccine, whereas predictors of refusal included female sex and previous infection with COVID-19. Conclusion Middle Eastern Arabs are less likely to accept receiving the COVID-19 vaccines compared with non-Arabs. Health authorities in these countries are advised to intensify their awareness-raising activities about the vaccines while ensuring fair distribution of them.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of herbs and natural products merely because of the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly increased among Saudi populations and the distribution was not linked with any socio-demographic factors other than age.
Abstract: Considering that no food or supplement has been authorised to prevent COVID-19, individuals continue to search for and consume specific herbs, foods and commercial supplements for this purpose. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of using such alternatives, determine their usage reasons and evaluate their potential side effects. An online cross-sectional survey of 1,054 participants was conducted from 1 May to 31 July 2020 and focused on respondents' chronic disease histories, socio-demographic characteristics and frequency and trends of using these products. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and associations between various products used and respondents' socio-demographic data. Relationships were tested using Pearson's chi-square test or an exact probability test. The use of herbs and natural products merely because of the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly increased (p=0.036) among Saudi populations. The products included honey (84%), black seeds (63%), lemon (54%) and ginger (41%). Furthermore, the distribution of using herbs and natural products was not linked with any socio-demographic factors other than age. Among the population, 69.30% were aware that herbs can improve their immunity but will not protect them from COVID-19. Finally, the current study highlights the undesirable side effects associated with using herbs and natural products in patients with chronic disease and recommends future research to assess the undesirable effects of using herbs in patients with diabetes with a control group.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of different herbs and natural products that could act as memory enhancers and how they can be potentially utilized in the near future for the treatment of severe brain disorders is presented in this article.
Abstract: Memory, one of the most vital aspects of the human brain, is necessary for the effective survival of an individual. 'Memory' can be defined in various ways but in an overall view, memory is the retention of the information that the brain grasps. Different factors are responsible for the disbalance in the brain's hippocampus region and the acetylcholine level, which masters the memory and cognitive functions. Plants are a source of pharmacologically potent drug molecules of high efficacy. Recently herbal medicine has evolved rapidly, gaining great acceptance worldwide due to their natural origin and fewer side effects. In this review, the authors have discussed the mechanisms and pharmacological action of herbal bioactive compounds to boost memory. Moreover, this review presents an update of different herbs and natural products that could act as memory enhancers and how they can be potentially utilized in the near future for the treatment of severe brain disorders. In addition, the authors also discuss the differences in biological activity of the same herb and emphasize the requirement for a higher standardization in cultivation methods and plant processing. The demand for further studies evaluating the interactions of herbal drugs is mentioned.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review presented how system signals, either through G protein or via other players, independent of G protein, function within the biological system, and discussed drugs in the market or clinical trials targeting mainly GPCRs in various diseases, including cancer.
Abstract: All physiological events in living organisms originated as specific chemical/biochemical signals on the cell surface and transmitted into the cytoplasm. This signal is translated within milliseconds-hours to a specific and unique order required to maintain optimum performance and homeostasis of living organisms. Examples of daily biological functions include neuronal communication and neurotransmission in the process of learning and memory, secretion (hormones, sweat, and saliva), muscle contraction, cellular growth, differentiation and migration during wound healing, and immunity to fight infections. Among the different transducers for such life-dependent signals is the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs constitute roughly 800 genes, corresponding to 2% of the human genome. While GPCRs control a plethora of pathophysiological disorders, only approximately one-third of GPCR families have been deorphanized and characterized. Recent drug data show that around 40% of the recommended drugs available in the market target mainly GPCRs. In this review, we presented how such system signals, either through G protein or via other players, independent of G protein, function within the biological system. We also discussed drugs in the market or clinical trials targeting mainly GPCRs in various diseases, including cancer.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, four formulae (BNS1-BNS4) of butenafine (BTF) loaded nanosponges (NS) were fabricated by solvent emulsification technology, using different concentration of ethyl cellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a rate retarding polymer and surfactant, respectively.
Abstract: In the current study, four formulae (BNS1-BNS4) of butenafine (BTF) loaded nanosponges (NS) were fabricated by solvent emulsification technology, using different concentration of ethyl cellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a rate retarding polymer and surfactant, respectively. Prepared NS were characterized for particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). Nanocarrier BNS3 was optimized based on the particle characterizations and drug encapsulation. It was further evaluated for physicochemical characterizations; FTIR, DSC, XRD and SEM. Selected NS BNS3 composed of BTF (100 mg), EC (200 mg) and 0.3% of PVA showed, PS (543 ± 0.67 nm), PDI (0.330 ± 0.02), ZP (−33.8 ± 0.89 mV), %EE (71.3 ± 0.34%) and %DL (22.8 ± 0.67%), respectively. Fabricated NS also revealed; polymer-drug compatibility, drug-encapsulation, non-crystalline state of the drug in the spherical NS as per the physicochemical evaluations. Optimized NS (BNS3) with equivalent amount of (1%, w/w or w/v) BTF was incorporated into the (1%, w/w or w/v) carbopol gel. BTF loaded NS based gel was then evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, flux, drug diffusion, antifungal, stability and skin irritation studies. BNS3 based topical gels exhibited a flux rate of 0.18 (mg/cm2.h), drug diffusion of 89.90 ± 0.87% in 24 h with Higuchi model following anomalous non-Fickian drug release. The BNS3 based-gel could be effective against pathogenic fungal strains.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper was intended to prepare a complete review about the extraction techniques of Orthosiphon aristatus, EL and AP of these medicinal plants based on existing studies and scientific works.
Abstract: Medicinal plants have gained much interest in the prevention and treatment of common human disease such as cold and fever, hypertension and postpartum. Bioactive compounds from medicinal plants were synthesised using effective extraction methods which have important roles in the pharmaceutical product development. Orthosiphon aristatus (OA), Eurycoma longifolia (EL) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) are among popular medicinal herbs in Southeast Asia. The major compounds for these medicinal plants are polar bioactive compounds (rosmarinic acid, eurycomanone and andrographolide) which have multiple benefits to human health. The bioactive compounds are used as a drug to function against a variety of diseases with the support of scientific evidence. This paper was intended to prepare a complete review about the extraction techniques (e.g. OA, EL and AP) of these medicinal plants based on existing studies and scientific works. Suitable solvents and techniques to obtain their major bioactive compounds and their therapeutic potentials were discussed.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Psychological stress, technical issues in association with accessibility, inexperience and unpreparedness were found to be main barriers that limited student acceptance of e-learning.
Abstract: Background E-learning is a modern and flexible mode of education and is being used as an alternative to conventional mode of education during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However evidence suggests that effectiveness of e-learning is influenced by many prevailing factors. Methods A cross sectional study aimed to evaluate health care students' perception towards implementation of e-learning was conducted for a period of 4 months, from April 2020 to July 2020. Research instrument consisted of a self-designed, qualitative questionnaire with three domains was validated using field pretest method and administered among health care students of King Khalid University using social media platforms. Chi square test was used to estimate the effect of e-learning on various domains whereas linear regression analysis was used to find the association between subjects' characteristics to overall domain scores. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Among 254 respondents 59.8% were males and 96.5% respondents were staying with their families.10.2% reported medically imposed quarantine for one or more family members. 59.8% reported that the online classes were commenced too early. 63.4% of the respondents reported that they had no previous experience. Poor network connectivity (32.3%) and unawareness about online platforms (29.9%), poor audio/video qualities (26.3%) were found as major barriers. Psychological stress, discipline of study, living status and quarantine history had a remarkable impact on the effectiveness of online education. Conclusion Health care students are still cynical and are yet to embrace e-learning fully. Psychological distress, technical issues in association with accessibility, inexperience and unpreparedness were found to be main barriers that limited student acceptance of e-learning.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This literature review focuses on the potential of anthelmintics for repositioning in the treatment of cancers and discusses their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as antiparasitic drugs, proposed anticancer mechanisms, present development conditions, challenges in cancer therapy, and strategies to overcome these challenges.
Abstract: Drug repositioning is defined as a process to identify a new application for drugs. This approach is critical as it takes advantage of well-known pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity profiles of the drugs; thus, the chance of their future failure decreases, and the cost of their development and the required time for their approval are reduced. Anthelmintics, which are antiparasitic drugs, have recently demonstrated promising anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. This literature review focuses on the potential of anthelmintics for repositioning in the treatment of cancers. It also discusses their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as antiparasitic drugs, proposed anticancer mechanisms, present development conditions, challenges in cancer therapy, and strategies to overcome these challenges.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DH-loaded ERS ISG exhibited a potential use for localized periodontal drug delivery system for the treatment periodontitis and exhibited interesting in vitro degradability and antimicrobial activities.
Abstract: Polymeric material plays an important role as a matrix former in the modulation of drug release of antimicrobial-loaded in situ forming gel (ISG) for efficient periodontitis treatment. This study was conducted to compare three polymers, namely bleached shellac (BS), Ethocel (EC) and Eudragit RS (ERS), as matrix formers of doxycycline hyclate (DH)-loaded solvent exchange-induced ISG. All prepared ISGs, except 25% EC ISG, exhibited the Newtonian flow behaviour. Transformation from solution into matrix-like was achieved rapidly within 5 min. Increasing the amount of these polymers extended the release of DH. DH-loaded EC and ERS ISG systems exhibited high antimicrobial activity, and all ISGs were effective in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans. By comparison, the DH-loaded ERS ISG, through the solvent exchange mechanism, was found to be ease in injection with low viscosity and sustained the release with higher concentration, meanwhile, it also exhibited interesting in vitro degradability and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, the DH-loaded ERS ISG exhibited a potential use for localized periodontal drug delivery system for the treatment periodontitis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prepared apigenin loaded bilosomes was found to be an efficient delivery in the therapeutic efficacy in diabetes and showed significant enhancement in therapeutic efficacy than free AG-dispersion.
Abstract: Aim Diabetic (type-2) is a metabolic disease characterized by increased blood glucose level from the normal level. In the present study, apigenin (AG) loaded lipid vesicles (bilosomes: BIL) was prepared, optimized and evaluated for the oral therapeutic efficacy. Experimental AG-BIL was prepared by a thin-film evaporation method using cholesterol, span 60 and sodium deoxycholate. The prepared formulation was optimized by 3-factor and 3-level Box-Behnken design using particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug release as a response. The selected formulation further evaluated for ex-vivo permeation, in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics study. Results The optimized AG bilosomes (AG-BILopt) has shown the vesicle size 183.25 ± 2.43 nm, entrapment efficiency 81.67 ± 4.87%. TEM image showed a spherical shape vesicle with sharp boundaries. The drug release study revealed a significant enhancement in AG release (79.45 ± 4.18%) from AG-BILopt as compared to free AG-dispersion (25.47 ± 3.64%). The permeation and pharmacokinetic studies result revealed 4.49 times higher flux and 4.67 folds higher AUC0-t than free AG-dispersion. The antidiabetic activity results showed significant (P < 0.05) enhancement in therapeutic efficacy than free AG-dispersion. The results also showed marked improvement in biochemical parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggested, the prepared apigenin loaded bilosomes was found to be an efficient delivery in the therapeutic efficacy in diabetes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By modulating the P53 and ERα mRNA, naringenin has the potential of inhibiting BCSCs and would be beneficial for its development as a BCSC-targeting drug.
Abstract: Cancer therapy is a strategic measure in inhibiting breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) pathways. Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, was found to increase breast cancer cells' sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Bioinformatics study and 3D tumorsphere in vitro modeling in breast cancer (mammosphere) were used in this study, which aims to explore the potential therapeutic targets of naringenin (PTTNs) in inhibiting BCSCs. Bioinformatic analyses identified direct target proteins (DTPs), indirect target proteins (ITPs), naringenin-mediated proteins (NMPs), BCSC regulatory genes, and PTTNs. The PTTNs were further analyzed for gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, and hub protein selection. Mammospheres were cultured in serum-free media. The effects of naringenin were measured by MTT-based cytotoxicity, mammosphere forming potential (MFP), colony formation, scratch wound-healing assay, and flow cytometry-based cell cycle analyses and apoptosis assays. Gene expression analysis was performed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR). Bioinformatics analysis revealed p53 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) as PTTNs, and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that TGF-s and Wnt/s-catenin pathways are regulated by PTTNs. Naringenin demonstrated cytotoxicity and inhibited mammosphere and colony formation, migration, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mammosphere. The mRNA of tumor suppressors P53 and ERα were downregulated in the mammosphere, but were significantly upregulated upon naringenin treatment. By modulating the P53 and ERα mRNA, naringenin has the potential of inhibiting BCSCs. Further studies on the molecular mechanism and formulation of naringenin in BCSCs would be beneficial for its development as a BCSC-targeting drug.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: According to latest updates face shield and social distancing could be better substitute of face mask as mentioned in this paper, face mask could be risk for the people of under lying medical conditions, old age group, outdoor exercise, acute respiratory disorders and feeble innate immune.
Abstract: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a severe community health threat across the world. Covid-19 is a major illness, presently there is no as such any medicine and vaccine those can claim for complete treatment. It is spreading particularly in a feeble immune people and casualties are expanding abruptly and put the health system under strain. Among the strategic measures face mask is one of the most used measures to prevent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Wearing a face mask possibly create a false sense of security lead to decline others measures. Face mask could be risk for the people of under lying medical conditions, old age group, outdoor exercise, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and feeble innate immune. Restrictive airflow due to face mask is the main cause of retention of CO2 called hypercapnia that can lead to respiratory failure with symptoms of tachycardia, flushed skin, dizziness, papilledema, seizure and depression. According to latest updates face shield and social distancing could be better substitute of face mask.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a new paradigm shift in the clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 by rationalizing anti-inflammatory therapeutics, which would be the most judicious approach for significant reduction in COVID-19 mortality.
Abstract: Coronaviruses are non-segmented and single stranded positive-sense RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. To date, 06 human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are reported; α-CoVs (HCoVs-NL63 and HCoVs-229E) and β-CoVs (HCoVs-OC43, HCoVs-HKU1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV). While, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the most recent member. The genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is 82% similar to SARS-COV-1. The compelling evidences link the progression of viral infection of SARS-CoV-2 with excessive inflammation as a result of the exaggerated immune response and elevated production of "immunocytokines" resulting in cytokine storm (CS); followed by a series of events, like acute organ damage, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as death. Hence attempts to reduce cytokine storm are now being considered as a new paradigm shift in the clinical management of SARS-CoV-2. Tocilizumab (IL-6 blocker), Baricitinib (JAKs and AAK1 inhibitor), TNFα inhibitors (Infliximab, Adalimumab, Certolizumab) are currently being evaluated for possible block of the CS. Hence, rationalizing anti-inflammatory therapeutics would be the most judicious approach for significant reduction in COVID-19 mortality. In order to elucidate optimized and rationaled use of different therapeutics in COVID-19, we collated latest available information from emerging scientific evidences, integrated previous attempts as well as clinical successes, and various adopted approaches to mitigate past outbreaks with of SARS-CoV and MERS CoV.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored pharmacy students' perspective on its impact on their learning and highlighted several facilitators and barriers which affected their education during the lockdown, compared online education with on-site education, and provided suggestions for improving online education based on the learning experiences during lockdown.
Abstract: Introduction COVID-19 pandemic induced lockdown, suspending all on-campus educational activities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), compelling to continue the education online. We explored pharmacy students’ perspective on its impact on their learning. Methods A Twitter chat was organized on three consecutive days, after final examinations, inviting all pharmacy students in KSA to participate. Day 1 chat included 11 questions regarding learning and assessment, Day 2 chat included six questions about online examinations and six questions about technology use, Day 3 chat included six questions related to lessons learnt from the learning experiences during the lockdown. The questions were validated and piloted before the chat. The responses were copied, reviewed to remove any confidential information, and thematically analyzed by two teams of research students independently. Results During the three-day chat, 790 responses were received in total. Thematic analysis generated 944 codes which were categorized into 43 subthemes. These subthemes were further categorized into six main themes: ‘facilitators for online education’, ‘barriers for online education’, ‘online versus onsite education’, ‘role of technology in online education’, ‘suggestions for improving online education’ and ‘long-term impact of online education during lockdown’. Participants highlighted several facilitators and barriers which affected their education during the lockdown, compared online education with onsite education, and provided suggestions for improving online education based on their learning experiences during the lockdown. Conclusion As COVID-19 pandemic and its repercussions are expected to last longer, pharmacy colleges and academic staff will find these findings useful to prepare for the coming years, ensuring pedagogical and accreditation standards.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a nanoemulsion (NE) based in-situ gel of CZP for intranasal administration as an approach for bioavailability enhancement is presented.
Abstract: Limited solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism are the main causes of low bioavailability of anti-schizophrenic drug, Clozapine (CZP). The objective of the study was to develop and validate nanoemulsion (NE) based in-situ gel of CZP for intranasal administration as an approach for bioavailability enhancement. Solubility of CZP was initially investigated in different oils, surfactants and co-surfactants, then pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to select the optimized ratio of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Clear and transparent NE formulations were characterized in terms of droplet size, viscosity, solubilization capacity, transmission electron microscopy, in-vitro drug release and compatibility studies. Selected NEs were incorporated into different in-situ gel bases using combination of two thermosensitive polymers; Pluronic® F-127 (PF127) and F-68 (PF68). NE-based gels (NG) were investigated for gelation temperature, viscosity, gel strength, spreadability and stability. Moreover, selected NGs were evaluated for ex-vivo permeation, mucoadhesive strength and nasal ciliotoxicity. Peppermint oil, tween 80 and transcutol P were chosen for NE preparation owing to their maximum CZP solubilization. Clear NE points extrapolated from tween 80:transcutol P (1:1) phase diagram and passed dispersibility and stability tests, demonstrated globule size of 67.99 to 354.96 nm and zeta potential of -12.4 to -3.11 mV with enhanced in-vitro CZP release (more than 90% in some formulations). After incorporation of the selected N3 and N9 formulations of oil:Smix of 1:7 and 2:7, respectively to a mixture of PF127 and PF68 (20:2% w/w), the resultant NG formulations exhibited optimum gelation temperature and viscosity with enhanced CZP permeation and retention through sheep nasal mucosa. Ciliotoxicity examinations of the optimum NGs displayed no inflammation or damage of the lining epithelium and the underlying cells of the nasal mucosa. In conclusion, NE-based gels may be a promising dosage form of CZP for schizophrenia treatment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recommendations are to enhance the monitoring of food production prior to marketing and to educate people regarding the proper disposal of antibiotics.
Abstract: Residues of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in seafood products of Saudi Arabia were detected by using a simple, sensitive and rapid method via HPLC-PDA. The protein precipitation method that was used for sample extraction demonstrated high recoveries of OTC, TC and CTC. The limits of detection were 0.015 µg/g and 0.025,0.062 µg/g for all TCs in fish and shellfish, respectively. The limits of quantitation were 0.125 µg/g and 0.175 µg/g for all TCs in fish and shellfish, respectively. The method was precise and accurate since the RSD was less than 2%, while the % recovery was 95–105%. This study determined the occurrence of OTC, TC and CTC in seafood products that are sold in KSA’s markets. The overall occurrence of these three medications in 249 seafood products was 24%(n = 60), while 15%(n = 37) exceeded the MRL. Thus, our recommendations are to enhance the monitoring of food production prior to marketing and to educate people regarding the proper disposal of antibiotics.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Fisetin against streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) in rats involves regulating cardiac metabolism and suppressing protein kinase R (PKR).
Abstract: This study examined if the Fisetin against streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) in rats involves regulating cardiac metabolism and suppressing protein kinase R (PKR). Male rats were divided (12/groups) as control (non-diabetic), control + Fisetin, T1DM, and T1DM + Fisetin. Fisetin was administered orally at a final dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 12 weeks. In T1DM1-induced rats, Fisetin prevented heart and final body weights loss, lowered circulatory levels troponin I and creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB), increased fasting insulin levels, and improved ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. It also preserved the structure of the cardiomyocytes and reduced oxidative stress, fibrosis, protein levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), collagenase 1A, caspase-3, and the activation of JNK, p53, and p38 MAPK. In the control and diabetic rats, Fisetin attenuated fasting hyperglycaemia, the increases in glucose levels after the oral and insulin tolerance tests, and HOMA-IR. It also increased cardiac glucose oxidation by increasing the activity of private dehydrogenase (PDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK), protein levels of PPAR-α and suppressed cardiac inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB. These effects were associated with a reduction in the activity of PKR and subsequent increase in the activity of eeukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) with a parallel increase in protein levels of p67, a cellular inhibitor of PKR. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Fisetin, prevented high glucose (HG)-induced activation of PKR and reduction in p67, in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of Fisetin on PKR was diminished in LG and HG-treated cardiomyocytes with p67-siRNA. In conclusion, Fisetin protects against DC in rats by improving cardiac glucose metabolism and suppressing PKR.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Clu/HPβCD inclusion complex triggered reactive oxygen species-mediated cytotoxicity in HT29 cells, and the presence of HPβCD seems to aid the anticancer activity of clausenidin.
Abstract: The long-term objective of the present study was to prepare, physicochemically characterize and determine the anticancer of clausenidin/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Clu/HPβCD) inclusion complex. We used differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometer, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance followed by in vitro anticancer assays. The orientation and intermolecular interactions of Clausenidin within cyclodextrin cavity were also ascertained by molecular docking simulation accomplished by AutoDock Vina. The guest molecule was welcomed by the hydrophobic cavity of the host molecule and sustained by hydrogen bond between host/guest molecules. The constant drug release with time, and increased solubility were found after successful complexation with HPβCD as confirmed by physicochemical characterizations. Clausenidin had greater cytotoxic effect on colon cancer HT29 cells when incorporated into HPβCD cavity than dissolved in DMSO. Also, from a comparison of cell viability between normal and cancer cells, a reduced side effect was observed. The Clu/HPβCD inclusion complex triggered reactive oxygen species-mediated cytotoxicity in HT29 cells. The inclusion complex-treated HT29 cells showed cell cycle arrest and death by apoptosis associated with caspases activation. The presence of HPβCD seems to aid the anticancer activity of clausenidin.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mechanistic insight on anticancer efficacies of K. lappacea extracts against MCF-7 cells is provided and support the use of it for the treatment of breast cancer diseases is supported.
Abstract: Breast cancer is a growing health issue globally and accounts as a second most cause of mortality Natural products have been a fundamental of health care for long Plants derived natural products have gained considerable attention over synthetic medicines, since they are safe and non-toxic Krameria lappacea (Dombey) Burdet and BB Simpson plant belonging to Krameriaceae family, has been known for its beneficial effects against diseases Herein, firstly, cytotoxic potential of petroleum ether (KLH), chloroform (KLC), ethyl acetate (KLEA), and ethanolic (KLET) extracts of K lappacea was screened against MCF-7 cells exposed to 10–1000 μg/mL for 24 h Secondly, the most cytotoxic extract (KLH) was used to explore the mechanisms of cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells MCF-7 cells were treated with KLH at 250–1000 μg/mL to measure the oxidative stress markers (glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation Further, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase-3 and -9 enzyme activities were studied The viability of MCF-7 cells were decreased from 44% to 90% for KLH, from 7% to 71% for KLEA, from 39% to 80% for KLC, and from 3% to 81% for KLET, respectively at 250–1000 μg/mL as observed by MTT assay An increase of 91% in LPO and 22-fold in ROS generation and a decrease of 59% in GSH and 68% in MMP levels at 1000 μg/mL showed that KLH induced MCF-7 cell death via oxidative stress and elevated level of ROS generation which further leads to mitochondrial membrane dysfunction and activation of caspase enzymes The findings of this study provide a mechanistic insight on anticancer efficacies of K lappacea extracts against MCF-7 cells and support the use of it for the treatment of breast cancer diseases

Journal ArticleDOI
Zhi Zeng1, Rui Tian1, Jia Feng1, Nian-an Yang1, Lin Yuan1 
TL;DR: The chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of T. asiatica are comprehensively expounded in recent years in order to provide a reference for the related research and application of this medicinal material, which were carried out through a bibliometric search using the SCIE database, web of science, Google scholar and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and all that.
Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., belonging to Toddalia genus of Rutaceae family, is a folk medicine in China used for hundreds of years. The whole plant can be used as medicine, especially the root that used to be applied in the folk. In recent decades, with the in-depth research from domestic and foreign researchers, it has gradually been discovered that the chemical components in T. asiatica are mainly coumarins and alkaloids. Its pharmacological effects are manifested in anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hemostatic coagulation, anti-tumor, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, etc. It has a wide range of clinical applications and significant effects on rheumatism, pain, wound bleeding, and bruises. Due to its important research value, in this article, the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of T. asiatica are comprehensively expounded in recent years in order to provide a reference for the related research and application of this medicinal material, which were carried out through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index- Expanded (SCIE) database, web of science, Google scholar and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and all that.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed propolis and tea tree oil nanoemulsion loaded with clindamycin hydrochloride to heal wound effectively, which was evaluated in terms of morphology, cytotoxicity, and in-vitro wound healing.
Abstract: This study aimed to develop propolis and tea tree oil nanoemulsion loaded with clindamycin hydrochloride to heal wound effectively. Nanoemulsion formulae were prepared and characterized by droplet size analysis, zeta potential, viscosity, ex-vivo permeation, and skin deposition. The optimal formula was evaluated in terms of morphology, cytotoxicity, and in-vitro wound healing assay. Also, the efficacy of the optimal formula was evaluated by in-vivo wound healing and histopathological studies. The optimal formula (F3) was composed of 9% tea tree oil and 0.4% propolis extracts with mean droplet size 19.42± 1.7 nm, zeta potential value -24.5± 0.2 mV, and viscosity 69.4±1.8 mP. Furthermore, the optimal formula showed the highest skin deposition value 550.00±4.9 µg/cm2 compared to other formulae. The TEM micrograph of the optimal formula showed that the nanoemulsion droplet has an almost spherical shape. Also, the optimal formula did not show noticeable toxicity to the human skin fibroblast cells. The in-vitro and in-vivo wound healing assay showed unexpected results that the un-loaded drug nanoemulsion formula had a comparable wound healing efficacy to the drug-loaded nanoemulsion formula. These results were confirmed with histopathological studies. Our results showed that the propolis and tea tree oil nanoemulsion, whether loaded or unloaded with an antibiotic, is an efficient local therapy for wound healing.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated governmental hospital pharmacists' knowledge, perception, and self-confidence toward pharmacogenetics testing in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and found that the majority expressed a high level of awareness and agreed that PGx testing is a valuable tool for enhancing drug efficacy and safety.
Abstract: Background Integrating pharmacogenetics (PGx) testing into clinical practice leads to personalized medicine, which improves treatments’ efficacy and safety. Successful implementation of such a service requires sufficient knowledge, perception, and self-confidence among healthcare providers, especially pharmacists. Objectives To evaluate governmental hospital pharmacists’ knowledge, perception, and self-confidence toward PGx testing in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted using previously validated questionnaire. Pharmacists working in five randomly selected general governmental hospitals in Jeddah between August and October 2019 were interviewed. Comparative and descriptive analyses were used to analyze the data, and the significance level was at P-value Results A total of 119 pharmacists with a mean (±SD) age of 31.2 (±5.05) years were included with a response rate of 79.3%. The average total mean (±SD) score for PGx knowledge-based questions was low (2.4 ± 1.09 out of 5). Most of the participants, with a total mean score of (10.1 ± 1.6 out of 12), revealed a positive perception toward PGx testing and its implications. A moderate self-confidence score for utilizing PGx testing (4.3 ± 2.3 out of 8) was observed among the participants. Pharmacists who had completed postgraduate studies had a statistically higher mean knowledge score (P = 0.006) compared with pharmacists with undergraduate degrees. Conclusion Governmental hospital pharmacists have limited knowledge and understanding about PGx testing; however, the majority expressed a high level of awareness and agreed that PGx testing is a valuable tool for enhancing drug efficacy and safety. The study also highlighted the importance of improving pharmacists’ knowledge about PGx testing, which will help them in implementing such a valuable service into their clinical practice in Saudi hospitals.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a non-alcoholic hand sanitizer containing benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as an active ingredient was prepared and evaluated as a less irritant and more persistent hand sprayer gel.
Abstract: Hand hygiene is one of the effective measures for reducing the transmission of infections. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing ethanol or isopropanol are considered efficient alternatives to handwashing with water and soap. Despite being effective against a broad-spectrum of microbes, fining an effective alternative to the alcohol-based hand sanitizers became a necessity owning to the limitations associated with their use, such as skin dryness, irritant contact dermatitis, and intoxication upon their accidental ingestion. Furthermore, in certain circumstances when the demand for alcohol exceeds the supply, like in the current COVID19 pandemic, formulating an effective non-alcoholic hand sanitizer would be a potential solution. Therefore, in this study, a non-alcoholic hand sanitizer containing benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as an active ingredient was prepared and evaluated as a less irritant and more persistent hand sanitizer gel. The hand gel was characterized by pH, viscosity, and spreadability. Results showed that this product has low viscosity, high spreadability and pH of 6.3, which is less likely to cause skin irritation. The antibacterial assessment (zone of inhibition) of the BKC-based hand sanitizer demonstrated antibacterial activities against nine out of eleven gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains, while the acceptability study on ten participants showed no signs of skin irritation nor redness upon its application. Consequently, this non-alcoholic based hand sanitizer is suggested as a potential alternative to alcohol-based hand gels.

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TL;DR: The Saudi Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SSCP) is a scientific and professional society in the field of clinical pharmacacy that operates under the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties governance.
Abstract: The Saudi Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SSCP) is a scientific and professional society in the field of clinical pharmacy that operates under the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties governance. The SSCP believes that there is a need to define and describe many aspects related to the clinical pharmacy profession in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, there is an increasing demand for promoting the concept of clinical pharmacy and developing a consensus regarding the scope of practice and clinical pharmacist's required postgraduate education and training in Saudi Arabia. This paper is intended to present several position statements by the SSCP that define the concept of clinical pharmacy, describe the required education and training, and highlight clinical pharmacists' scope of practice in Saudi Arabia. This paper calls for further investigations that examine the impact of clinical pharmacists on individual and population health levels.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an ethnopharmacological study aiming to identify, document and analyze aromatic and medicinal plants used in Algerian traditional medicines for thyroid disorders management was conducted in eleven locations in Algeria throughout field studies achieved from June 2017 to July 2019.
Abstract: Traditional medicine is gaining an increasing importance in diseases management. Besides, thyroid disease is one of the common endocrine disorders spreading at high frequency worldwide. The present work is an ethnopharmacological study aiming to identify, document and analyze aromatic and medicinal plants used in Algerian traditional medicines for thyroid disorders management. Semi-structured interviews with 120 herbalists and traditional practitioners and rural dwellers were realized in eleven locations in Algeria throughout field studies achieved from June 2017 to July 2019. Results reveal the use of 63 medicinal plants belonging to 59 genera and 34 families. The most represented botanical families were Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Asteraceae. However, the most cited plant species were Atriplex halimus L., Bunium incrassatum (Boiss.) Amo, Nigella sativa L., Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. and Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. These species are taken alone or in mixtures of two or more ingredients from different origins such as honey, olive oil, and goat milk. Our findings revealed new therapeutic uses of 60 medicinal plants that have not been previously reported for the treatment of thyroid in Algeria. This is the first study documenting the traditional uses based on herbal medicine for thyroid management in Algeria. Our findings are relevant in the search for novel drug discovery. Obviously, it is the time to increase effective scientific studies on mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants in order to validate their popular usages.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomum bark extract against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats was investigated.
Abstract: Anti-tumour efficacy of doxorubicin is hindered by the cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity induced by reactive oxygen species during its metabolism. As Cinnamomum zeylanicum has proven antioxidant potential, objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomum bark extract against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. Physicochemical and phytochemical analysis was carried out and dose response effect and the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomum were determined in vivo. 180 mg/kg dexrazoxane was used as the positive control. Plant extracts were free of heavy metals and toxic phytoconstituents. In vivo study carried out in Wistar rats revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cardiac troponin I, NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide, AST and LDH concentrations in the doxorubicin control group (18 mg/kg) compared to the normal control. Rats pre-treated with the optimum dosage of Cinnmamomum (2.0 g/kg) showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in all above parameters compared to the doxorubicin control. A significant reduction was observed in the total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity while the lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly increased in the doxorubicin control group compared to the normal control (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with Cinnamomum bark showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity and significant increase in rest of the parameters compared to the doxorubicin control (p < 0.05). Histopathological analysis revealed a preserved appearance of the myocardium and lesser degree of cellular changes of necrosis in rats pre-treated with Cinnamomum extract. In conclusion, Cinnamomum bark extract has the potential to significantly reduce doxorubicin induced oxidative stress and inflammation in Wistar rats.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the principle goal of the present work is to assess the kidney damage by Acetaminophen (APAP) and its restore antioxidative property of cinnamon oil (CO).
Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) is used as a primary medication in relieving moderate pain and fever. However, APAP is associated with toxic effects in renal tissue that appear because of its free radicals property. The principle goal of the present work is to assess the kidney damage by APAP and its restore antioxidative property of cinnamon oil (CO). Animals were distributed into six animals each in six groups. Rats were administered with three varying doses of CO from 50 to 200 mg/kg b.w. respectively and only a single dose of APAP. APAP induced an alteration in serum biochemical markers, imbalance in oxidative parameters, morphological changes in kidney tissue along with increased interleukins cytokines (IL-1β & 6) and caspase (3, 9) levels. CO administration significantly ameliorates all the parameters and histopathological changes were restored. Moreover, it also restored the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Our work proved that an variance of oxidative markers in the kidney by APAP is ameliorated by CO in rats. Thus, CO could be used in reducing APAP-induced nephrotoxicity.