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JournalISSN: 1059-9630

Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Coating & Thermal spraying. It has an ISSN identifier of 1059-9630. Over the lifetime, 3093 publications have been published receiving 78576 citations. The journal is also known as: Thermal spray technology.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, thin thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for protecting aircraft turbine-section airfoils are examined, focusing on those advances that led first to TBC use for component life extension and more re-cently as an integral part of airfoil design.
Abstract: Thin thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to TBC use for component life extension and more re-cently as an integral part of airfoil design. Development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing, corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been sup-ported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors that have led to the selection of current state-of-the-art plasma-sprayed and physical-vapor-deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlX TBCs are emphasized, as are observations fundamentally related to their behav-ior. Current directions in research into TBCs and recent progress at NASA are also noted.

762 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an analytical model of the cold-spray process is presented, where analytical equations are solved to predict the spray particle velocities, demonstrating the interaction between the numerous geometric and material properties.
Abstract: This paper presents an analytical model of the cold-spray process. By assuming a one-dimensional isentropic flow and constant gas properties, analytical equations are solved to predict the spray particle velocities. The solutions demonstrate the interaction between the numerous geometric and material properties. The analytical results allow determination of an optimal design for a cold-spray nozzle. The spray particle velocity is determined to be a strong function of the gas properties, particle material density, and size. It is also shown that the system performance is sensitive to the nozzle length, but not sensitive to the nozzle shape. Thus, it is often possible to use one nozzle design for a variety of operational conditions. Many of the results obtained in this article are also directly applicable to other thermal spray processes.

549 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive spray tests were performed for detailed analyses of the cold spray process, and the modeling of the gas and particle flow field for different nozzle geometries and process parameters in correlation with the results of the experiments reveal that adhesion only occurs when the powder particles exceed a critical impact velocity that is specific to the spray material.
Abstract: In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive spray tests were performed for detailed analyses of the cold spray process. The modeling of the gas and particle flow field for different nozzle geometries and process parameters in correlation with the results of the experiments reveal that adhesion only occurs when the powder particles exceed a critical impact velocity that is specific to the spray material. For spherical copper powder with low oxygen content, the critical velocity was determined to be about 570 m/s. With nitrogen as the process gas and particle grain sizes from 5–25 µm, deposition efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved. The cold sprayed coatings show negligible porosity and oxygen contents comparable to the initial powder feedstock. Therefore, properties such as the electrical conductivity at room temperature correspond to those of the bulk material. The methods presented here can also be applied to develop strategies for cold spraying of other materials such as zinc, stainless steel, or nickel-based super-alloys.

540 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors summarized the state of the art in these theoretical studies, alongside a comprehensive description of the process, and also discussed the prediction of coating properties in the light of modeling combined with experimental investigations.
Abstract: In conventional thermal spraying, the spray particles are partially or fully molten when they deposit on the substrate. Cold spraying, in contrast, uses less thermal and more kinetic energy. In this process, solid particles impact on the substrate at high velocities and form excellent coatings. Due to comparatively low temperatures and typically inert process gases, cold spraying is particularly suitable for heat and oxidation sensitive materials. In recent years, modeling and computational methods have been widely used to study this relatively new spraying process, particularly to describe impact conditions of particles, to improve nozzle design, and to provide a better understanding of the thermo-mechanical processes that lead to particle bonding and deposition. This paper summarizes the state of the art in these theoretical studies, alongside a comprehensive description of the process. The paper also discusses the prediction of coating properties in the light of modeling combined with experimental investigations.

463 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main experimental techniques for measurement of residual stresse are briefly described, with particular attention given to the method of continuous curvature monitoring, and relationships are presented between residual stresses and corresponding strain energy release rates during interfacial debonding.
Abstract: An overview is presented of the development of residual stresses in thermal spray coatings and their ef-fects on interfacial debonding. The main experimental techniques for measurement of residual stresse are briefly described, with particular attention given to the method of continuous curvature monitoring. Boundary conditions satisfied by all residual stress distributions are identified and expressions derived for the curvatures and stress distributions arising from a uniform misfit strain between coating and sub-strate.It is noted that stress distributions in thick coatings rarely correspond to the imposition of such a uniform misfit strain, so that recourse to numerical methods becomes essential for quantitative predic-tion of stress distributions. Relationships are presented between residual stresses and corresponding strain energy release rates during interfacial debonding. The effect on this of superimposing stresses from an externally applied load is outlined. The initiation of debonding is then considered, covering edge effects and other geometrical considerations. Finally, some specific case histories are briefly outlined to illustrate how the various theoretical concepts involved relate to industrial practice.

445 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2023107
2022233
2021162
2020154
2019144
2018129