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Showing papers in "Journal of Urban Affairs in 2003"


Journal ArticleDOI
Kayo Tajima1
TL;DR: The city of Boston has sponsored the most expensive urban infrastructure project in history as mentioned in this paper, which is the largest infrastructure investment in urban areas in history, and has attracted millions of tourists.
Abstract: Parks and open spaces enhance the quality of life in urban areas. Over the last 15 years, the city of Boston has sponsored the most expensive urban infrastructure project in history. This project r...

200 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze urban politics through the lens of the social constructionist approach to scale, which views scale not as a set of pre-given, natural, and immutable levels upo...
Abstract: This article seeks to analyze urban politics through the lens of the social constructionist approach to scale. This approach views scale not as a set of pre-given, natural, and immutable levels upo...

170 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the HOPE VI program, deteriorated structures housing some of the poorest families in our society are being demolished and replaced by low-rise, mixed-income developments as discussed by the authors, and some of these structures have been identified as being unsafe.
Abstract: :In HUD’s HOPE VI program, deteriorated structures housing some of the poorest families in our society are being demolished and replaced by low-rise, mixed-income developments. Some of the ...

116 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the role of geographic information systems used by neighborhood organizations in their planning and revitalization efforts in US inner cities is examined, and the use of GIS is related to the work presented in this paper.
Abstract: In this article, we examine the role of geographic information systems used by neighborhood organizations in their planning and revitalization efforts in US inner cities. The use of GIS is related ...

105 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Geographers in urban studies have long been an interdisciplinary field, drawing from, among other disciplines, anthropology, geography, history, planning, political science, and sociology as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Urban studies has long been an interdisciplinary field, drawing from, among other disciplines, anthropology, geography, history, planning, political science, and sociology. Geographers in urban stu...

99 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study used logistic regression to analyze data from the Philadelphia Neighborhood Information System in order to determine which properties were most likely to become imminently dangerous.
Abstract: :Several large US cities, including Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and Philadelphia, have developed information systems to distribute property-level housing data to community organizations and municipal agencies. These early warning systems are also intended to predict which properties are at greatest risk of abandonment, but they have rarely used statistical modeling to support such forecasts. This study used logistic regression to analyze data from the Philadelphia Neighborhood Information System in order to determine which properties were most likely to become imminently dangerous. Several different characteristics of the property, including whether it was vacant, had outstanding housing code violations, and tax arrearages as well as characteristics of nearby properties were identified as significant predictors. Challenges common to the development of early warning systems—including integrating administrative data, defining abandonment, and modeling temporal and spatial data—are discussed alon...

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the differences in rates of homelessness across metropolitan contexts and provided tentative answers to this question due to their reliance on a limited range of setting conditions and conditions.
Abstract: Why do rates of homelessness differ across metropolitan contexts? Only tentative answers to this question are provided by previous investigations due to their reliance on a limited range of setting...

94 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors compare and contrast urban regeneration partnerships in the UK with urban regimes in the US, and find that regime theory neither describes nor explains the contrast between the two countries' urban regeneration strategies.
Abstract: This study compares and contrasts urban regeneration partnerships in the UK with urban regimes in the US. Regime theory, as developed by Elkin and Stone, neither describes nor explains the contrast...

93 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the role of racial profiling in the property insurance industry and how such practices can be used in the context of property insurance and how to apply them in the real estate domain.
Abstract: Racial profiling has emerged as a highly contentious practice in a range of social settings. This article examines the role of racial profiling in the property insurance industry and how such pract...

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Medical and higher education institutions have become centerpieces of urban economies, employing large numbers, purchasing goods and services, and anchoring neighborhoods by their land investments as mentioned in this paper, and have become the backbone of many cities.
Abstract: Medical and higher education institutions have become centerpieces of urban economies, employing large numbers, purchasing goods and services, and anchoring neighborhoods by their land investments....

83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors presents an agenda for research that allows for the engagement of economic questions in a way that enhances the strength of urban regime theory vis-a-vis economic determinist theories of urban politics.
Abstract: Urban regime theory rightfully reigns as the dominant paradigm in the analysis of local governance. Nevertheless, regime theory has been hampered by its failure to engage economic questions in a sustained and systematic way, leaving it limited in both empirical and prescriptive terms. This article presents an agenda for research that allows for the engagement of economic questions in a way that enhances the strength of urban regime theory vis-a-vis economic determinist theories of urban politics. It then sketches some possible paths this research might take, with most of the attention given to developing the rudiments of a new alternative economics for regime theory. It also illustrates how this new alternative economic paradigm can potentially generate the conditions necessary for bringing about a fundamental reconstruction of urban regimes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the social production of urban governance in Sydney, Australia, specifically examining the city's changing scalar context and scale politics, and suggest that scale-sensitive regime analyses can make important contributions to theoretical development concerning the multiscalar complexities of governance.
Abstract: Critiques of urban regime theory suggest the need for a more nuanced approach to the tangled scalar geographies that constitute urban governance. This article moves towards such an approach by adopting urban regime theory's focus on urban politics but conducts its analyses through a multiscalar lens. It demonstrates how processes operating across multiple scales intersect in the production of local governance. The article focuses on the social production of urban governance in Sydney, Australia, specifically examining the city's changing scalar context and scale politics. It suggests that scale-sensitive regime analyses can make important contributions to theoretical development concerning the multiscalar complexities of governance.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that the influence of globalization does not lie in the quantity of foreign investment, but in the catalytic effect brought about by foreign investment and foreign trade, and they provided a vivid case for understanding local responses to globalization.
Abstract: Globalization, rather than being a definite outcome, is a political discourse embedded in a complicated process. The perception of the coming global era casts a shadow on economies that are under market transition. Shanghai, the largest city in China, provides a vivid case for understanding local responses to globalization. The city has seen unprecedented growth in foreign investment and foreign trade since the adoption of the open door policy in 1978. The key argument of this article is that the influence of globalization does not lie in the quantity of foreign investment but in the catalytic effect brought about by foreign investment and foreign trade.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between entrepreneurship and upward mobility has been studied by scholars and policy makers, particularly as it pertains to the poor, minority group members as discussed by the authors, in the context of minority groups.
Abstract: Increasingly, scholars and policy makers have become interested in the relationship between entrepreneurship and upward mobility, particularly as it pertains to the poor, minority group members, an...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the prominent growth discourse that today characterizes Midwest rust belt cities and investigates how these Midwest coalitions construct their two central themes: an accelerated city competition in new global times and the need for leadership by entrepreneurial-minded developers.
Abstract: :This article examines the prominent growth discourse that today characterizes Midwest rust belt cities. We extend present work on this topic by investigating how these Midwest coalitions construct their two central themes: an accelerated city competition in new global times and the need for leadership by entrepreneurial-minded developers. Our study of St. Louis, Indianapolis, and Cleveland looks at the key ingredients found in these discourses, and show how they are used to legitimate the urban redevelopment plans promoted by growth coalitions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A three-year historical and comparative case study of community development corporations involved in the Toledo Community Organizing Training and Technical Assistance Program shows the challenges faced by CDCs attempting to combine organizing and development as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: : Can community organizing and community development be practiced in combination through community development corporations (CDCs)? While community organizing and community development have complementary goals, they are based on potentially contradictory worldviews and occupy potentially contradictory social structural locations. Whether the two strategies can be combined in a single organization without causing severe disruption is questionable. A three-year historical and comparative case study of CDCs involved in the Toledo Community Organizing Training and Technical Assistance Program shows the challenges faced by CDCs attempting to combine organizing and development. The analysis traces changes in the program and the CDCs through honeymoon, conflict, and resolution stages. Of the three CDCs that began the program, one dropped out early, another continued organizing as long as the program continued but then ended its organizing efforts, and a third continued its organizing efforts. The analysis confirms the dialectical relationship between community organizing and community development, showing how the two continuing CDCs differed in their contradictive management strategies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: State government possesses the resources and authority to directly shape urban education policy but regime theorists understate the roles governors, state legislatures, and other state actors play in urban education as discussed by the authors...
Abstract: State government possesses the resources and authority to directly shape urban education policy but regime theorists understate the roles governors, state legislatures, and other state actors play ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors re-examine the dualist theory of public and private sector providers of public services and argue that a political response is as likely to be exhibited by for-profit providers who should be the most free-market oriented, as nonprofit organizations.
Abstract: In this article we re-examine the dualist theory of public and private sector providers of public services. While this theory holds that private sector providers exhibit a behavior substantively different from those of the public sector, i.e., they respond to external pressures with market-oriented behavior instead of political behavior, we argue that these actors actually can and often do respond in a political manner. Furthermore, we argue that a political response is as likely to be exhibited by for-profit providers, who should be the most free-market oriented, as nonprofit organizations. We provide evidence for our proposition drawn from our study of the behavior of charter schools, market-based providers of public education, and charter school advocates in the District of Columbia and find that when faced with numerous challenges, charters responded by lobbying government for assistance instead of competing in the market place. We conclude that the line of demarcation between the behavior of public and private sector providers is actually quite blurred and when faced with similar problems in the delivery of public services, both forms of providers will respond in a similar manner.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a historical review of the role of local government and then examine two theoretical interpretations, the public choice and political economy perspectives, in explaining Houston's governance and public policy directions.
Abstract: :The article explores the political and social forces that have shaped local governance in Houston. This research will present a historical review of the role of local government and then examine two theoretical interpretations, the public choice and political economy perspectives, in explaining Houston’s governance and public policy directions. The work will also show that recent events in Houston that might initially appear to contradict the city’s historical development practices, such as greater ethnic sensitivity and increasing concern for the environment, have in no way challenged the city’s pro-growth agenda. The new directions in Houston’s policy are simply a reflection of a different growth strategy reflecting changing demographics in the city and the new reality of Houston’s diversifying economy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a general context of state reforms, there is an emerging consensus on the strategic role of city-regions in the global economy as mentioned in this paper, and as such, state-led regional reform should be considered.
Abstract: In a general context of state reforms, there is an emerging consensus on the strategic role of city-regions in the global economy. As it is the case in other city-regions, state-led regional reform...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors draw on leading theories about the structural causes of racial inequality in the US to investigate inter-metropolitan differences in white and black per capita income, and find that the differences in the two groups are correlated.
Abstract: :We draw on leading theories about the structural causes of racial inequality in the US to investigate inter-metropolitan differences in white and black per capita income. The analysis, whi...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the factors that contribute to managerial innovation in municipal governments in Wisconsin, as perceived by council members in their respective communities, and demonstrate that the credibility of executives and board-staff relationships is an important determinant of innovative behavior in local government.
Abstract: Municipal governments have been elevated to a new status in the American federal system due to devolution of federal and state responsibilities to the local level and the widespread recognition that they are the governments most capable of innovative behavior. While we know that local governments are likely to engage in innovation, we do not know what contributes to the perceived success or failure of those innovations. The central focus of this article is to explore the factors that contribute to managerial innovation in municipal governments in Wisconsin, as perceived by council members in their respective communities. Using multiple regression procedures we determine that managerial leadership and policy board-administrative relations explain a significant amount of variation for innovations dealing with privatization, customer service, and strategic planning. We demonstrate that the credibility of executives and board-staff relationships is an important determinant of innovative behavior in local government.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the public choice and NIMBY explanations as well as other factors emerging from the research as obstacles to regional housing solutions, concluding that in all cases, regional solutions are either absent or ineffective.
Abstract: : Studies of regionalism continue to appear in the scholarly literature. Research specifically on regional housing policies, however, appears far less frequently, most likely a reflection of the absence of regional housing initiatives in practice. Two leading explanations for the lack of regional housing solutions include: 1) intercity competition as asserted by public choice theorists; and 2) NIMBY attitudes expressed by community residents. This research uses a multiple case study design to examine the development of regionalism, and the status of regional housing efforts, in the Portland, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Louisville, and New Orleans metropolitan areas. We examine the public choice and NIMBY explanations as well as other factors emerging from the research as obstacles to regional housing solutions. The results indicate that regionalism varies in degree across the four study areas. However, in all cases, regional housing solutions are either absent or ineffective. Our data do not strongly support the public choice hypothesis, but do provide evidence that NIMBY attitudes about race and growth are barriers to regional housing policies. Furthermore, context-specific circumstances, such as population characteristics and health of the regional economy, result in dominance of economic development in approaches to regionalism. The article concludes with implications based on the findings.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comparison of recent experiences of regionalism in Italy and England is made, focusing on conflicts that have crystallized around contrasting efforts discursively to construct regional and city-regional identities.
Abstract: In recent years, extensive academic effort has been devoted to interpreting the scalar turn in political and economic geography. This has involved considerable emphasis on the interrelationships across institutions at different spatial scales, stemming from the globalization of economic activity and associated regulatory structures, and the related rescaling of state economic functions to a variety of sub-national institutional entities. This article attempts to augment this work by addressing recognized uncertainties about the dynamics of this process of rescaling, manifested through conflict over the precise configuration of sub-national scalar boundaries. Through a comparison of recent experiences of regionalism in Italy and England, it considers the tensions implicit in the new regionalist territorial settlement, focusing on conflicts that have crystallized around contrasting efforts discursively to construct regional and city-regional identities. In conclusion, the article revisits the validity and utility of contested conceptualizations of resurgent (city) regionalism and considers the possible trajectory of future change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the intersection between local priorities to become a high-tech haven and how local policies affect the locational decisions of high-technology industry is discussed, and the authors compare the relat...
Abstract: This study addresses the intersection between local priorities to become a high-tech haven and how local policies affect the locational decisions of high-tech industry. The study compares the relat...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors presented a case study of the rise and fall of Eastside Community Investments (ECI) of Indianapolis, Indiana, one of the largest, best known, and highly regarded community development co...
Abstract: This article presents a case study of the rise and fall of Eastside Community Investments (ECI) of Indianapolis, Indiana—one of the largest, best known, and highly regarded community development co...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined the extent to which neighborhoods within the Chicago metropolitan area have obtained significant levels of income and racial diversity in home buying and maintained such diversity over the 1990s, finding that changes in home-buying patterns are significant contributors to neighborhood racial change.
Abstract: :In recent years, there has been continued interest in prospects for the development and sustainability of both mixed-income and racially diverse communities. We examine an important contributor to racial and economic diversity and segregation—the geographic patterns of homebuyers. In particular, we examine the extent to which neighborhoods within the Chicago metropolitan area have obtained significant levels of income and racial diversity in home buying and maintained such diversity over the 1990s. We analyze the racial and income composition of homebuyers by census tract for two periods: 1993 to 1994 and 1999 to 2000. First, by comparing changes in home buying to 1990 to 2000 changes in cross-sectional census data, we find that changes in home-buying patterns are significant contributors to neighborhood racial change. We then find a significant decline in the proportion of whites buying into neighborhoods where nearly all buyers are white. The policy implications of our findings are described an...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the impact of a mayor's ideology in shaping the political consciousness of prominent actors associated with community development and revitalizing distressed neighborhoods, concluding that Goldsmith's mixture of populist rhetoric and progressive behavior produced a contradictory consciousness among community leaders, some developed a populist distrust of government while others came to insist on aggressive government intervention as the key to neighborhood revitalization.
Abstract: This article examines the impact of a mayor's ideology in shaping the political consciousness of prominent actors associated with community development and revitalizing distressed neighborhoods. Deviating from the pragmatic approaches to governing of many other recent mayors, Mayor Stephen Goldsmith of Indianapolis advocated a populist ideology based on limited government and citizen empowerment. Close inspection of Goldsmith's community development policies, however, reveals a surprisingly extensive deployment of public power and resources along with efforts to empower neighborhood organizations. Goldsmith's mixture of populist rhetoric and progressive behavior produced a contradictory consciousness among community leaders. Although virtually all applauded the mayor's emphasis on popular empowerment, some developed a populist distrust of government while others came to insist on aggressive government intervention as the key to neighborhood revitalization. Such conflicted perceptions about the role of government have simultaneously inhibited revitalization efforts while laying a cultural foundation for future activism within Indianapolis's neighborhoods.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper used structural equations modeling to trace the total effect of these proximate determinants on births and the indirect effect of family cap, time on welfare, mother's age, and race.
Abstract: New Jersey's family cap policy was designed to encourage responsible childbearing among welfare recipients by placing an economic disincentive on births conceived while the mother was receiving welfare. In this study, we use data from an experiment conducted with 8,400 women from October 1992 to December 1996 to determine which of the proximate determinants (abortion, contraception, or family planning visits) are critical in women's decisions to give birth while on welfare. We use structural equations modeling to trace the total effect of these proximate determinants on births and the indirect effect of family cap, time on welfare, mother's age, and race. Our analysis shows that length of time on welfare, family cap limitations, and mother's race are indicative of distinctive patterns of proximate determinant use.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the reaction of communities to the development of telecom hotels in downtowns and find that communities need to plan for growth in telecommunications infrastructure and that tax incentives and regulatory limitations vary from tax incentives to regulatory limitations.
Abstract: :Telecommunications infrastructure is growing in importance across the United States. In the past, this infrastructure was largely invisible. Today, however, telecom hotels have emerged as a visible form of downtown infrastructure. This study explores the reaction of communities to the development of telecom hotels in downtowns. A few cities have formulated formal policy responses to telecom hotel development in downtown areas. The approaches vary from tax incentives to regulatory limitations. The findings indicate that communities need to plan for growth in telecommunications infrastructure.