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Showing papers in "Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior in 1970"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparisons of the performance of amnesic and control S s on immediate and delayed free recall, the Peterson short-term forgetting task, development of PI in STM, minimal paired-associate learning, digit span, and the Hebb repeated digit-sequence technique suggest that amnesics S s have normal STM but defective LTM.

715 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a model of the underlying processes is sketched which proposes that words of higher frequency are recognized sooner because their lexical entries are marked earlier for comparison against the stimulus information.

490 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Underwood, Waugh, and Greeno as discussed by the authors discussed the benefits of spaced practice in continuous paired-associate learning, short-term memory for individual items, and single-trial free-recall learning.

452 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the structural importance of linguistic units was shown to be related to their recall, and the linguistic units were then objectively ordered according to their importance to the structure of the larger prose passage.

395 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that mental imagery improves paired-associate (PA) learning relative to overt rehearsal, which might be due to increased reliability of stimulus encoding or to increased relational association produced by imagery, which supports the relational-organizing interpretation of imagery in opposition to the stimulus-distinctiveness or reliable-encoding explanations.

349 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of intentional forgetting is proposed that assumes Ss (a) organize the remember items into a grouping that functionally separates them from the forget items and (b) devote all rehearsal activities following the forget instruction to the remembering items.

308 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The question of whether items retrieved from primary memory (PM) are as well registered in memory as those retrieved from secondary memory (SM) was examined in a free-recall study.

288 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a U-shaped serialposition curve was found for the probability of recall for individual items in free-recall lists, with high probability for items being re-rehearse immediately prior to test.

280 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of semantic context on noun recognition were investigated in three experiments Experiment I examined the effect of changed semantic interpretation at recognition by pairing nouns with the same adjectives for study and recognition.

260 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that participants responded as soon as they heard a preset target in a sequence of nonsense syllables, whether the target was a complete syllable or a phoneme from that syllable.

221 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical explanations of the spacing effect fall into two classes: those that attribute the advantage of two spaced presentations over two massed presentations to better consolidation of the first presentation, and those that attributed the advantage to better encoding of the second presentation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that it takes longer to categorize object names (e.g., collie or tulip) into larger categories than into smaller categories, and attributed this effect to the fact that their different-size categories were always nested.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, subjects were required to generate mediators for 30 concrete or 30 abstract noun pairs, in each case half the pairs being linked by nonverbal images and half by verbal mediators.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three groups of 20 S s were auditorily presented with 24 ambiguous and 24 unambiguous sentences and one group was asked to push a button whenever a particular phoneme occurred.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the mediating effects of speech at a subvocal level in information processing are discussed and a theoretical model developed, and the laryngeal feedback group did significantly less well on comprehension of the difficult material than the other groups.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The retention functions for all three probe types were similar in shape, supporting the hypothesis that semantic encoding is possible in STM and indicating that encoding is a time-dependent serial process.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, five experiments are reported in which single-trial free recall followed various frequencies of repetition under massed (MP) and distributed (DP) schedules, and all experiments showed the DP schedule to result in far better recall than the MP schedule, and the difference between MP and DP increased as the frequency of repetition increased.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that syllables preceding a judged-pause location were usually longer than those following, whether or not a silent interval was present, but syllable length governed judgments independently of juncture cues.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that the ambiguity was most often perceived when both interpretations of the sentence were true with respect to the picture, and response latencies were shortest when both interpretation were false, and that Ss who claimed to have seen the ambiguity before responding had longer latencies than those who claimed not to see the ambiguity, and these differences in processing were clear only in Ss' responses to their first ambiguous sentence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigated the hypothesis that comprehensibility is a function of syntactic complexity and found that only three measures contributed significantly to the prediction of comprehensibility: mean linguistic depth, the number of self-embedded structures in the sentence, and number of conjoining transformations in the derivational history of the sentence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors studied the effect of context change in free-recall learning under three conditions: not changed (N), changed (C), in which different rooms were used; and disrupted (D) in which the same room was used, but S was taken from the room during the interlist interval.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed the contiguity of experience (thinking about items together during the experiment) as the dominant force underlying the consistency in recall order, according to which items experienced together will be recalled together.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The primacy effect may be due to initial list members being relatively free of proactive inhibition (PI), spending longer time in a limited-capacity rehearsal buffer, or being associated with stronger retrieval cues as mentioned in this paper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three experiments on immediate free recall are reported, and the results indicate that an item's frequency of recall depends not only on how often it is presented, and for how long, but also on the average duration of the items that surround it.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theory that frequency discrimination dominates recognition performance was tested in three experiments by using new or wrong words (W words) several times during the test phase, each time being paired with a different old or right word (R word) as mentioned in this paper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that bilingual Ss could respond either on the basis of language-specific or general semantic cues, however, certain interference effects indicated that the two sets of cues were not independent, and that Ss responded only if an item was repeated in the same language, while in Group III YES responses were given even when items were repeated with a language change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that the final word in a free recall list was retrieved least well in a second recall session, and this negative recency effect was found to hold for reminiscence items and, to some extent, for prior list intrusions in recall.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, word associations to 40 homographic stimuli were scored in terms of the semantic features serving as S's apparent functional stimulus, and hierarchies related to the separate sets of features of homographs were determined.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects or presentation (P) and recall (R) trials on organization in multitrial free recall were investigated by independently varying the sequences of P-trials and recall trials within eight-trial cycles An S-unit task, in which Ss indicated their subjective groupings of the recall items, was administered at the end of two successive cycles

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, noun pairs were repeated in one of three ways: (a) exact sentence repetition; (b) change in adjective and verbs which did not alter noun meanings; (c ) change in adjectives and verb which biased different noun meanings.