scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology in 1982"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Improvements in the locomotor apparatus are discernible in seven groups of archosaurs and indicate that a great adaptive radiation took place before the oldest recorded fauna dominated by archosaurs appeared.
Abstract: The history of South American therapsids and archosaurs during the Early, Middle and Late Triassic is analyzed. Improvements in the locomotor apparatus are discernible in seven groups of archosaurs and indicate that a great adaptive radiation took place before the oldest recorded fauna dominated by archosaurs appeared. Competition between therapsids and archosaurs began at the outset of the Triassic, when the proterosuchids were cosmopolitan and ceased 10 m.y. before the end of the Triassic. The rich Dicroidium flora and the variety of types of both therapsids and archosaurs were synchronous. The flora probably triggered the radiation in both reptilian groups. It is assumed that the extinction of therapsids was caused by: (a) the locomotor superiority of the Middle and Late Triassic archosaurs; (b) the capability of archosaurs to increase their body size during the Triassic; (c) the appearance of herbivorous archosaurs at the outset of the Late Triassic; and (d) the competitive pressure imposed b...

129 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian) lower vertebrate fauna from Galve, Spain, includes two hybodontid sharks, Hybodus parvidens and Lonchidion microselachos n. gen. as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Early Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian) lower vertebrate fauna from Galve, Spain, includes two hybodontid sharks, Hybodus parvidens and Lonchidion microselachos n. sp., as well as fragmentary remains of characteristic Mesozoic bony fishes. The salamander AIbanerpeton cf. megacephalus (Prosirenidae) is most similar to Jurassic Portuguese specimens of this species. Galverpeton ibericum n. gen. et sp. (family incertae sedis) was probably a slim-bodied animal; it resembles the ambystomatoid–plethodontoid salamanders and is the earliest record of the more derived salamander groups. The first disarticulated specimens of the Upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous discoglossid frog Eodiscoglossus santonjae permit refinement of the diagnosis of this primitive frog. A variety of small reptiles is also present, including lizards, crocodilians and dinosaurs; the latter are notable in being represented by teeth of very small (young?) animals. The Galve assemblage includes primarily freshwater forms, and, based on...

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cladistic analysis demonstrates that Paranasua is the primitive sister taxon of Procyon and Nasua; that Arctonasua is probably most closely related to the late Tertiary Cyon asua group of South American procyonines; and that the primitive Sister group of the Procy oninae discussed in this paper includes Bassariscus and the European Agenian and Orleanian genus Broiliana.
Abstract: Fourteen taxa are described from Hemingfordian (early Miocene) to Hemphillian (early Pliocene) deposits of western North America and Florida. New taxa include Edaphocyon lautus, new species; Arctonasua floridana, new genus and species; Arctonasua gracilis, new species; Arctonasua minima, new species; Arctonasua eurybates, new species; Arctonasua fricki, new species; Lichnocyonphoenicus, new genus and species; and Paranasua biradica, new genus and species. The earliest known occurrences (Hemphillian) of Nasua and Procyon are documented. Cladistic analysis demonstrates that Paranasua is the primitive sister taxon of Procyon and Nasua; that Arctonasua is probably most closely related to the late Tertiary Cyonasua group of South American procyonines; and that the primitive sister group of the Procyoninae discussed in this paper includes Bassariscus and the European Agenian and Orleanian (early Miocene) genus Broiliana.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of North American Late Cretaceous frogs demonstrates that Paradiscoglossus americanus n. gen. et sp. (Discoglossidae) and Palaeobatrachus occidentalis n. sp.
Abstract: A review of North American Late Cretaceous frogs demonstrates that Paradiscoglossus americanus n. gen. et sp. (Discoglossidae) and Palaeobatrachus occidentalis n. sp. (Palaeobatrachidae) definitively establish the presence of these families in the Late Cretaceous of North America (Lance Formation, Wyoming). P. occidentalis is also represented in the Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in Montana. Interrelationships of palaeobatrachids are briefly discussed. A critical review of Scotiophryne pustulosa, earlier referred to the bombinid line within the Discoglossidae, establishes that there is a weak but definite case for maintaining this taxon in the Discoglossidae. Material that has been questionably referred to the pelobatid frog Eopelobates may be referred to the genus with some confidence. Familial relationships of Theatonius lancensis remain obscure. The presence of discoglossids and palaeobatrachids in North America during the Cretaceous strengthens the hypothesis of Estes and Reig (1973) th...

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Shark teeth have been found in Upper Devonian rocks from the Broken River embayment and Burdekin Star shelf of north Queensland and in Lower Carboniferous rocks from Broken River and from near Gresford, New South Wales as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Shark teeth have been found in Upper Devonian rocks from the Broken River embayment and Burdekin Star shelf of north Queensland and in Lower Carboniferous rocks from Broken River and from near Gresford, New South Wales. Harpago ferox gen. et sp. nov. is a new tooth type which occurs in the Upper Bundock Creek Formation (possible Late Devonian), Queensland, and in the Early Carboniferous Bingleburra Formation, New South Wales. Other Late Devonian forms found in Queensland include Protacrodus spp. and Phoebodus cf. P. politus Newberry, 1889, known previously from North America, Europe and India. From one Early Carboniferous site in Queensland came a tooth of Xenacanthus sp. and one of Cladodus thomasi sp. nov., a form previously described from the Laurel Formation of Western Australia where it is associated with bradyodont teeth referred here to Helodus.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a preliminary report on vertebrate faunas from the Middle Awash Valley in the Afar Depression, from the newly described Adu-Asa, Sagantole, Matabaietu, and Wehaietu Formations, is presented.
Abstract: We present a preliminary report on vertebrate faunas from the Middle Awash Valley in the Afar Depression, from the newly described Adu-Asa, Sagantole, Matabaietu, and Wehaietu Formations. These units, together with the well-known hominid-bearing Hadar Formation and the Chorora Formation, comprise the Awash Group, which is over one kilometer thick, spans the late Neogene, and contains vertebrate fossils throughout. Significantly, periods are represented—the late Miocene to early Pliocene and Middle to late Pleistocene—that are poorly or incompletely known elsewhere in East Africa. At least 24 mammalian families and 170 species are represented in the Awash Group. In the newly described stratigraphic units, faunal change is documented for a number of mammalian groups. This is especially true for Proboscidea, specifically anancine gom-photheres (Gomphotheriidae: Anancinae) and elephants (Elephantidae: Stegotetra-belodontinae and Elephantinae), the Artiodactyla, particularly suids (Suidae), bovids (Bo...

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two partial skeletons of juvenile individuals of Stegosaurus with estimated body lengths of about 1.5 m and 2.6 m (8.5 ft) were described from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Utah and Wyoming as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Two partial skeletons of juvenile individuals of Stegosaurus with estimated body lengths of about 1.5 m (5 ft) and 2.6 m (8.5 ft) are described from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Utah and Wyoming. These juveniles differ from adults in the absence of fusion in composite bones (sacrum, scapulocoracoid, tibia–fibula–astragalus–calcaneum), the smoothness of the surface of the bones, the smaller size of ridges for muscular attachment, a proportionally more slender and elongate scapula, the relatively small size of the olecranon process of the ulna and the head of the femur, and the possible absence of dermal plates (but tail spines were present). Apart from the ratios of the length of the femur to those of the humerus and ilium, and the form of the scapula, ilium and fibula, the bones of juvenile individuals of Stegosaurus are very similar to those of juvenile individuals of the stegosaur Kentrosaurus (Upper Jurassic, East Africa). A probable sexual dimorphism in the sacrum with either fo...

49 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sussmilchi is found to have several distinctive bones forming an otic capsule, a large quadrate and a short parasphenoid; the hyomandibula has a single attachment to the lateral otic; the spiracular recess contained a blind pit for a spiracular organ.
Abstract: D. sussmilchi is found to have several distinctive bones forming an otic capsule, a large quadrate and a short parasphenoid; the hyomandibula has a single attachment to the lateral otic; the spiracular recess contained a blind pit for a spiracular organ, and transmitted the internal carotid artery and branches of the facialis nerve; the efferent pseudobranchial artery joined the internal carotid just posterior to the neurocranium; the foramen prooticum basicraniale transmitted the orbital artery, the jugular vein, and the hyomandibularis VII; there is no open cavum epiptericum. The courses of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, as well as various nerve commissures and the posterior cerebral vein, are reconstructed. The ethmoidal canals leading to the rostral tubuli form a set of major canals lying in a single plane, and are innervated by the ramus profundus V and the ramus ophthalmicus superficialis VII, both of which pass through the planum antorbitale; the ramus buccalis VII passes around th...

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The systematics of the Neogene Siwalik hipparion horses is based on a review of the classic material from numerous institutions as well as a new biostrati-graphically controlled collection recently made by the Yale-Geological Survey of Pakistan expeditions in the Potwar Plateau region of northern Pakistan.
Abstract: The systematics of the Neogene Siwalik hipparion horses is based on a review of the classic material from numerous institutions as well as a new biostrati-graphically controlled collection recently made by the Yale–Geological Survey of Pakistan expeditions in the Potwar Plateau region of northern Pakistan. A two-fold taxonomic scheme is presented here. The first, which is based on cranial morphology and associated dentions, indicates that five hipparion species are represented in the Middle Siwalik Group, i.e. Hipparion antelopinum, “Hipparion” feddeni, Cormohipparion theobaldi Cormohipparion cf. nagriensis and “Hipparion” sp. The second scheme, which is based principally on dental measurements, is similar to Hussain's (1971) conclusion that three discrete dental morphologies are represented in the Siwaliks. We prefer to treat these here as Dental Morphs 1,2, and 3 rather than as named species. Characters such as those displayed by dentitions and postcranial remains are here concluded to be less ...

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Osteological features facilitate the following scheme of intrafamilial relationships: ossification of vertebrae, scale type, and presence or absence of supraorbitals and supramaxilla.
Abstract: Pachyamia latimaxillaris n. gen. et sp. from the lowermost Cenomanian Bet-Meir Formation of Judea is characterized by an enlarged and divided maxilla, an ossified element in the pectoral girdle, a single postorbital plate, wide and truncated ribs, a smooth subopercular, and the absence of supramaxilla. Osteological features facilitate the following scheme of intrafamilial relationships: ossification of vertebrae, scale type, and presence or absence of supraorbitals and supramaxilla.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Basicrania of four Eocene artiodactyls, Diacodexis, Homacodon, ?
Abstract: Basicrania of four Eocene artiodactyls, Diacodexis, Homacodon, ?Helohyus and Gobiohyus are basically similar to those of more primitive ungulates such as Hyopsodus and do not foreshadow derived basicranial characters of ruminants, an-thracotheres, suids or any other specific artiodactyl group. These genera differ from more primitive ungulates in having more laterally oriented mastoids and a broader epitympanic recess roofing the middle ear cavity. Primitive artiodactyls are mastoid; amastoidy appears to have arisen independently in several different artiodactyl lineages.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of Paleozoic ichthyoliths in geology has been extremely limited due, in part, to the taxonomic problems involved in their identification and the lack of adequate documentation affording comparisons of elements from various studies as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The use of Paleozoic ichthyoliths in geology has been extremely limited due, in part, to the taxonomic problems involved in their identification and the lack of adequate documentation affording comparisons of elements from various studies. Part I of a catalog of 156 Late Pennsylvanian ichthyoliths consists of diagnoses and illustrations mainly of scales and mucous membrane denticles derived from palaeoniscoid, acanthodian and chondrichthyan fishes. Each ichthyolith has been identified by a coded, utilitarian classification system. The advantage of such a system is that ichthyoliths can be more easily used to solve stratigraphic and paleoecologic problems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recently, several recently discovered fossil specimens add to our knowledge of plesiadapiform primates as mentioned in this paper, including a nearly complete dentary from the Wasatchian of the Bighorn Basin and the first record from probable Clarkforkian beds of the Powder River Basin.
Abstract: Several recently discovered fossil specimens add to our knowledge of plesiadapiform primates. Micromomys willwoodensis, new species, is a diminutive microsyopid from the early Eocene (early Wasatchian) Willwood Formation of the Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming. It is larger and more specialized than late Paleocene M. vossae and M. silvercouleei. Elwynella oreas is a new genus and species of paromomyid from the middle Eocene (early Bridgerian) Aycross Formation of northwestern Wyoming. It is most closely related to Phenacolemur, but differs from all other post-Tiffanian paromomyids in retention of P3 and in details of incisor morphology and molar trigonid structure. New specimens of the microsyopid Tinimomys graybulliensis are described, including a nearly complete dentary from the Wasatchian of the Bighorn Basin and the first record from probable Clarkforkian (latest Paleocene–earliest Eocene) beds of the Powder River Basin. The first Wasatchian specimen of Plesiadapis is described and illustrated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The type specimen of Pelobates decheni Troschel, 1861, from Rott near Bonn, has been reinvestigated and described and is shown to be identical with the type (and only) specimen of Zaphrissa eurypelis Cope, 1866, so the latter name must be regarded as a junior synonym of the former.
Abstract: The type specimen of Pelobates decheni Troschel, 1861, from Rott near Bonn, has been reinvestigated and described. It is shown to be identical with the type (and only) specimen of Zaphrissa eurypelis Cope, 1866, described from the same locality. The latter name thus must be regarded as a junior synonym of the former. This also implies the reassignment of Zaphrissa from Discoglossidae to Pelobatidae. Some unique plesiomorphic characters of P. decheni not known in Recent frogs are pointed out.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Anatomy of teeth and jaws suggests new phyletic interpretations: Pseudorhinolophus could be ancestral to Asellia, and Brachipposideros to Syndesmotis, and Pseu-dorhinlophus to Syndsmotis.
Abstract: New fossils from the Burdigalian locality of Port-la-Nouvelle (southern France) add to our knowledge of the Hipposideridae. Four species of this family are represented, including a new species of the subgenus Brachipposideros Sige Hipposideros aguilari n.sp.). H. vetus (Lavocat) from Beni Mellal (Miocene of Morocco) and H. cf. vetus from Sete (late Pliocene of France), formerly attributed to Asellia, are placed in the subgenus Syndesmotis Peters, which includes the Recent East African species H. (S.) megalotis. The following genera and subgenera are recognized in this study: genus Hipposideros including the subgenera Hipposideros, Brachipposideros, Syndesmotis and Pseu-dorhinolophus, and the genus Asellia. Anatomy of teeth and jaws suggests new phyletic interpretations: Pseudorhinolophus could be ancestral to Asellia, and Brachipposideros to Syndesmotis; Pseudorhinolophus and Brachipposideros may both be represented in the Recent fauna by large and small Hipposideros, respectively; on the other h...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Mount Eden fauna was first described by Childs Frick in 1921 and is an important late Hemphillian mammalian fauna from the San Timoteo Badlands of southern California as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Mount Eden fauna, first described by Childs Frick in 1921, is an important late Hemphillian mammalian fauna from the San Timoteo Badlands of southern California. Identification of Repomys maxumi May, an early hypsodont cricetid rodent, and the results of geomagnetic-polarity determinations indicate that this fauna correlates with the lower reversed part of the Gilbert Magnetic Polarity Chron and must be older than the C2 (Thvera) normal-polarity event of this Chron. The fauna is between 5.0 and 5.4 m.y. old according to the temporal calibration of the geomagnetic stratigraphy here followed. This age approximately dates the change from Peninsular Ranges source to a Transverse Ranges source for sediment in the San Timoteo Badlands.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fragments of dermal bones referable to an undetermined aquatic chelonian have been discovered in the Huai Hin Lat Formation near the Chulabhorn Dam, northeastern Thailand, and resemble corresponding parts of post-Triassic chelydrid and thalassemydid turtles.
Abstract: Fragments of dermal bones referable to an undetermined aquatic chelonian have been discovered in the Huai Hin Lat Formation near the Chulabhorn Dam, northeastern Thailand. In the same area, this formation has also yielded ostracodes, semionotid actinopterygians, lungfishes (Ceratodus), capitosaurids (Cyclotosaurus), and phytosaurs, all suggestive of a Late Triassic (possibly Norian) age. The turtle remains are the first hitherto recorded from the Triassic of Asia, but it is still undecided whether they can be referred to one of the taxa known from the Triassic of Germany or belong to a new taxon. They resemble corresponding parts of post-Triassic chelydrid and thalassemydid turtles.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: No published record exists which describes Pliocene lagomorphs as far south in North America as those described in this study, so these presently discovered taxa were compared with previously describedlagomorphs from North America.
Abstract: This paper presents the most diverse Pliocene lagomorph fauna yet reported from Mexico. Four genera and five species are herein recognized from several localities in the central state of Guanajuato. These presently discovered taxa were compared with previously described lagomorphs from North America; and three, one genus and two species, are considered new. Additionally, one other species could possibly be new. Taxa which have been reported elsewhere include Hypolagus, Pratilepus ?kansasensis and Notolagus cf. velox. Apparently no published record exists which describes Pliocene lagomorphs as far south in North America as those listed in this study.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The family Chongichthyidae shows some morphological similarities to elopiforms, pachyrhizodontoids, clupeomorphs, osteoglossomorphs and euteleosts, but it also differs from all of them in certain respects and is therefore regarded as Teleostei incertae sedis.
Abstract: The new family Chongichthyidae is based on Chongichthys dentatus n. gen. et sp. from the Oxfordian marine deposits of the Domeyko Range, southeast of Antofagasta, northern Chile. Chongichthys dentatus differs from other Late Jurassic teleosts of South America and Europe in having: fenestrae between the prootic, auto-sphenotic and pterotic, and between the basioccipital, exoccipital, prootic and parasphenoid; a prootic fenestra; a large basisphenoid; a small, elongate basioccipital; a distinctive lower jaw; wide supraneurals; epineurals fused to the neural arches; ribs on the first abdominal centra and a distinctive enlargement of the last pleural ribs. The family Chongichthyidae shows some morphological similarities to elopiforms, pachyrhizodontoids, clupeomorphs, osteoglossomorphs and euteleosts, but it also differs from all of them in certain respects and is therefore regarded as Teleostei incertae sedis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fourteen vertebrae from an estuarine site in the Bashi Marl early Eocene of Meridian, Lauderdale County, Mississippi, represent Palaeophis casei n.
Abstract: Fourteen vertebrae from an estuarine site in the Bashi Marl early Eocene of Meridian, Lauderdale County, Mississippi, represent Palaeophis casei n. sp. (Ser-pentes: Palaeophidae). The snake resembles Palaeophis virginianus and differs from other American species in having but a single vertebral hypapophysis; however, it differs from the giant P. virginianus in being quite small, as well as in several other morphological characters.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chirodipterus onawayensis n.
Abstract: Chirodipterus onawayensis n. sp. is described from the Middle Devonian of northern Michigan. It differs from other species of Chirodipterus in details of the cheek bones, small size of the orbit, and elongation of the prepineal region of the skull. Chirodipterus is distinguished from Dipterus by the arrangement of bones on the side of the head rather than by propotions of the snout (cf. Miles, 1977).


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: O. proteros is more primitive than all other members of the genus and later hyracotheres in the small size of the P4 hypocone relative to the protocone and in the subtriangular shape of P4.
Abstract: Orohippus proteros n. sp. is the earliest and most primitive species of Orohippus known. It was collected from the Lost Cabin Member of the Wind River Formation, along with a fauna which is clearly of early Eocene age. Known only from the type specimen, O. proteros is distinguished from all contemporary hyracotheriines by the presence of a small hypocone on P4. Orohippus proteros is more primitive than all other members of the genus and later hyracotheres in the small size of the P4 hypocone relative to the protocone and in the subtriangular shape of P4. Orohippus is viewed as a monophyletic taxon with O. proteros as the ancestral species.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A vertebra referred to the sailfish Istiophorus platypterus is described from the upper Pliocene (Blancan) San Diego Formation, San Diego County, California as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A vertebra referred to the sailfish Istiophorus platypterus is described from the upper Pliocene (Blancan) San Diego Formation, San Diego County, California The specimen represents the first reported billfish of this age from western North America and adds to the poor fossil record of the Istiophoridae


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A distinctive suite of teeth assignable to the genus Hipparion has been recovered from the Clarendonian Contra Costa Group of Bolinger Canyon, Contra Costa County, California and suggest possible ancestry to the Neohipparion leptode Merriam or N. eurystyle (Cope) group.
Abstract: A distinctive suite of teeth assignable to the genus Hipparion has been recovered from the Clarendonian (late Miocene) Contra Costa Group of Bolinger Canyon, Contra Costa County, California. The teeth have been previously compared with Nannippus tehonensis [ = Hipparion tehonense (Merriam) MacFadden], a gracile hipparion of southern California and Texas. The Contra Costa fossils share an array of characters in which they differ from H. tehonense. Some of the features suggest possible ancestry to the Neohipparion leptode Merriam or N. eurystyle (Cope) group. The new species Hipparion trampasense is based on the Bolinger Canyon collection.