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Showing papers in "Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management in 2007"


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a survey was conducted to factory engineers in 18 companies to investigate current situation and problems of rebar work in plant and to find methods of betterment, and a survey is conducted to survey the quality and productivity deterioration due to intensive-labor and maintaining of old work methods.
Abstract: Rebar work is a labor intensive operation, and with labor shortage and high-wage era, the cost is rising, so re-bar manufacturing system in plant is adapted. However there remains a lot of problems. Although manufacturing system in plant, which greatly effects the building's safety, endurance, and construction time, is an important phase in construction, it holds serious problem of quality and productivity deterioration due to its characteristic of intensive-labor and maintaining of old work methods resulting in poor management, and costs increase. Therefor in this study to investigate current situation and problems of rebar work in plant and to find methods of betterment, a survey was conducted to factory engineers in 18 companies.

10 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This study is to offer the base to find the solution of the Affecting factors about lowly using 3D CAD and the result is analyzed with AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process).
Abstract: Because the construction is becoming bigger and the construction environment is rapidly changing, IT/IS(Information Technology and Information System) of the construction is recently suggested with the alternative proposal. So not only is a study progressed in the area of the BIM(Buidilng Information Modeling), VC(Virtual Construction) and CIC (Computer-Integrated Construction) but also of the information database of the construction for building the information infrastructure of the construction in the domestic construction. Because object-oriented 3D CAD improves the efficiency of a design work and includes the object information which can use with the base of the information database of the construction, it has the high value not only in the design level but also in the construction life cycle. But compared with the effect, the use of 3D CAD is sluggish in the construction. In this study, after surveying about lowly using 3D CAD on the point of AEC (Architect-Engineer-Contract), the result is analyzed with AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process). So the aim of this study is to offer the base to find the solution of the Affecting factors about lowly using 3D CAD.

8 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a system for the selection of the optimum tower cranes (Opt-TC) in high-rise building construction projects is proposed, which can give the selection and stability examination of tower crane at once in real-time.
Abstract: The efficient vertical lift planning has been brought into relief in high-rise building construction projects. Particularly, the selection and stability examination of the tower cranes is the most important elements in vertical lift planning. Therefore, professional knowledge is needed to full fill the site condition for the plan. However, there are short of the number of specialists and information about tower cranes. This study proposes a system for the selection of the optimum tower cranes (Opt-TC) in high-rise building construction projects. The Opt-TC can give the selection and stability examination of tower cranes at once in real-time.

7 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a correlation analysis is performed between the improvement level in the remodeling projects and the numerical profitability based on actual cases, and the result clearly shows that some improved remodeling items are strongly related to the profit.
Abstract: Markets for the apartment remodeling projects will be a major portion of the construction industry in near future. However, only partial remodeling works in the apartment were done so far. This situation caused bad impact to expand the remodeling markets and less profits of the remodeling projects. In order to solve this problem, many other researches were done previously to Improve profits of the apartment remodeling projects. However, the results are too theoretical to implement them and Improve profits. In this research, profitability influence factors that are possible to improve effect of the remodeling works are selected and analyzed through several studies. Then, correlation analysis is performed between the improvement level in the remodeling projects and the numerical profitability based on actual cases. The result clearly shows that some improved remodeling items are strongly related to the profit. These results lead us to the strategy to follow for the purpose of increasing profits of the remodeling projects.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Choi et al. as discussed by the authors presented an analysis of characteristics of DB delivery system in Korea using system dynamics model with investigating the public market trend, comparing DB performance to DBB, and analyzing questionnaire survey.
Abstract: Design build (DB) is a construction project delivery system which has become one of the favored ones and the growth of DB by the public agencies has been steadily increasing. DB can be viewed as an evolutionary project delivery system, since DB project team members collaborate on work with each other, keep seeking cost effective and innovative alternatives that meet the construction needs of the project. Thus DB outperformed others in delivery speed, cost saving, and turnover quality. In Korea, DB projects likewise have steadily increased that it is needed to analyze characteristics of DB delivery system in Korea. For that purpose, this research would offer an analysis of characteristics of DB delivery system in Korea using system dynamics model with investigating the public market trend, comparing DB performance to DBB, and analyzing questionnaire survey.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the workload for carpenter and structural steel workers in the construction industry and investigated the posture and behavior for the workers as well as personal sensitivity to the workload.
Abstract: It is crucial that the WRMSD is realized as a critical job-related diseases for the construction workers. It is caused by the characteristics of repetitive work, uncomfortable work methods and continuous unsuitable physical posture. The objective of this research is to evaluate the workload for the carpenters and structural steel workers. Investigation on the posture and behavior for the workers as well as personal sensitivity to the workload is conducted. The laboratory tests with graduate students are conducted to estimate inconvenience in terms of personal sensitivity to the workload. The results of this research will be used to perform the further researches on ergonomic and technological approaches to improvements of the hand-intensive tasks in the construction industry.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the impacts of different contract types on project cost, schedule, safety, change, or rework, and the differences in project performance between two contract types, Cost Reimbursable and Lump Sum are measured and statistically tested to investigate if the differences are significant.
Abstract: Multiple parties-owners, engineering and construction contractors, and suppliers involve the delivery process of capital facility projects in the construction industry, and each party obtains or provides their workforce, material, equipment, or service tied into specific contracts. Considering that construction projects are based on the contracted relationship between the parties and that contract types are one of the significant factors determining project success. it is critical for project stakeholder to select appropriate contract types for successful deliveries of projects. With these considerations, this paper assesses impacts of different contract types on project cost, schedule, safety, change, or rework. Analyzing data from real construction projects, the differences in project performance between two contract types, Cost Reimbursable and Lump Sum are measured and statistically tested to investigate if the differences are significant. For this analysis, performance metrics developed by Benchmarking and Metrics program, the Construction Industry Institute are used.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a methodology for optimum transfer speen based on the analysis of factors affecting earthmoving operation in different road types by collecting the sources of dump truck running speeds and considering the main factors affecting the earth moving operation.
Abstract: In many construction projects, such as dams, highways, airports, buildings, industrial plants, and sewerage and drainage systems earthmoving operation is defined the movements of a certain quantity of earth to alter the surface configuration or conditions so that projects requirement can be met. Accurate calculation of travel time is essential for determining productivity of earthmoving operations, and for ultimately selecting the most cost-effective fleet configuration for executing the work. Also transportation work that utilizes dump truck consists average So in the whole expenses earthmoving operation, and is an important cost factor for cost management. Therefore this study proposes a methodology for optimum transfer speen based on the analysis of factors affecting earthmoving operation in different road types by collecting the sources of dump truck running speeds and considering the main factors affecting the earthmoving operation.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a mathematically information-based framework is proposed to forecast a project completion date that corresponds with the actual progress data and to monitor the modified uncertainties using Bayesian Inference.
Abstract: In the past, several construction projects have exceeded their schedule resulting in financial losses to the owners; at present there are very few methods available to accurately forecast the completion date of a project. These nay be because of unforeseen outcomes that cannot be accounted for earlier and because of deficiency of proper tools to forecast completion date of said project. To overcome these difficulties, project managers may need a tool to predict the completion date at the early stage of project development. Bayesian Inference introduced in this paper is one such tool that can be employed to forecast project progress at all construction stages. Using this inference, project managers can combine an initially planned project progress (growth curve) with reported information from ongoing projects during the development, and in addition, dynamically revise this initial plan and quantify the uncertainty of completion date. This study introduces a theoretical model and proposes a mathematically information-based framework to forecast a project completion date that corresponds with the actual progress data and to monitor the modified uncertainties using Bayesian Inference.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a construction risk management system model for the site personnel to understand and manipulate very easily in the construction project, which can be used to manage the construction intrinsic risks systematically.
Abstract: Although the construction industry has been rapidly increased at its size and technologies as a locomotive of the economy development in Korea, most construction companies have not paid their attention on the construction risks seriously. However, they have been experienced a lot of business deterioration and project instability during the IMF crisis and WTO entry, and trying to figure out a way to manage the construction intrinsic risks systematically. Some top ranked construction companies have already developed and been implementing a risk management system for the oversea construction projects applying for the marketing and bidding stage, but not for the domestic construction projects during construction phase yet. This paper proposes a construction risk management system model for the site personnel to understand and manipulate very easily in the construction project.

4 citations



Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, an adapted research method including a case study from construction company is used to estimate the elemental costs of an apartment building and the results of this study are as follows:
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to estimate elemental costs of an apartment building. The adapted research method includes a case study from construction company. The results of this study are as follows: 1) An elemental cost format of an apartment building is proposed, 2) An elemental cost table based on a case study of construction company is suggested.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a safety risk assessment checklist that can be used during building design phase, utilizing the concept of Design for Safety is presented. But, it has been recognized that safety management is activated during the construction phase to prevent accidents and fatalities of workers, and it is revealed that about 15% of fatal death accidents is caused by the lack of management of planning and design phases.
Abstract: It has been recognized that safety management is activated during the construction phase to prevent accidents and fatalities of workers However, It is revealed that about 15% of fatal death accidents is caused by the lack of management of planning and design phases There is a crucial need of assessing safety risk during building design phase This paper is aimed to develop a safety risk assessment checklist that can be used during building design phase, utilizing the concept of Design for Safety In doing so, a broad literature survey on safety management of building Process, various safety risk assessment toolboxes being utilized in the HSE and the BAA of UK The proposed checklist contains the followings: 1) classification structure for safety design on space, element, and trade work 2) hazard risk factor, probability and degree of intensity of accident occurrence, and 3) safety assessment criteria It is expected that the checklist would be an effective tool of preventing and minimizing fatal accidents of building construction projects


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the success factor in minor construction projects by design build methods focusing on instance case and survey, and critical success factor deduction and importance degree analysis of this factor using AHP analysis.
Abstract: The minor construction companies in Korea have grown in focusing on the construction operation field. Also, soft field is vulnerable area, and there are not enough delivery systems, therefore, a capacity of the construction industry expansion and productivity is insufficient. Furthermore, the minor construction companies are losing their areas, because the major construction companies having numerous know-how and ample funds are competitive. As the construction industry are more larger and complicated, the design build methods might be increased in the construction industry and the minor construction companies could have more competitive. Hence, this paper analyzes the success factor in minor construction projects by design build methods focusing on instance case and survey, and critical success factor deduction and importance degree analysis of this factor using AHP analysis. In addition, this paper gives fundamental data how to manage the construction project effectively for minor construction expansion in near future.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a cost breakdown structure based on spaces using Delphi method to predict the construction cost in planning and design phase for multi-family housing projects in more effective and reasonable way, the usefulness and effectiveness of Space CBS in this paper were validated by analyzing the BOQs of several collected sample projects and matching with Space CBS afterwards.
Abstract: As the government has enforced recently the policies on the distribution of the housing, the construction cost of multi-family housing projects has increasingly become very sensitive and political issue. However, it is difficult to predict the construction cost in planning and design phase of the project because the Bill of Quantity of the multi-family housing projects was composed of breakdown structure based on each work package. To predict the construction cost in planning and design phase for multi-family housing projects in more effective and reasonable way, this study developed the cost breakdown structure based on spaces using Delphi method. The Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) based on spaces for multi-family housing projects basically consists of three parts: (i) Building part; (ii) Non-building part; and (iii) Additional part. The characteristics of spaces in multi-family housing projects are fully taken into consideration. Then these three parts were subdivided into work packages in terms of work tasks. Additionally, the usefulness and effectiveness of Space CBS in this paper were validated by analyzing the BOQs of several collected sample projects and matching with Space CBS afterwards.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the current usage of SD500 high-strength re-bar in domestic construction sites and developed an evaluation method to measure economic efficiency of lap splice and coupler splice, which are most commonly used in connection SD500.
Abstract: This study analyzes the current usage of SD500 high-strength re-bar in domestic construction sites. Also, an evaluation method was developed to measure economic efficiency of lap splice and coupler splice, which are most commonly used in connection SD500. The evaluation method was applied to construction sites in Seoul in December 2006, and the result revealed that coupler splice is relatively superior in terms of cost efficiency when the re-bar diameter is bigger and the concrete strength is lower.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The result of which demonstrated that the RFID-base system can help improve the effectiveness of data communication during the concrete pour process.
Abstract: A ubiquitous environment in construction should be developed integrating hardware and software systems. The objective of this paper is to study the feasibility of applying the RFID technology to the concrete pour process, and improve the effectiveness of data exchange A pilot system of u-CPS (Ubiquitous Concrete Pour System) has been developed to test the feasibility. The pilot can automatically generate the data for concrete pour work such as departure time, arrival time, concrete pour time. Construction managers can keep track of the progress of concrete pour work using the information. A case study was done for a building construction using the pilot system, the result of which demonstrated that the RFID-base system can help improve the effectiveness of data communication during the concrete pour process.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the methodology to collect operation data of construction equipment and build the simulation model, then verifies the model with the operation data, identifying main factors to determine the cycle time of the muck hauling system so that it suggests the method of construction process planning through operation and combination of construction equipments.
Abstract: Simulation has considerable potential as the tool of construction management, but in the case of domestic, it is at an early stage applying simulation to micro-process assesment. For applying simulation to the construction process, much effort is needed to collect input data and to build the model including the characteristics of site. This study introduces the methodology to collect operation data of construction equipment and build the simulation model, then verifies the model with the operation data. In addition, this study identifies main factors to determine the cycle time of the muck hauling system so that it suggests the method of construction process planning through operation and combination of construction equipments.

Journal Article
TL;DR: To enhance a competitive power of planning and basic designing, problems of utilizing a standard code for plant design are analyzed and plans for their improvements are presented.
Abstract: Plant industry is one of important industry that possesses 70% of fund in construction contracts for oversea customers at 2004. It is called E(Engineering), P(Procurement), C(Construction) industry. Plant industry of Korea has a competitive power of the detail design and operation for the establishment construction. But among E, P, C at plant industry, technic of E part which is able to make higher profits; Planning and basic designing; are poor. They should have much more improvements. Thus to enhance a competitive power of planning and basic designing, we are going to analyze problems of utilizing a standard code for plant design and present plans for their improvements.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed the critical success factors (schedule, cost, productivity, change order, safety, quality) for public construction projects based on previous related research outputs to successfully implement construction performance evaluation.
Abstract: Performance measurement and evaluation is a critical issue in public funded civil infrastructure projects in recent years. As a results, Korean government has introduced the related policies and regulations based on the foreign cases to evaluate public construction projects. However, construction circumstances are different from other countries and the results from adopted regulations are not satisfied. Therefore this research proposes the critical success factors(schedule, cost, productivity, change order, safety, quality) for public construction projects based on previous related research outputs to successfully implement construction performance evaluation. Then, this paper also proposes the weights for the critical success factors. The proposed weights are developed by AHP of construction experts. Furthermore, the paper shows the difference of the weights of the critical success factors by project participants (owner, constructor, engineering, and inspector). This efforts will enhance the ability to develop an effective performance evaluation process and system for public construction projects.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors tried to suggest both proper house rental charge to encourage nongovernmental construction and house rental supplement, considerng ability to pay, to solve the housing problem in an advanced country.
Abstract: The cost of low-income groups's housing expenses have been weighting since 2000. To solve this problem, governments encourage supplying rental apartments for them. House rental supplement is most common things to solve housing problem in an advanced country but there is neither earning rate nor assessment standards in our country. Therefore, studies on house rental supplement are required to develop this systems. Hence in this study, we try to suggest both proper house rental charge to encourage nongovernmental construction and house rental supplement, considerng ability to pay.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a risk factor dictionary was developed to satisfy the requirement of a company and overcome a limit of the existing risk checklists, which has great meanings to get a lot of direct and indirect accomplishments over the simplified table during the development process.
Abstract: Recently, the government is very active to secure the financial resources by inducement of the private investment in fulfilling an extension of the SOC facilities. One of the reasons that the private investors hesitate to put money into the private finance projects, however, is the lack of knowledges about various risks to be possibly incurred during the project execution. This research was performed as one of the preparation works in order for a A engineering company to act as a prime contractor of the project management service in the private finance project, and finally developed the risk factor dictionary as a new concept to satisfy the requirement of a A company and overcome a limit of the existing risk checklists. Although the risk factor dictionary looks like the only simplified table to be the risk factors identified in three dimensions, the impacts and response strategies expressed in narrative and multi-items, and the responsible parties indicated, it has great meanings to get a lot of direct and indirect accomplishments over the simplified table during the development process.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a risk-based approach for traffic safety facilities using qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methodology and procedure for highway safety facilities, which can be used as riskbased approach incorporating VE process.
Abstract: Risk elements of highway safety facilities are affected by complex environments. Thus, risk-based approach for traffic safety facilities is needed. For this, in this study, qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methodology and procedure for highway safety facilities is proposed, which can be used as risk-based approach incorporating VE process. Also, for the quantitative risk assessment, event tree using EPDO(Equivalent Property Damage Only) with respect to frequency and magnitude of risk events is introduced. As a result, risk index of alternative 1(140cm) and 2(127(cm) which can be used as performance factor in VE approach are estimated.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed an optimum combination model of earth work equipments by using a system dynamics technique and tested and evaluated the model by the sample application to a case study.
Abstract: The earth work has been improved with the utilization of capital intensive equipments. However, work performance is not satisfactory yet due to its experience-oriented characteristics in selecting the combination of earth work equipments. Therefore, it is required to study on appropriate and systematic methods in selecting a set of equipments for earth work in order to optimize the cost and time as well as to improve the productivity. The objectives of this paper are as followed : (1) developing an optimum combination model of earth work equipments by using a system dynamics technique. (2) testing and evaluating the model by the sample application to a case study. The research is limited to the work of excavating, loading and hauling. The suggested model is proved in practice, so it will assist engineers to make the proper decision for equipment planning of earth work.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors make the forecast systems as a derivative approach of System Dynamics also, that is useful in comparing the argument between Government and Professional Engineers Institution, and suggest the idea to regulate the supply and demand with the improvement of the regal system.
Abstract: By prosperous condition of construction economy in the early 90s in Korea, the government needed a lot of the qualified professional engineers (PE) to manage the construction site. In order to meet the high demand of P.E., Government has established the admitted engineer systems(AES) in 1995 that give the authority of principal engineers to the admitted engineers who do not take the written examination but have equivalent working experience. Since 2000, professional shortage has been resolved. however, the opposite situation, which is serious over-supply of construction engineers has occurred. Thus, Government announced that would abolish the admitted engineer systems as recognized the existent admitted engineers(about 1,000,000 persons) from 2007. However, Professional Engineers Institution has strongly insisted that Government should not recognize existent admitted engineers. From this point of view, it is critical to make the supply-demand forecast systems as a derivative approach of System Dynamics also, that is useful in comparing the argument between Government and Professional Engineers Institution. This paper describes about principal supply change by admitted engineer system abrogation and suggests the idea to regulate the supply and demand with the improvement of the regal system.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the influencing factors that should be considered to select the delivery method in thermal power construction business and develop a standard of selection of appropriate delivery method through questionnaire and interviews to establish a model to select a delivery method that fits the business goal of the subject of delivery.
Abstract: With the electricity industry structure reformation of the government in April, 2001, Korea Power Electric Corporation was divided in to Korea water power nuclear power and 5 thermal power plant. After, various delivery method is introduced and applied for active profit creation according to the competition between each development companies for the public company privatization. However, the current situation does not satisfy the project participant by selecting the delivery method without reflecting the business goal and project characteristics of power plant construction business. The objective of this study is to research the influencing factors that should be considered to select the delivery method in thermal power construction business and develop a standard of selection of appropriate delivery method through questionnaire and interviews to establish a model to select the delivery method that fits the business goal of the subject of delivery. In the future, if the delivery method selection model suggested in this study is applied, it is expected to select the appropriate delivery method of power plant construction business by effectively reflecting the business goal, characteristics and demand of the delivery subject, and characteristics of the construction business apart from the existing customary practices that decided the delivery method dependent on the subjective and experience based judgement.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A continuous examination of the management of high-importance factors will make it possible to improve productivity by enhancing the understanding of productivity-affecting factors of finishing works and suggesting a practical management direction.
Abstract: There is an increase in interest and investment in high-rise housing as it is perceived to be a new value-added market in the construction industry. In constructing a high-rise housing, the finishing works are executed in accompaniment with many other activities that are progressed repeatedly and spontaneously on each floor. It was reported that the duration of finishing works differs according to the management ability of the executing company and has a significant effect on the entire project duration. We suggest a need to concentrate on important management factors by analyzing the factors affecting the productivity of finishing works based on the site characteristics in high-rise housing. There are various complex productivity-affecting factors including the technical factors involved in planning and managing the processes of finishing works. From the viewpoint of planning and management factors, the importance of productivity-affecting factors was analyzed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A continuous examination of the management of high-importance factors will make it possible to improve productivity by enhancing the understanding of productivity-affecting factors of finishing works and suggesting a practical management direction.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a road pavement operation is selected as a case and simulation method is used for analyzing it and next probability distributions are created after analyzing collected data and these are reflected in simulation model.
Abstract: Project management means usually managing the rate of construction progress. But it also contains preparing scheme of execution and establishing plan for equipment, material, labor force to finish project within expected duration. In this paper to establish effective project planning a road pavement operation is selected as a case and simulation method is used for analyzing it. Next probability distributions are created after analyzing collected data and these are reflected in simulation model. Simulated result is compared with real project planning using models of lean concrete pavement process and concrete slab pavement process to verify efficiency of this model. In the event we know that project planning using simulation is more effective than one of the field in the aspects of duration and cost. Meanwhile simulated result in this paper has a limitation in accuracy because various constraints of filed are not reflected in it. However if we reflect this constraints in model through examining field in future this limitation is expected to be improved.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a survey has been conducted in order to analyse BTL projects status, propriety of economic analysis method(VFM analysis, calculation of estimated business expenses, valuation of bidding price, etc.) by business advance phases from the viewpoint of person in charge, necessity of improvement and alternative plants.
Abstract: As BTL(Build-Transfer-Lease) private investment business benchmarking PHI(Private Finance Initiative) of USA and Japan is introduces to Korea since 2005, as a part of supplying high leveled public service and early expanding required facilities for SOC, Value for Money on private investment business from treasury investment business at the beginning gets to be needed. Accordingly, this survey has been conducted in order to analyse BTL projects status, propriety of economic analysis method(VFM analysis, calculation of estimated business expenses, valuation of bidding price, etc.) by business advance phases from the viewpoint of person in charge, necessity of improvement and alternative plants. As the result of conducting cross tabulation analysis and correlation analysis by occupational group, BTL project advance phases and alternative plans for improvement, it is necessary ye prepare standardized service level against business expense and basis for calculating and evaluation operation expenses. Based on the necessity of quantitative analysis (LCC analysis) of VFM, standard for calculating management, maintenance and administration expenses is required. In addition, reliable economic valuation system considering domestic BTL environment should be setup, for business efficiency.