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JournalISSN: 0921-2973

Landscape Ecology 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Landscape Ecology is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Landscape ecology & Habitat. It has an ISSN identifier of 0921-2973. Over the lifetime, 3459 publications have been published receiving 192543 citations.


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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed three indices of pattern derived from information theory and fractal geometry for 94 quadrangles covering most of the eastern United States using digitized maps.
Abstract: Landscape ecology deals with the patterning of ecosystems in space. Methods are needed to quantify aspects of spatial pattern that can be correlated with ecological processes. The present paper develops three indices of pattern derived from information theory and fractal geometry. Using digitized maps, the indices are calculated for 94 quadrangles covering most of the eastern United States. The indices are shown to be reasonably independent of each other and to capture major features of landscape pattern. One of the indices, the fractal dimension, is shown to be correlated with the degree of human manipulation of the landscape.

1,453 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a multivariate factor analysis was used to identify the common axes (or dimensions) of pattern and structure which were measured by a reduced set of 26 metrics, which were interpreted as composite measures of average patch compaction, overall image texture, average patch shape, patch perimeter-area scaling, number of attribute classes, and large-patch density area scaling.
Abstract: Fifty-five metrics of landscape pattern and structure were calculated for 85 maps of land use and land cover. A multivariate factor analysis was used to identify the common axes (or dimensions) of pattern and structure which were measured by a reduced set of 26 metrics. The first six factors explained about 87% of the variation in the 26 landscape metrics. These factors were interpreted as composite measures of average patch compaction, overall image texture, average patch shape, patch perimeter-area scaling, number of attribute classes, and large-patch density-area scaling. We suggest that these factors can be represented in a simpler way by six univariate metrics - average perimeter-area ratio, contagion, standardized patch shape, patch perimeter-area scaling, number of attribute classes, and large-patch density-area scaling.

1,217 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of changing the grain (the first level of spatial resolution possible with a given data set) and extent (the total area of the study) of landscape data on observed spatial patterns and to identify some general rules for comparing measures obtained at different scales.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of changing the grain (the first level of spatial resolution possible with a given data set) and extent (the total area of the study) of landscape data on observed spatial patterns and to identify some general rules for comparing measures obtained at different scales. Simple random maps, maps with contagion (i.e., clusters of the same land cover type), and actual landscape data from USGS land use (LUDA) data maps were used in the analyses. Landscape patterns were compared using indices measuring diversity (H), dominance (D) and contagion (C). Rare land cover types were lost as grain became coarser. This loss could be predicted analytically for random maps with two land cover types, and it was observed in actual landscapes as grain was increased experimentally. However, the rate of loss was influenced by the spatial pattern. Land cover types that were clumped disappeared slowly or were retained with increasing grain, whereas cover types that were dispersed were lost rapidly. The diversity index decreased linearly with increasing grain size, but dominance and contagion did not show a linear relationship. The indices D and C increased with increasing extent, but H exhibited a variable response. The indices were sensitive to the number (m) of cover types observed in the data set and the fraction of the landscape occupied by each cover type (P k); both m and P kvaried with grain and extent. Qualitative and quantitative changes in measurements across spatial scales will differ depending on how scale is defined. Characterizing the relationships between ecological measurements and the grain or extent of the data may make it possible to predict or correct for the loss of information with changes in spatial scale.

994 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Landscape sustainability is defined as the capacity of a landscape to consistently provide long-term, landscape-specific ecosystem services essential for maintaining and improving human well-being as discussed by the authors, which is a place-based, use-inspired science of understanding and improving the dynamic relationship between ecosystem services and human wellbeing in changing landscapes under uncertainties arising from internal feedbacks and external disturbances.
Abstract: The future of humanity depends on whether or not we have a vision to guide our transition toward sustainability, on scales ranging from local landscapes to the planet as a whole. Sustainability science is at the core of this vision, and landscapes and regions represent a pivotal scale domain. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to elucidate key definitions and concepts of sustainability, including the Brundtland definition, the triple bottom line, weak and strong sustainability, resilience, human well-being, and ecosystem services; (2) to examine key definitions and concepts of landscape sustainability, including those derived from general concepts and those developed for specific landscapes; and (3) to propose a framework for developing a science of landscape sustainability. Landscape sustainability is defined as the capacity of a landscape to consistently provide long-term, landscape-specific ecosystem services essential for maintaining and improving human well-being. Fundamentally, well-being is a journey, not a destination. Landscape sustainability science is a place-based, use-inspired science of understanding and improving the dynamic relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being in changing landscapes under uncertainties arising from internal feedbacks and external disturbances. While landscape sustainability science emphasizes place-based research on landscape and regional scales, significant between landscape interactions and hierarchical linkages to both finer and broader scales (or externalities) must not be ignored. To advance landscape sustainability science, spatially explicit methods are essential, especially experimental approaches that take advantage of designed landscapes and multi-scaled simulation models that couple the dynamics of landscape services (ecosystem services provided by multiple landscape elements in combination as emergent properties) and human well-being.

989 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored if there are any scaling relations for landscape pattern when it is measured over a range of scales (grain size and extent) and found that the responses of landscape metrics to changing scale fell into two categories when computed at the class level (i.e., for individual land cover types): simple scaling functions and unpredictable behavior).
Abstract: Landscape pattern is spatially correlated and scale-dependent. Thus, understanding landscape structure and functioning requires multiscale information, and scaling functions are the most precise and concise way of quantifying multiscale characteristics explicitly. The major objective of this study was to explore if there are any scaling relations for landscape pattern when it is measured over a range of scales (grain size and extent). The results showed that the responses of landscape metrics to changing scale fell into two categories when computed at the class level (i.e., for individual land cover types): simple scaling functions and unpredictable behavior. Similarly, three categories were found at the landscape level, with the third being staircase pattern, in a previous study when all land cover types were combined together. In general, scaling relations were more variable at the class level than at the landscape level, and more consistent and predictable with changing grain size than with changing extent at both levels. Considering that the landscapes under study were quite diverse in terms of both composition and configuration, these results seem robust. This study highlights the need for multiscale analysis in order to adequately characterize and monitor landscape heterogeneity, and provides insights into the scaling of landscape patterns.

944 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2023136
2022219
2021251
2020179
2019192
2018149