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Showing papers in "Language in 1976"



Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1976-Language
TL;DR: In this article, the basilectal verb-phrase is used to describe creole systems and from mesolect to acrolect, which is a technique used in the description of creole languages.
Abstract: Acknowledgements 1. Problems in the description of creole systems 2. The basilectal verb-phrase 3. From basilect to mesolect 4. From mesolect to acrolect 5. Implications for linguistic theory Appendices 1-3 Bibliography Index.

355 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1976-Language
TL;DR: In the lexical field of English adjectives referring to sensory experience, there has been a continuing semantic change so regular, so enduring, and so inclusive that its description may be the strongest generalization in diachronic semantics reported for English or any other language.
Abstract: The century-old failure of historical linguistics to discover regularities of semantic change comparable to those in phonological change, as described by Grassmann or Grimm, has forced us to entertain as 'semantic laws' proposals that express mere tendencies, or are so restricted to a particular time, language, or narrow inventory, that the 'law' is indistinguishable from a description of a discrete historical event. But in the lexical field of English adjectives referring to sensory experience, there has been a continuing semantic change so regular, so enduring, and so inclusive that its description may be the strongest generalization in diachronic semantics reported for English or any other language. On the basis of very similar evidence from IndoEuropean cognates and from Japanese, the possibility exists that the regularity described here might characterize more than just these languages. It qualifies as a testable hypothesis in regard to future semantic change in any language.*

244 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1976-Language
TL;DR: In this paper, a number of syntactic constructions claimed by linguists to be restricted to main clauses are shown to occur in a variety of subordinate clause types, but only under certain mysterious conditions-basically, when the speaker desires to be understood as committed to the truth of the subordinate clause.
Abstract: University of Illinois A number of syntactic constructions claimed by linguists to be restricted to main clauses are shown to occur, in fact, in a variety of subordinate clause types, but only under certain mysterious conditions-basically, when the speaker desires to be understood as committed to the truth of the subordinate clause. Formalization of this notion, however, remains elusive. The analysis of this phenomenon by Hooper & Thompson 1973, while attractive and initially explanatory, is shown to be, before the final analysis, incapable of accounting for the range of embedding environments allowed, which differs from one restricted construction to another. It is shown in the present paper that an adequate solution will involve a complex interaction of several factors-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic-and the range of data to be accounted for is partially delineated.*

190 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1976-Language
TL;DR: It is argued in this paper that conjunction reduction, gapping, and right-node raising are three separate phenomena in English, each having its own set of constraints and therefore requiring a separate rule.
Abstract: It is argued that Conjunction Reduction, Gapping, and Right-node Raising are three separate phenomena in English, each having its own set of constraints and therefore needing a separate rule. Contrary to earlier analyses, these rules do not delete, but just raise. This is true even of Gapping, which is shown to be a special case of a more general rule of Conjunct Postposing, which is also responsible for 'split cooiirdinations' like John came, and Bill (too). All three rules appear to apply at the level of surface structure, and can be formulated in such a way that they leave that structure perhaps surprisingly unaffected.*

111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1976-Language
TL;DR: In this article, it is concluded that these segments involve internal sequencing, and that rules should exist which can produce and manipulate such intra-segmental structure, and applications of such rules are briefly suggested.
Abstract: Phonetic theory has generally been based on the assumption that speech can be divided into discrete segments, each phonetically homogeneous with respect to all linguistically significant parameters. Among the nasal consonants, however, are segments which must have internal sequential structure. Primary nasal consonants are first discussed here, and it is concluded that these should be described as non-continuants. Various possible characterizations of complex nasal segments (preand post-nasalized stops) are then considered, and it is concluded that no feature homogeneous over the segment is adequate to describe them. The conclusion that these segments involve internal sequencing suggests that rules should exist which can produce and manipulate such intra-segmental structure. Applications of such rules are briefly suggested.*

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1976-Language

89 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1976-Language

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1976-Language
TL;DR: In this article, a clustering algorithm is used to display relations of similarity and dominance among clusters of speakers according to their language choice in inter-ethnic work situations in three African cities.
Abstract: Findings on language use among peers in inter-ethnic work situations in three African cities are presented. A clustering algorithm is used to display relations of similarity and dominance among clusters of speakers according to their language choice in this situation. The explanation of these data, as displayed by the algorithm, promotes the development of theory regarding socio-verbal interaction in uncertain situations which call for reciprocal participant accommodation, such as conversations with peers at work. Specifically, the data suggest that neutrality strategies in language choice are perceived as necessary to make such interactions successful.*

73 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1976-Language



Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1976-Language
TL;DR: It is shown here that equivalent or analogous evidence exists in French (time-adverbials, tags, corrective responses, negative particles and polarity items, mood) for NEG-Raising.
Abstract: Considerable syntactic evidence from English has been presented in the literature for a rule of NEG-Raising. It is shown here that equivalent or analogous evidence exists in French (time-adverbials, tags, corrective responses, negative particles and polarity items, mood). NEG-Raising and its domain are then reconsidered from a functional perspective, whereby the transformation is shown to be a HEDGING device-operating only in sentences containing a type of pseudo-performative, which also has the function of hedging. Such an analysis not only is supported by the original data, but also automatically accounts for otherwise inexplicable and unrelated syntactic facts.*


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1976-Language
TL;DR: The authors examines the applicability to the history of linguistics of Thomas Kuhn's notion of the revolution and concludes that his notion of REVOLUTION can be applied to linguistics; but the same is not true of his other key notion, the PARADIGM.
Abstract: This paper examines the applicability to the history of linguistics of Thomas Kuhn's conception of the history of science. It concludes that his notion of REVOLUTION, borrowed from the history of the non-sciences, can be applied to the history of linguistics; but the same is not true of his other key notion, the PARADIGM. The possession of paradigms, according to Kuhn, is what distinguishes the hard sciences from fields in the humanities and social sciences which have not achieved scientific maturity. Kuhn regards a paradigm as (1) resulting from an outstanding scientific achievement on the part of a single innovator, and (2) commanding uniform assent among all the members of the discipline. If these two requirements are to be everywhere met, the concept cannot be applied either to the history or the present state of linguistics. Serious objections can also be raised to other features of Kuhn's theory, such as the view that shifting allegiance from one paradigm to another is a largely irrational process. The paper recommends, then, that linguists abandon the theory.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1976-Language
TL;DR: In this paper, the genesis of the reflexive impersonal construction in Portuguese is shown to have no formal connection-not even a merely descriptive one-with the transformations of Agentization and Object Fronting that were involved in the derivation of its ancestor.
Abstract: Syntactic change is viewed as a process that is critically dependent on the surface properties of language and essentially independent of grammatical derivations. In this framework, the genesis of the reflexive impersonal construction in Portuguese is shown to have no formal connection-not even a merely descriptive one-with the transformations of Agentization and Object Fronting that were involved in the derivation of its ancestor, the reflexive passive. Evidence from other sources supporting the surface framework is briefly discussed, and an explanation is offered for its validity in terms of the real-world circumstances under which language change occurs.*


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1976-Language
TL;DR: The notion of basic color category universals was further supported by Collier as mentioned in this paper, who argued that a bias in the organization of their color materials had not been ruled out by Berlin & Kay 1969.
Abstract: We have found further evidence to support the notion of basic color category universals and to refute criticism leveled in a review in this journal, by Collier 1973, at Berlin & Kay 1969. That review argued that a bias in the organization of their color materials had not been ruled out by BK see Figure 1 (p. 885). The hue dimension corresponds to variation which we associate with the color wheel, and is commonly represented as circular. Brightness is the relative amount of black (or white) in a color, or its reflectance. Saturation is its purity. Visible colors organized along these dimensions form a solid whose skin corresponds to the upper limits of purity (saturation) that the eye is capable of perceiving for a given hue and brightness. This limit varies according to hue and brightness, such that the color solid has an irregular surface-with peaks corresponding to hue and brightness combinations for which the eye can perceive greater purity, and valleys corresponding to combinations for which relatively less purity is visible. R&K used Munsell Color Company pigmented papers to represent the surface of the color solid.2 This well-known set of standardized colors samples the color solid in perceptually equal steps within each color dimension. The B&K materials were organized in a chart of 40 columns of hue and 8 rows of brightness.3 Each hue-and-brightness position in mhe chart displayed the Munsell color of maximum saturation. Thus the saturation value varied in the chart, as shown in Figure 2.


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1976-Language
TL;DR: This article argued that surface phonetic constraints are sufficient and sufficient for a generative grammar, and that morpheme-structure conditions play no independent role (and thus have no place) in phonological theory.
Abstract: Shibatani 1973 has suggested that surface phonetic constraints are a necessary part of a psychologically real grammar. I claim that, in addition, such constraints are sufficient-that they are the only true generalizations in a generative grammar, and that morpheme-structure conditions play no independent role (and thus have no place) in phonological theory. Both synchronic and diachronic arguments for this position are presented. An implication of this claim for phonological theory, aside from the obvious change in the form of a grammar, is that, without the possibility of referring to the simplicity of MSC's, analyses based on certain assumptions about the nature of underlying representations can no longer claim support from the theory.*




Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1976-Language
TL;DR: The authors argued that syllable shape is a function of the morpheme structure constraints in a given language and that the composition of medial clusters is a reflection of those constraints as they apply to initial and final groups.
Abstract: It can be argued that syllable shape is a function of the morpheme structure constraints in a given language-and that, in segments more than one syllable long, the composition of medial clusters is a reflection of those constraints as they apply to initial and final groups. Further, given a convention for syllable bracketing, it is possible to show a further characteristic of medial clusters: namely, that they ideally overlap, i.e. have simultaneous membership of both the preceding and following syllable segment. Examples will be chosen from the diachronic phonology of English to illustrate the last two characteristics of syllables and to further support the claim that the syllable is a phonological prime.