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Showing papers in "Leonardo in 1972"



Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo

81 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 1972-Leonardo

62 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 1972-Leonardo

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this article, the authors draw renewed attention to inverted perspective because it can serve to illustrate two fundamentally different ways of interpreting pictorial form and it has found new applications in the art of our century.
Abstract: The author draws renewed attention to inverted perspective because it can serve to illustrate two fundamentally different ways of interpreting pictorial form and it has found new applications in the art of our century. He analyzes several examples of artists' works made in the past and in the present to show that the illusionistic doctrine is not well suited for dealing with formal features that contradict the optical projection of three-dimensional objects on a pictorial surface. He points out how such formal features enhance visual display and expression, which are the basic objectives of picture-making.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that music often catches up with visual art on the poetic plane and, in my opinion, leads more directly to the self-knowledge of man.
Abstract: painting. The world of images is much more abundant than the world of sound and music is much less interesting from the point of view of utility. In spite of this delay between them in prosaic chronological order, music often catches up with visual art on the poetic plane and, in my opinion, leads more directly to the self-knowledge of man.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the responses of a hypothetical viewer sensitive only to the cues of geometrical perspective, and describe an experiment on the perception of a perspective checkerboard under nine different conditions, and find that a viewer whose vision conforms to these rules will be highly responsive to the picture plane relative to his exact viewpoint.
Abstract: Geometrical perspective can provide a precise set of rules for the interpretation of a pattern of marks on a plane as a pattern of things in space. A viewer whose vision conforms to these rules will be highly responsive to the picture plane relative to his exact viewpoint. In the first part of the paper, the author examines in detail the responses of a hypothetical viewer sensitive only to the cues of geometrical perspective. In the second half, he describes an experiment on the perception of a perspective checkerboard under nine different conditions. Principal results are: (1) geometrical picture-space, as defined by perspective cues only, varies with the viewer's viewpoint as follows: g = kv, where v is the orthogonal distance from the viewpoint to the picture plane and g is the corresponding depth perceived in the picture-plane; and (2) perceptual picture-space, as determined by the interaction of several perceptual cues, falls substantially short of what a hypothetical 'geometrical man' would see. The loss is greater the greater the expected depth. Contrary to hypothesis, conditions of perceiver viewing, e.g. looking through apinhole, do not substantially increase accuracy in interpreting linear perspective

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 1972-Leonardo

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: The EEG Alpha brain-wave monitoring technique has been applied to a group encounter performance system for producing sounds by the conscious control of the character of the Alpha brain waves as discussed by the authors, which can also be used at present for producing the flashing of lights.
Abstract: The author discusses his attitudes to music and the possible impact on it of technological developments. He describes the work he has done to apply the EEG Alpha brain-wave monitoring technique to a group encounter performance system for producing sounds by the conscious control of the character of the Alpha brain waves. This system can also be used at present for producing the flashing of lights. Questions posed by an audience after an informal talk on the subject by the author and his replies are included at the end of the text. L’auteur expose ce qu’il pense de la musique et de la possible influence des développements technologiques sur elle. Il décrit les expériences qu’il a faites pour appliquer à un groupe d’individus la technique de contrôle des ondes Alpha du cerveau à l’aide d’électroencéphalogrammes, dans le but de produire des sons grâce à la maîtrise consciente par chaque sujet de la nature de ses ondes Alpha. Ce Système peut aussi être utilisé à l’heure actuelle pour produire des éclairs lumineux. Des questions posées à l’auteur par des interlocuteurs au cours d’une discussion sur ce sujet et les réponses qu’il a données sont rapportées à la fin du texte.

18 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: Barbadillo's subjective visual model as discussed by the authors can be used to generate pictures controlled by automatic processes of selectivity using a single black and white square module with 16 structural elements (structural elements can be generated from this module by rotation, mirror image and by interchanging black and whites).
Abstract: From 1964 to 1968, Manuel Barbadillo based many of his pictures on a single black and white square module. Sixteen different forms (structural elements) can be generated from this module by rotation, mirror image and by interchanging black and white. Any of these structural elements can be used in each position of a 4×4 grid to construct a picture. Areas of the same colour in adjacent structural elements coalesce and lead the eye freely about the picture. In addition to this aspect of the picture, the artist used strong symmetry, which gives ‘liveliness’ to it. The ideas invoiced are very vague and the main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to render them amenable to computer programming. Firstly, the author subjectively distinguishes ‘tracking’ movement and ‘skipping’ movement of the eyes and describes them in detail. Next, these concepts are ‘temporarily closed’ by definitions. These definitions define a subjective visual model but cannot define the real visual qualities of Barbadillo’s pictures. They permit numerical analysis. Eight test pictures of 2 × 2 elements are presented with numerical results that seem plausible. It is hoped that the incorporation of this subjective visual model into a computer programme may enable the generation of pictures controlled by automatic processes of selectivity. De 1964 a 1968, Manuel Barbadillo prit pour element de base de plusieurs de ses tableaux un seul module carre en noir et blanc. Ce module peut engendrer seize formes differentes (ou elements structuraux) par rotation, par reflexion dans un miroir et par interversion du noir et du blanc. On peut utiliser l’un quelconque de ces elements structuraux dans n’importe quelle case d’une grille de 4 × 4 pour composer un tableau. Dans des elements structuraux adjacents, les zones de la meme couleur fusionnent et guident librement l’œil sur la surface du tableau. Outre cet aspect du tableau, l’artiste utilisait une forte symetrie, ce qui contribue a la vie de l’œuvre. Les idees impliquees sont tres vagues, et l’objet principal de cet article est de montrer comment les programmer sur ordinateur. En premier lieu, l’auteur decrit en detail les mouvements des yeux en distinguant subjectivement ceux qui consistent a “suivre des yeux” de ceux qui consistent a “sauter d’un point a un autre”. Ensuite, ces concepts sont “momentanement fermes” par des definitions qui definissent un modele visuel subjectif, mais ne peuvent definir les qualites visuelles reelles des tableaux de Barbadillo. Ces definitions permettent l’analyse numerique. Huit tableaux-test de 2 × 2 elements sont presentes avec des resultats numeriques qui semblent plausibles. L’auteur espere que l’integration de ce modele visuel subjectif a un programme pour ordinateur permettra de produire des tableaux controles par des procedes automatiques de selection.

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the relationship between time and space in music and visual art and conclude that it is not correct to classify music as simply a 'temporal' art and visual arts as'spatial' arts.
Abstract: The author notes that the concept of the interdependence of space and time is one of the most exciting ones in contemporary physics and philosophy. In works of art, there is also an interlocking of space and time, however, she points out that it does not involve problems of relativistic physics. She outlines the temporal and spatial aspects of music and of different kinds of visual art, such as static painting and sculpture, Op art and kinetic art. The differences between objective space and time, and psychological space and time are discussed as they pertain to these arts. She concludes that it is not correct to classify music as simply a 'temporal' art and the visual arts as 'spatial' arts, for in both of these art forms there is an interrelationship between time and space.


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this paper, the author discusses the uncertain meaning of the terms modern and freedom whenever applied but especially in art, and defends his conviction that paintings of this kind still have value, in spite of close-up photographs now available of the lunar surface and better ones of Mars than could be obtained before the space age by means of telescopes on the Earth.
Abstract: The author discusses the uncertain meaning of the terms modern and freedom whenever applied but especially in art. He is of the view that neither of the terms have much significance, although they are so frequently used. His outlook is the result of painting for many years representational landscapes of the planets of the solar system. He describes the problems he has encountered in making such paintings. He defends his conviction that paintings of this kind still have value, in spite of close-up photographs now available of the lunar surface and better ones of Mars than could be obtained before the space age by means of telescopes on the Earth. Furthermore, he continues to obtain aesthetic inspiration from extraterrestrial sources.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: One of the unique characteristics of fine art since 1910 has been the acceptance of technology and machines as viable subjects for painters and sculpteurs as mentioned in this paper, and this interest developed at a time when middle class homes, particularly in America, began receiving a host of electrical appliances.
Abstract: The author points out that one of the unique characteristics of fine art since 1910 has been the acceptance of technology and machines as viable subjects for painters and sculptors. This interest developed at a time when middle class homes, particularly in America, began receiving a host of electrical appliances. Much of this new art of technology was highly satirical, often in sympathy with the invention cartoons of the American, Rube Goldberg. In fact, some artists, particularly Duchamp, were inspired by the Goldberg cartoons. Both the Goldberg inventions and some of the fine art works produced since 1910 follow a style of satire described by Sigmund Freud. They also point out some of the basic characteristics of modern technology that most observers have failed to see. L’auteur remarque que l’une des seules caracteristiques des beaux arts depuis 1910 a ete la reconnaissance de la technologie et des machines en tant que themes d’inspiration pour les peintres et les sculpteurs. Ce sujet d’interet s’est impose lorsque les logements de la petite bourgeoisie ont commence a etre equipes d’appareils electriques, aux Etats-Unis en particulier. Une grande partie de ces nouvelles formes d’art liees a la technologie etait fortement satirique, et denotait une attitude similaire a celle de l’Americain Rube Goldberg dans ses bandes dessinees ayant pour theme des inventions techniques. Certains artistes comme Duchamp furent en fait directement inspires par les bandes dessinees de Goldberg. Les inventions de Goldberg et certaines œuvres d’art produites a partir de 1910 ont ce style satirique qui a ete decrit par Sigmund Freud. Elles mettent egalement en evidence certains des traits fondamentaux de la technologie moderne que la plupart des commentateurs n’ont pas vus.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this paper, the technical aspects of the Lumia (kinetic painting with projected light) produced by various systems under his designation, Chromara, are described and their characteristics evaluated, including cabinet-type instruments and large-scale wall or screen projection systems.
Abstract: The author presents in detail the technical aspects of his Lumia (kinetic painting with projected light) produced by various systems under his designation, Chromara. There is a discussion of Thomas Wilfred’s pioneering efforts in developing a form of this art for which he proposed the name Lumia (he called his particular instrument a Clavilux). Both cabinet-type instruments and large-scale wall or screen projection systems developed by the author are described and their characteristics evaluated. He comments on his experiments associating music and Lumia and, especially, the characteristics of the inherently different senses of seeing and hearing. Conclusions about kinetic art with light as an art form are not offered. However, he hopes others will benefit from his experience. L’auteur explique en détail les aspects techniques de ses Lumia (peintures cinétiques avec projection de lumière) qui peuvent être produits par divers systèmes qu’il désigne du nom de Chromara. Il rend compte des efforts de Thomas Wilfred pour développer cette forme d’art qu’il pensait appeler Lumia (Wilfred appelait ses propres oeuvres Clavilux). Il décrit d’une part ses objets cinétiques en forme de boîte, d’autre part ses systèmes de projection à grande échelle sur mur ou sur écran, et évalue leurs qualités esthétiques. Il commente également les expériences qu’il a faites dans le but d’associer la musique à des Lumia, et souligne en particulier les caractéristiques respectives de sens aussi différente que la vue et l’ouïe. Il ne tire pas de conclusion générale sur l’art cinétique, mais il espère toutefois que d’autres pourront bénéficier de ses efforts.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: The Exploratorium as discussed by the authors is governed by the Palace of Arts and Science Foundation and it opened in 1969 after receiving its initial grant of $50,000.00 from the San Francisco Foundation.
Abstract: The Exploratorium is governed by the Palace of Arts and Science Foundation. It opened in September, 1969 after receiving its initial grant of $50,000.00 from the San Francisco Foundation. The first exhibits were put together for us by the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and by the Ames Research Center (NASA). Since that time we have gradually developed our exhibits to the stage at which the innovative and important features of the Exploratorium have become clear to the visitors. Much of its development remains for the future but we have been able to test the validity of its basic pedagogical conception. At the same time, we have provided an educational resource for the San Francisco Bay Area, which attracts about 6,000 students in scheduled visits and 15,000 to 20,000 general public visitors each month. Our initial interest in developing the Exploratorium, however, was broader than the creation of a new educational resource. We were convinced that museum-like institutions were a neglected form of education in America and that, by updating their techniques, the school systems could be relieved of educational burdens and objectives for which they

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: Newmark and Von Huene as discussed by the authors describe the use of biomorphic forms activated by a player-piano mechanism and accompanied by music as the culmination of a period in their work.
Abstract: Newmark-'Tap Dancer' (1969) (cf. Fig. 1) is your latest audio-kinetic sculpture. Do you feel it is the culmination of a period in your work? Von Huene-All of the sculptures that were in my 1969 exhibit at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art were the culmination of a certain direction; that is, the use of biomorphic forms activated by a player-piano mechanism and accompanied by music. 'Kaleidophonic Dog' (1967) (cf. Fig. 2) was my first machine to operate successfully. A dog is

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: The physical and psychological principles underlying the achievement of the effects are discussed in detail in detail as mentioned in this paper and the author explains what a magician is and discusses why the doing of tricks appeals to so many people both from the point of view of performing them and watching them.
Abstract: The author explains what a magician is and discusses why the doing of tricks appeals to so many people both from the point of view of performing them and watching them. Seven effects used by magicians to satisfy man’s craving for control over matter, and even over his own mental and psychic aspects, are reviewed. The physical and psychological principles underlying the achievement of the effects are then discussed in detail. L’auteur explique ce qu’est un magicien et pourquoi les tours de prestidigitation plaisent a tant de gens, qu’il s’agisse de les realiser ou de les regarder. Il passe en revue sept des effets utilises par les magiciens pour satisfaire le desir de l’homme de maitriser la matiere et meme ses propres structures mentales et psychiques. Il expose ensuite en detail les principes physiques et psychologiques qui permettent la reussite de l’effet produit par les tours.

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this article, a concept of unity in drawn compositions involving combinations (hybrid) of disparate or analogous pictorial elements is presented, and the effects of repetition and the use of grids are discussed.
Abstract: The author presents a concept of unity in drawn compositions involving combinations (hybrids) of disparate or analogous pictorial elements. He discusses a series of hybrid types that concern him particularly. Reference is made to particular types of imagery and their effects, such as the feelings of direction, movement and expansion. The effects of repetition and the use of grids are discussed. He points out that grids can be employed to emphasize imagery and to give the feeling of the passage of time. In the concluding section, the author outlines the use of grid structures in Western art, beginning with functional purposes from the time of Ancient Egypt to the Renaissance, and their aesthetic application up to the present. L’auteur developpe une conception de l’unite dans les compositions qui comportent des combinaisons (hybrides) d’elements picturaux soit differents soit semblables. Il presente plusieurs genres hybrides qui le concernent particulierement. Il se refere a certains types de compositions d’images et a leurs effets, tels que les impressions de direction, de mouvement et d’expansion. Il rend compie des effets de la repetition d’elements et de l’usage des quadrillages. Il souligne le fait que les quadrillages peuvent etre employes pour faire ressortir l’image et pour donner le sentiment du temps qui passe. Dans la derniere partie, l’auteur rappelle l’usage qui a ete fait des quadrillages dans l’art occidental, depuis leur emploi fonctionnel de l’Antiquite Egyptienne a la Renaissance, pour en arriver a leur application esthetique jusqu’a aujourd’hui.


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this article, the authors carried out a study of the life work of the Danish architect, Arne Jacobsen, with whom he worked during his last years, and found that Jacobsen was regarded by all who knew him well as a considerate, gentle and warm-hearted person.
Abstract: The author has carried out a study of the life work of the Danish architect, Arne Jacobsen, with whom he worked during his last years. The high points of his architectural career are mentioned from the points of view of the use of sculpture in architecture and of architecture as sculpture. Jacobsen whenever possible insisted on having control of the overall concept of a building, including interior design and decoration, and landscaping. He brought in consultants at an early stage of each project to advise him on the use of sculpture and on other aspects making up a complete building. His own interest in design ranged from kitchen and bathroom fittings to tableware to machinery to book covers. Some felt that to achieve his target Jacobsen developed a cold manner in order to dictate to clients the precise environment in which they were to work or live. The author disputes this and says Jacobsen was regarded by all who knew him well as a considerate, gentle and warm-hearted person. L’auteur a effectue une etude de l’œuvre de l’architecte danois Arne Jacobsen, avec qui il travailla durant les annees qui precederent sa mort. Il rappelle les grands moments de sa carriere d’architecte en montrant a la fois l’utilisation qu’il faisait de la sculpture en architecture, et l’usage de l’architecture comme sculpture. Pour Jacobsen, le plus important etait de maitriser dans sa totalite le concept d’une construction, y compris la conception et la decoration interieure, et l’environnement. Au debut de chaque projet, il demandait a des experts de le conseiller sur l’utilisation des sculptures, et sur d’autres aspects necessaires a la realisation integrale d’un bâtiment. Il s’interessait personnellement tout autant aux installations de cuisines et de salles de bain qu’a la conception des pieces de vaisselle, a la machinerie ou aux reliures de livres. Certains eurent le sentiment que pour atteindre son but, Jacobsen affichait une certaine froideur afin d’imposer a ses clients l’environnement precis dans lequel ils allaient devoir travailler ou vivre. Ceci est refute par l’auteur qui affirme que Jacobsen etait considere par ceux qui le connaissaient comme un homme aimable et d’un grand coeur.

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: The first contour map made of a portion of the lunar surface as generated from a model is described in this article, as well as a scale model of Jupiter in color. And the author presents his views on art in the future, especially, as he expects it to be influenced by extraterrestrial space exploration.
Abstract: The author tells of his experiences as an interpreter of photographs of the Moon taken from astronomical observatories, from space craft and by the astronauts of the Apollo flights. He discusses three scale relief models of the following selected lunar areas: (1) ‘Alphonsus Alpha’, the central peak of the crater ‘Alphonsus’; (2) the northeast rim of the crater ‘Tycho’, including lava lakes on its flanks; and (3) ‘Schröter’s Valley’(near the crater ‘Aristarchus’. (1) The first contour map made of a portion of the lunar surface as generated from a model is described, as well as his scale model of Jupiter in color. Two examples of his art work affected by these experiences are included. Finally, he presents his views on art in the future, especially, as he expects it to be influenced by extraterrestrial space exploration. L’auteur rend compie de l’expérience qu’il a eue en interprétant des photographies de la Lune prises soit à partir d’observatoires astronomiques ou de vaisseaux spatiaux, soit par les astronautes des vols Apollo. Il présente trois maquettes en relief des régions lunaires suivantes: (1) ‘Alphonsus Alpha’, le pie centrai du cratère ‘Alphonsus’; (2) la bordure nord-est du cratère ‘Tycho’, avec les nappes de lave qui couvrent ses flancs, et (3) ‘Schröter’s Valley’, près du cratère ‘Aristarchus’. Une description est également faite, d’une part de la première carte en courbes de niveau, établie à partir d’une maquette, d’une portion de la surface lunaire, et d’autre part de sa maquette en couleur de Jupiter. L’auteur donne deux exemples de ses oeuvres d’art qui ont été marquées par ces expériences. En dernier lieu il expose ses conceptions sur l’art de l’avenir; surtout en tant qu’il sera selon lui influencé par l’exploration de l’espace extra-terrestre.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this article, the author discusses a technique of stone sculpture by jet flame and also his use of gunned concrete for large sculpture and building construction and comments upon the resemblance of his signs to those found on objects, ancient as well as in our daily life.
Abstract: The author’s sculpture and architecture are signs, i.e. basic visual elements capable of communicating a message or an idea to the viewer without previous instruction. He comments upon the resemblance of his signs to those found on objects, ancient as well as in our daily life. Illustrations are given of his sculpture and of the significant factors used in their design. He discusses a technique of stone sculpture by jet flame and also his use of gunned concrete for large sculpture and building construction. His recent architectural work includes a church and a village of leisure and culture. La sculpture et l’architecture de l’auteur sont des signes, c’est-a-dire des elements visuels de base susceptibles de communiquer au spectateur un message ou une idee, sans indication prealable. Il commente la ressemblance entre ses signes et ceux que l’on peut trouver dans des objets anciens ou encore dans la vie quotidienne. Des illustrations presentent certaines de ses sculptures, ainsi que les facteurs qui ont ete determinants dans leur conception. Il explique une technique pour sculpter la pierre a la flamme, et l’usage qu’il a fait de beton projete par canon pour des sculptures de grande envergure et pour la construction de bâtiments. Parmi ses oeuvres architecturales recentes, il decrit une eglise et un village de loisirs et de culture.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: Ensaio de cor animada (A Trial with Animated Color) as discussed by the authors is a two-minute animated 16 mm film, consisting of 2880 frames, which showed at the international shortfilm festival held in conjunction with the 8th Biennial of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1965.
Abstract: The work I shall discuss is a two-minute animated 16 mm film, consisting of 2880 frames, entitled 'Ensaio de cor animada' ('A Trial with Animated Color'), which I showed at the international shortfilm festival held in conjunction with the 8th Biennial of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1965 [1]. Since the beginning of this century, painters have shown much interest in the components from which a painting is made: lines, shapes, illusions of space, color effects, color relationships, etc. Artists frequently employ non-figurative geometrical compositions in order to study the visual effects produced by varying one or two components systematically. In a way, the painter might be said to assume the role of the psychologist of visual perception. Paintings of these kinds have been found to give aesthetic satisfaction to certain viewers. Many of the works of Albers [2, 3] are primarily studies of the interaction between different colors within essentially concentric squares. Lohse [4] and Vasarely [5] are concerned with color relationships within more complex arrays of geometrical shapes. The utility of a digital computer for assigning shapes and colors within an array has been recognized for some time [6]. The use of animation for kinetic art of a nonfigurative kind began about fifty years ago. Hans Richter made scroll-pictures in 1919 of two to five meters in length that were unrolled while viewing [7, 8]. He began making abstract black and white motion picture films in 1921, the first being 'Rhythmus 21', some frames of which are shown in Figure 99 of Reference 7. Henri Valensi in the 1930s pioneered in nonfigurative animated film in France and the sequence on a fugue by Bach in the Walt Disney film 'Fantasia' is known to a wide public. Many artists have continued to produce kinetic art of various kinds by means of animated film and I wish to describe the results of my work for the benefit of those interested in this form of contemporary art.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: The work described by artists in References 4-8 are particularly related to my interests as discussed by the authors. But they are not related to the work described in References 5-8 of this article.
Abstract: An artist who wishes to make works of relevance to the present-day world has the opportunity to apply new media developed by technology and new results obtained by psychologists of perception [1, 2]. One way to try to do this is to add to the traditional art object designed for passive contemplation the direct involvement of the viewer in controlling the object to obtain an aesthetic experience prepared by an artist. Viewer participation might involve several senses and psychological aspects of a human being. Electricity and electronic systems offer possibilities of attaining artistic experiences through viewer participation [2, 3]. In Leonardo, during the past four years, many artists have published discussions of the results they have obtained through the use of electric light in kinetic art. The work described by artists in References 4-8 are particularly related to my interests.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 1972-Leonardo
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the causal relation between physical objects and sense data, and argue that a person's behavior and circumstances provide reasons for one to realize his own condition, while his perceptual experience alone is not a good reason for his belief in the existence of physical objects.
Abstract: person’s behavior and circumstances provide reasons for one to realize his own condition. C . H. Whiteley discusses the view that mental concepts, such as thinking, perceiving, feeling pain, are essentially behavioural. H. H. Price discusses the phenomena of intelligible sounds emitted by others that may provide information about the world as it exists through other minds. The question of perceptual experience in the validation of the immediate world demands a philosophical basis. This topic forms the basis for the concluding section of essays in the book. A. J. Ayer states that when a person perceives something he never directly perceives a physical object, but sense data pertaining to it. Ayers further feels that every statement about a physical object is logically reducible to a statement or set of statements about actual or possible sense data. R. J. Hirst discusses the representatii7e theory of perception and confronts questions that are elicited by it , particularly the causal relation between physical objects and sense data. C . H. Whiteley claims that, while his perceptual experience alone is not a good reason for his believing in the existence of physical objects, perceptual experience along with certain transcendental clues makes the existence of objects certain.