About: Lipids is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Fatty acid & Polyunsaturated fatty acid. It has an ISSN identifier of 0024-4201. Over the lifetime, 8467 publication(s) have been published receiving 284980 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Separation of polar lipids by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography providing resolution of all the lipid classes commonly encountered in animal cells and a sensitive, rapid, reproducible procedure for determination of phospholipids by phosphorus analysis of spots are described.
Abstract: Separation of polar lipids by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography providing resolution of all the lipid classes commonly encountered in animal cells and a sensitive, rapid, reproducible procedure for determination of phospholipids by phosphorus analysis of spots are described. Values obtained for brain and mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids are presented.
TL;DR: Some possible reasons for the observed differences between the tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) in relation to their interactions with the important chemical species involved in lipid peroxidation, specifically trace metal ions, singlet oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and antioxidant synergists are highlighted.
Abstract: This article is a review of the fundamental chemistry of the tocopherols and tocotrienols relevant to their antioxidant action. Despite the general agreement that α-tocopherol is the most efficient antioxidant and vitamin E homologuein vivo, there was always a considerable discrepancy in its “absolute” and “relative” antioxidant effectivenessin vitro, especially when compared to γ-tocopherol. Many chemical, physical, biochemical, physicochemical, and other factors seem responsible for the observed discrepancy between the relative antioxidant potencies of the tocopherolsin vivo andin vitro. This paper aims at highlighting some possible reasons for the observed differences between the tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) in relation to their interactions with the important chemical species involved in lipid peroxidation, specifically trace metal ions, singlet oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and antioxidant synergists. Although literature reports related to the chemistry of the tocotrienols are quite meager, they also were included in the discussion in virtue of their structural and functional resemblance to the tocopherols.
TL;DR: The method reported here has the advantage of improved separations by two-dimensionM TLC, direct aspiration of spots by suction, and phosphorus analysis without pr ior elution.
Abstract: Quantitative Analysis of Phospholipids by Thin-Layer Chromatographyand Phosphorus Analysis of Spots p ROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS of phospholipid composition by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and phospho~nts analysis have been reported from a number of laboratories. These procedures usually depend upon one-dimensional TLC and elution of spots before analysis. The method reported here has the advantage of improved separations by two-dimensionM TLC, direct aspiration of spots by suction, and phosphorus analysis without pr ior elution. Our procedure depends upon two-dimensional TLC with the solvent pairs 1) chloroform/ methanol/water 65/25/4 a~ld n-butanol/acetic acid/water 60/20/20; and 2) chloroform/ methanol/2S% aqueous ammonia 65/35/5 followed by chloroform/acetone/methanol/acetic acid/water 5/271/1/0.5. The adsorbent composed of silica gel plain/magnesium silicate 9/1 (1) after spreading with a conventional Desaga spreader (0.25 nnn layer) is heat activated for 20 rain at 120C, cooled for 30 rain, spotted, and ehromatograms developed in chambers lined with solvent-saturated paper (2). Spots are detected by spraying with a 0.6% solution of potassium dichromate in 55% (by wt) sulfuric acid followed by heating for 30 rain at 180C in a forced draf t oven or by exposure to iodine vapors. Af ter development, spots are circled and lettered for identification and several blank areas corresponding in size to the sample spots are marked off. A typical ehromatogram of each series is photographed (Polaroid camera) and the spots recovered by aspiration. Aspirat ion of the spots directly into 30 ml Xjeldahl digestion flasks is accomplished by fitting a rubber stopper with two plastic tubes removed from plastic wash bottles. One tube with a pointed end serves as the intake and the other tube for attachment to a water pump for suction. Adsorbent is prevented from passing out of the digestion flask during aspiration by adding 0.9 ml of 72% perehlorie acid (used subsequently for digestion) to the flask to act as a liquid t rap by moistening the lower bulb portion of the flask and by insertion of a 1 cm square of \"Kimwipe\" or similar light weight paper into the end of the suction tube to serve as a filter. After aspiration, the plastic tubes are tapped to remove any dry powder and the paper filter pushed with a wire plunger into the flask. Digestion of the flask contents is carried out on an electrically heated Kjeldahl rack with water-pump suction to remove any escaping fumes. The heaters are adjusted to give gentle refluxing so that digestion is complete in about 20 rain. After digestion, the sides of the flask are rinsed with 5 ml of distilled water, 1 ml of 2.5% ammonium molybdate solution is added, the flask swirled for mixing, 1 ml of 10% ascorbic acid solution is added, and finally 2 nfl of distilled water are added. The solution is transferred to a centrifuge tube~ heated in a boiling water bath for 5 rain, cooled, and suspended adsorbent removed by eentrifugation for 5-10 rain. Samples and blanks are transferred to euvettes and the optical density determined at 820 m/x af ter zero adjustment with water. Sensitivity can be increased by using a 10 nfl digestion flask and one half of the specified amounts of reagents. Glassware should be acid eleaned. Corrected optical densities are determined by subtraction of the reading obtained from a blank area corresponding in size to that of the sample. The values are then converted to tLg of phosphorus using a factor derived from a standard curve prepared using Na~HPO~. The factor in our laboratories is 11.0 for standard amounts and twice that for half amounts of reagents. Molar ratios of phospholipids are obtained by expression of results as percent of the total phosphorus in the sample. Deterruination of the total phosphorus is conveniently accomplished by spotting 50-100 t~g of total sample in a blank area (upper right corner) after development with both solvents. The total sample is then charred, etc., in the same manner as the samples. For expression of results as percent of the total lipid, phosphorus values for brain lipids are multiplied by the following' factors: phosphatidyl bmsitol, 31.4; phosphatidyl serine, 26.2; lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine, 25.4 ; phosphatidic acid, 25.0; sphingomyelin, 24.8; and cardiolipin, 24.4 Aninml tissue lipid extracts are spotted at levels of 200-1000 ~g for determinations and at least four ehromatograms are developed with each of the two-dimensional systems. Average values for the major lipid classes (lecithin, sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine) are thus obtained from eight determinations. Usually spots from two eh roma tog ra ms are pooled for minor components. The values obtained from a normal adult human brain by the present procedure and the
TL;DR: The effects of CLA appear to be due in part to reduced fat deposition and increased lipolysis in adipocytes, possibly coupled with enhanced fatty acid oxidation in both muscle cells and adipocytes.
Abstract: The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body composition were investigated. ICR mice were fed a control diet containing 5.5% corn oil or a CLA-supplemented diet (5.0% corn oil plus 0.5% CLA). Mice fed CLA-supplemented diet exhibited 57% and 60% lower body fat and 5% and 14% increased lean body mass relative to controls (P < 0.05). Total carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was increased by dietary CLA supplementation in both fat pad and skeletal muscle; the differences were significant for fat pad of fed mice and skeletal muscle of fasted mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes CLA treatment (1 x 10(-4)M) significantly reduced heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity (-66%) and the intracellular concentrations of triacylglyceride (-8%) and glycerol (-15%), but significantly increased free glycerol in the culture medium (+22%) compared to control (P < 0.05). The effects of CLA on body composition appear to be due in part to reduced fat deposition and increased lipolysis in adipocytes, possibly coupled with enhanced fatty acid oxidation in both muscle cells and adipocytes.
TL;DR: The mechanisms of these primary reaction steps has been the focus of extensive research over the past fifty years, and the current level of understanding of these transformations is the subject of this review.
Abstract: The primary producs formed from the autoxidation of lipids can be understood based upon a mechanism that involves five different reaction types. These reactions are: reaction of a carbon radical and molecular oxygen, atom transfer of a hydrogen from substrate to the chain carrying peroxyl, fragmentation of the chain carrying peroxyl to give oxygen and a carbon radical, rearrangement of the peroxyl, and cyclization of the peroxyl. The mechanisms of these primary reaction steps has been the focus of extensive research over the past fifty years, and the current level of understanding of these transformations is the subject of this review.
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