Marine Ecology Progress Series
About: Marine Ecology Progress Series is an academic journal published by Inter-Research. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Phytoplankton. It has an ISSN identifier of 0171-8630. Over the lifetime, 16784 publications have been published receiving 1001582 citations. The journal is also known as: Marine Ecology - Progress Series & MEPS.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Evidence is presented to suggest that numbers of free bacteria are controlled by nanoplankton~c heterotrophic flagellates which are ubiquitous in the marine water column, thus providing the means for returning some energy from the 'microbial loop' to the conventional planktonic food chain.
Abstract: Recently developed techniques for estimating bacterial biomass and productivity indicate that bacterial biomass in the sea is related to phytoplankton concentration and that bacteria utilise 10 to 50 % of carbon fixed by photosynthesis. Evidence is presented to suggest that numbers of free bacteria are controlled by nanoplankton~c heterotrophic flagellates which are ubiquitous in the marine water column. The flagellates in turn are preyed upon by microzooplankton. Heterotrophic flagellates and microzooplankton cover the same size range as the phytoplankton, thus providing the means for returning some energy from the 'microbial loop' to the conventional planktonic food chain.
TL;DR: For example, a recent review of the early phase of the coastal eutrophication problem can be found in this article, where the authors suggest that the early (phase I) con- ceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophicication by the 1960s.
Abstract: A primary focus of coastal science during the past 3 decades has been the question: How does anthropogenic nutrient enrichment cause change in the structure or function of nearshore coastal ecosystems? This theme of environmental science is recent, so our conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem continues to change rapidly In this review, I suggest that the early (Phase I) con- ceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophication by the 1960s The Phase I model emphasized changing nutrient input as a signal, and responses to that signal as increased phytoplankton biomass and primary production, decomposition of phytoplankton- derived organic matter, and enhanced depletion of oxygen from bottom waters Coastal research in recent decades has identified key differences in the responses of lakes and coastal-estuarine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment The contemporary (Phase II) conceptual model reflects those differences and includes explicit recognition of (1) system-specific attributes that act as a filter to modulate the responses to enrichment (leading to large differences among estuarine-coastal systems in their sensitivity to nu- trient enrichment); and (2) a complex suite of direct and indirect responses including linked changes in: water transparency, distribution of vascular plants and biomass of macroalgae, sediment biogeochem- istry and nutrient cycling, nutrient ratios and their regulation of phytoplankton community composition, frequency of toxic/harmful algal blooms, habitat quality for metazoans, reproduction/growth/survival of pelagic and benthic invertebrates, and subtle changes such as shifts in the seasonality of ecosystem functions Each aspect of the Phase II model is illustrated here with examples from coastal ecosystems around the world In the last section of this review I present one vision of the next (Phase III) stage in the evolution of our conceptual model, organized around 5 questions that will guide coastal science in the early 21st century: (1) How do system-specific attributes constrain or amplify the responses of coastal ecosystems to nutrient enrichment? (2) How does nutrient enrichment interact with other stressors (toxic contaminants, fishing harvest, aquaculture, nonindigenous species, habitat loss, climate change, hydro- logic manipulations) to change coastal ecosystems? (3) How are responses to multiple stressors linked? (4) How does human-induced change in the coastal zone impact the Earth system as habitat for humanity and other species? (5) How can a deeper scientific understanding of the coastal eutrophication problem be applied to develop tools for building strategies at ecosystem restoration or rehabilitation?
TL;DR: Bacterial protein production method was an order of magnitude more sensitive and yielded bacterial carbon production directly without the need to know the cell size of the part of the assemblage in growth state.
Abstract: Bacterial carbon production is an important parameter in understanding the flows of carbon and energy in aquatic ecosystems, but has been difficult to measure. Present methods are based on measuring the rate of cell production, and thus require a knowledge of cellular carbon content of the growing bacteria to convert cell production into carbon production. We have examined the possibility that protein synthesis rate of pelagic bacteria might serve as the basis for directly estimating bacterial carbon production. We measured bacterial protein content and protein production of pelagic bacteria. Bacterial protein content was measured as amino acids by high performance liquid chromatography of cell hydrolysates of bacterial assemblages of mean diameters from 0.026 to 0.4 km. Cellular protein:volume (w/v) in the largest bacteria was 15.2 '10 (similar to cultured Escherichia coli] but increased with decreasing cell size to 46.5 % in 0.026 pm bacteria. Protein per bacterium was correlated with cell volume by the power function y = 8 8 . ~ 2 ~ ' (r2 = 0.67; p C 0.01; n = 25) . An inventory of major bacterial macromolecular pools revealed that cell protein:dry weight and cell protein:carbon were essentially constant (63 % and 54 %. respectively) for the entire cell size range although cell protein:volume increased with decreasing cell size. Thus, the smaller cells in the size range were rich in carbon and dry weight and poor in water compared with larger cells. We established the experimental conditions for estimating protein synthesis on the basis of 3H leucine incorporation by bacteria, and determined the necessary parameters (including the intracellular isotope dilution by HPLC) for converting 3~ leucine incorporation into protein synthesis rate. In samples from Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier the intracellular isotope dilution was only 2-fold. In a field study in Southern California Bight bacterial protein production and %I-thymidine incorporation methods yielded comparable rates of bacterial production. Bacterial protein production method was an order of magnitude more sensitive and yielded bacterial carbon production directly without the need to know the cell size of the part of the assemblage in growth state.
TL;DR: It appears that not all applications of otolith chemistry are firmly based, although others are destined to become powerful and perhaps routine tools for the mainstream fish biologist.
Abstract: The fish otolith (earstone) has long been known as a timekeeper, but interest in its use as a metabolically inert environmental recorder has accelerated in recent years. In part due to technological advances, applications such as stock identification, determination of migration pathways, reconstruction of temperature and salinity history, age validation, detection of anadromy, use as a natural tag and chemical mass marking have been developed, some of which are difficult or impossible to implement using alternative techniques. Microsampling and the latest advances in beam-based probes allow many elemental assays to be coupled with daily or annual growth increments, thus providing a detailed chronological record of the environment. However, few workers have critically assessed the assumptions upon which the environmental reconstructions are based, or considered the possibility that elemental incorporation into the otolith may proceed differently than that into other calcified structures. This paper reviews current applications and their assumptions and suggests future directions. Particular attention is given to the premises that the elemental and isotopic composition of the otolith reflects that of the environment, and the effect of physiological filters on the resulting composition. The roles of temperature, elemental uptake into the fish and the process of otolith crystallization are also assessed. Drawing upon recent advances in geochemistry and paleoclimate research as points of contrast, it appears that not all applications of otolith chemistry are firmly based, although others are destined to become powerful and perhaps routine tools for the mainstream fish biologist.