Materials Science and Engineering B-advanced Functional Solid-state Materials
About: Materials Science and Engineering B-advanced Functional Solid-state Materials is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Thin film & Silicon. It has an ISSN identifier of 0921-5107. Over the lifetime, 11655 publications have been published receiving 224851 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Wurtzitic ZnO is a widebandgap semiconductor which has many applications, such as piezoelectric transducers, varistors, phosphors, and transparent conducting films as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Wurtzitic ZnO is a wide-bandgap (3.437 eV at 2 K) semiconductor which has many applications, such as piezoelectric transducers, varistors, phosphors, and transparent conducting films. Most of these applications require only polycrystalline material; however, recent successes in producing large-area single crystals have opened up the possibility of producing blue and UV light emitters, and high-temperature, high-power transistors. The main advantages of ZnO as a light emitter are its large exciton binding energy (60 meV), and the existence of well-developed bulk and epitaxial growth processes; for electronic applications, its attractiveness lies in having high breakdown strength and high saturation velocity. Optical UV lasing, at both low and high temperatures, has already been demonstrated, although efficient electrical lasing must await the further development of good, p-type material. ZnO is also much more resistant to radiation damage than are other common semiconductor materials, such as Si, GaAs, CdS, and even GaN; thus, it should be useful for space applications.
TL;DR: In this article, the analysis of various parameters of metal oxides and the search of criteria, which could be used during material selection for solid-state gas sensor applications, were the main objectives of this review.
Abstract: The analysis of various parameters of metal oxides and the search of criteria, which could be used during material selection for solid-state gas sensor applications, were the main objectives of this review. For these purposes the correlation between electro-physical (band gap, electroconductivity, type of conductivity, oxygen diffusion), thermodynamic, surface, electronic, structural properties, catalytic activity and gas-sensing characteristics of metal oxides designed for solid-state sensors was established. It has been discussed the role of metal oxide manufacturability, chemical activity, and parameter's stability in sensing material choice as well.
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed study of semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) gas sensors is provided for a detailed comparison of SMO gas sensors with other gas sensors, especially for ammonia gas sensing.
Abstract: This review paper encompasses a detailed study of semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) gas sensors. It provides for a detailed comparison of SMO gas sensors with other gas sensors, especially for ammonia gas sensing. Different parameters which affect the performance (sensitivity, selectivity and stability) of SMO gas sensors are discussed here under. This paper also gives an insight about the dopant or impurity induced variations in the SMO materials used for gas sensing. It is concluded that dopants enhance the properties of SMOs for gas sensing applications by changing their microstructure and morphology, activation energy, electronic structure or band gap of the metal oxides. In some cases, dopants create defects in SMOs by generating oxygen vacancy or by forming solid solutions. These defects enhance the gas sensing properties. Different nanostructures (nanowires, nanotubes, heterojunctions), other than nanopowders have also been studied in this review. At the end, examples of SMOs are given to illustrate the potential use of different SMO materials for gas sensing.
TL;DR: In this paper, the characterization methods of carbon nanotubes which are most employed today are reviewed and the most interesting features of each technique are indexed for each technique, including the most important features of the most used techniques.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes due to their specific atomic structure have interesting chemical and physical properties according to those of graphite and diamond. This review covers the characterization methods of carbon nanotubes which are most employed today. The structure of carbon nanotubes is first briefly summarized followed by a description of the characterization methods such as STM, TEM, neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The most interesting features are indexed for each technique.
TL;DR: In this article, the main chemical routes used in the sol-gel synthesis of undoped ZnO thin films and highlights the chemical and physical parameters influencing their structural properties are summarized.
Abstract: During the last years, ZnO thin films have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in e.g. piezoelectric and optoelectronic devices or photovoltaic cells. Ordered c-axis orientation of ZnO crystallites is desirable for applications where crystallographic anisotropy is a prerequisite such as for short-wavelength semiconductor diode lasers (SDLs), and piezoelectric surface acoustic wave or acousto-optic devices. Many works were dedicated to c-axis oriented ZnO thin films elaboration and the study of their properties, including physical and chemical methods. For instance, sol–gel processes are particularly well adapted to produce ZnO films in a simple, low-cost and highly controlled way. This review summarizes the main chemical routes used in the sol–gel synthesis of undoped ZnO thin films and highlights the chemical and physical parameters influencing their structural properties. In this process, the ZnO films synthesis includes three principal steps: (i) solution preparation, (ii) coating and (iii) heat treatment. For the first step, the particle formation is discussed including nucleation and growth, particle size, morphology and colloids stability. These three steps involve several parameters such as: (i) nature and concentration of precursor, solvent and additive, and solution aging time, for the chemical system, (ii) coating method, thickness and substrate for the coating step, and (iii) pre-and post-heat treatment for the last step. The influence of these steps and synthesis parameters on ZnO thin films orientation is discussed.