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Showing papers in "Materials Science Forum in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: 3D printing (3DP), commonly known as additive manufacturing (AM), is a promising technology that can fabricate three dimensional complex shape prototypes directly from computer-aided design (CAD) model without any tooling and human intervention. Owing to its peculiar characteristics, AM is widely used in many industries to assist in the design, manufacture and commercialization of a product. More recently, this technology has been extended to building and construction (B&C) application in order to mitigate some of the critical issues such as shortage of skilled labour, high production cost and construction time, health and safety concerns of the workers in the hazardous environment etc. However for successful implementation, proper selection of materials and their mix design is highly recommended, which is a challenging task. This paper summarizes the current available 3DP systems from literature and the respective materials that have been used thus far by various experts, industries for B&C purposes. Finally, the benchmarking properties of theses material and potential research directions are briefly discussed.

169 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this work the selective laser melting (SLM) of pure copper powder was studied. Because of low laser radiation absorption and high thermal conductivity it is very difficult to organize stable SLM process for copper. Five 10x10x5 mm specimens were fabricated by using different process parameters (scanning speed, point distance, exposure time, scanning strategy). The structure of fabricated specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy of polished cross-sections. The tensile test was carried out for SLM regime with the lowest porosity.

68 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Due to environmental pollution form cement industries, some efforts for alternative construction material are increasing. Recently, geopolymer concrete has drawn attention of researchers and engineers because of its lower carbon print and better mechanical property over Portland cement concrete. According to previous studies, geopolymer concrete results almost up to 90% reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to atmosphere. Mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, durability, sulfate resistance, early strength and low shrinkage are better than Portland cement concrete. In addition, the appropriate usage of one ton of fly ash earns one carbon-credit redemption value of about 20 Euros, and hence earned monetary benefits through carbon-credit trade.Therefore, this paper presents a review on the fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. The paper mainly covers composition, mixing and curing process, benefits, limitations and applications of alkali activated fly ash based geopolymer concrete.

40 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The growth of large diameter silicon carbide (SiC) crystals produced by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method is outlined. Methods to increase the crystal diameters, and to turn these large diameter crystals into substrates that are ready for the epitaxial growth of SiC or other non homogeneous epitaxial layers are discussed. We review the present status of 150 mm and 200 mm substrate quality at Cree, Inc. in terms of crystallinity, dislocation density as well as the final substrate surface quality.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fly ash is a waste from coal burning, that are generated with fluctuation both in its physical and chemical characteristics. This characteristics of fly ash when used in the making of geopolymer concrete will greatly affect the final products obtained. The pH value measured in fly ash, according previous research, can influence the setting time of geopolymer and fly ash with high pH values can cause flash-setting in the concrete. Understanding more clearly about the factors that affect the setting time of fly ash based geopolymer is important for further progress and development of the material. It was found that factors that influence the setting time of geopolymer was not only from the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash itself. Other factors such as composition and mix design, manufacturing process and environmental conditions can also affect its setting time. The experimental results showed that fly ash particle size, CaO and MgO content, in addition to ratio of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide in the alkali solution, molarity of NaOH, initial temperature of the mixture, curing temperature, and mix volume could potentially influence the setting time of the geopolymer mixture.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: External Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) are generally used to suppress the conduction of the body diode of MOSFET. A large external SBD is required for a high voltage module because of its high specific resistance, while the forward voltage of SBD should be kept smaller than the built-in potential of the body diode. Embedding SBD into MOSFET with short cycle length increases maximum source-drain voltage where body diode remains inactive, resulting in high current density of SBD current. We propose a MOSFET structure where an SBD is embedded into each unit cell and an additional doping is applied, which allows high current density in reverse operation without any activation of body diode. The proposed MOSFET was successfully fabricated and much higher reverse current density was demonstrated compared to the external SBD. We can expect to reduce total chip size of high voltage modules using the proposed MOSFET embedding SBD.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A critical issue with the SiC UMOSFET is the need to develop a shielding structure for the gate oxide at the trench bottom without any increase in the JFET resistance. This study describes our new UMOSFET named IE-UMOSFET, which we developed to cope with this trade-off. A simulation showed that a low on-resistance is accompanied by an extremely low gate oxide field even with a negative gate voltage. The low RonA was sustained as Vth increases. The RonA values at V g =25 V (E ox =3.2 MV/cm) and VG=20V (E ox =2.5 MV/cm), respectively, for the 3mm × 3mm device were 2.4 and 2.8 mΩcm2 with a lowest Vth of 2.4 V, and 3.1 and 4.4 mΩcm2 with a high Vth of 5.9 V.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We have fabricated Super Junction (SJ) V-groove trench MOSFETs (VMOSFETs), demonstrated a low specific on-resistance (R on A) of 0.97 mΩcm2 and a blocking voltage (V b ) of 820 V. In the first trial, SJ structure in 4H-SiC have proved to be a good combination with MOS interface on (0-33-8) faces which keep high channel mobility in high doping concentration. We designed a protection structure called “upper p-pillar region” and demonstrated that V b lowering appeared according to its width.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: With the increasing concerns on the impact of cement production on the environment and the need to protect the environment, the use of mineral additives as cementitious material to partially substitute cement is being considered as an effective option. One of such material is fired clay brick which can be sourced as generated waste from clay brick industry. This has an added advantage of reducing industrial waste and preserving the natural resources. The experimental objective of this study is to examine the possibility of utilizing clay brick waste as partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete. The clay brick was finely ground into powder size, and after grinding, the morphological characterization of the powder materials was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the chemical composition of the brick material was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the workability, split tensile and compressive strength properties of the concrete with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% partial replacement of cement with ground clay brick (CB). From the test results, the chemical composition of the brick powder meets the standard requirements for pozzolanic material, with the SEM revealing an amorphous solid mass. The workability of the concrete reduces with increase in brick powder content. A significant improvement of the split tensile and compressive strength of the concrete was achieved at 10% cement replacement, after which a decrease in strength with increasing ground clay brick content was recorded. The use of ground clay brick of not more than 15% was recommended for concrete production.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The article considers innovative materials for construction. Using mathematical planning methods, we studied how the quantitative composition, the biocidal additive and gypsum content influence on the compressive and flexural strength and density of the composites. We found that the more gypsum in a composition the higher compressive and flexural strength of a specimen. So, with the greatest degree of compositions filling (fly ash – 20 mass fractions, gypsum – 11.2 mass fractions) maximum compressive strength is 72.5 MPa. We determined when the fly ash content rises up to 20 mass fractions per 100 mass fractions of clinker, flexural strength rises too and specimen density decreases. The developed compositions of biocidal cements recommended for use in the manufacture of materials, products and structures for buildings and constructions, operating in aggressive environments.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Drilling holes in the vicinity of the crack tip turns the crack into a notch and reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor. In this paper, a new idea is used in which instead of a single hole, two symmetric and interconnected holes are drilled at the crack tip. The main concept of double stop-hole method is to reduce the stress concentration at the edge of stop-holes in the cracked structural elements. The double stop drill hole method can be used to increase the fatigue life of the cracked components. The fatigue crack growth retardation is examined using an experimental investigation coupled with a stress analysis on the efficiency of proposed double stop-holes. The distance between the hole centers is considered as the main parameter affecting the efficiency of this method. The results show that the fatigue life extension caused by the double stop-hole method is significantly more than the conventional single stop-hole method.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper, we consider a method of increasing biological resistance and biological durability of buildings and constructions that are subject to destruction from the impact of microorganisms activity. This article presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of bioresistant building materials. Powders of milled quartz sand and limestone were the fillers for the composites. Limestone used for the experiments is from the Chechnya depostits. We have implemented optimization for the cement composites compositions using the methods of mathematical experiment design. We derived the dependences describing how the bioresistance coefficient, the elastic modulus and the water demand depend on the granulometric composition after 3 and 9 months of aging in the environment of filamentous fungi. We have found that the multifractional compositions have a higher bioresistance coefficient. We determined the fungal resist compositions.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this article features of application of the vacuum arc discharge for modification of surfaces are considered. The complication of o this process simulation due to its complexity and tight correlation between different parameters is explained. The mathematical model describing the interaction of a plasma flux with controlling system is offered. The need of cleaning plasma flux from drop fraction in the process of metal coatings deposition is shown. The properties of coatings received by means of a vacuum arc method are considered.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A research has been conducted to investigate the physico-mechanical and microstructure properties of geopolymers synthesised from metakaolin activated with sodium silicate solution. A wide range of physical and mechanical properties of geopolymers were studied such as bulk density, porosity, Vickers hardness, compressive strength, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. It was found that these properties were directly related to geopolymers process variables such as Si:Al, Na:Al, Na2O:H2O, time and curing temperature. The structure of the resulting geopolymers was studied by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and the microstructure of geopolymers paste and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the aggregate and the matrix of geopolymer were studied by using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results gave a new insight into the composition-microstructure-property relationship of geopolymers and paving the way to the production of geopolymers with improved performance in a variety of applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Studies on enhancing the service life of continuous casting moulds at their narrow walls of copper M1 before the last repair by means of a heat spraying wear-resistant layer of the chrome-nickel coating have been carried out. Preliminary, the coating`s structure, phase composition, skin hardness and microhardness of chromium-nickel coating were studied. It is established that to obtain the required cleanliness level of the wall surface by making use of their mechanical operation, it is necessary to conduct thickness of the chromium-nickel coating operations. 0.5 – 0.6 mm chrome-nickel thermal coating was applied to the surface of the wall of a thick-walled narrow pair crystallizer. The results indicate the high-quality coating acceptable for application to the working surface of narrow walls of thick-walled moulds.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We evaluated the effect of NO annealing on hole trapping characteristic of SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor by measuring flatband voltage (VFB) shifts during a constant negative gate voltage stress under UV illumination. Under low stress voltages, the VFB shift due to hole trapping was found to be suppressed by NO annealing. However, the VFB shift of the NO-annealed device increases significantly with stress time under high stress voltage conditions, while the device without NO annealing showed only a slight shift. This result implies that NO annealing enhances generation of hole traps, leading to the degradation of SiC-MOS devices in long-term reliability.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Complex integrated circuit (IC) chips rely on more than one level of interconnect metallization for routing of electrical power and signals. This work reports the processing and testing of 4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) prototype IC's with two levels of metal interconnect capable of prolonged operation at 500 C. Packaged functional circuits including 3- and 11-stage ring oscillators, a 4-bit digital to analog converter, and a 4-bit address decoder and random access memory cell have been demonstrated at 500 C. A 3-stage oscillator functioned for over 3000 hours at 500 C in air ambient. Improved reproducibility remains to be accomplished.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Flash butt welding (FBW) of railway rails was investigated in this work. For this purpose samples of R260 rail steel and 60E1 profile were instrumented and subsequently welded on a Schlatter GAA 100 welding machine under industrial conditions. The intention is to gain in depth process knowledge by more accurately depicting thermal cycles for an entire welding sequence in the immediate proximity of the weld as well as in the heat affected zone (HAZ). A detailed characterization of the single stages of the heat up phase of the process is important. Additionally, the secondary welding voltage was measured simultaneously during the experiments to characterize the transient heat input. Moreover, these data were used in the analysis of the temperature signals to better cope with electrical interferences. Additionally, a finite element (FE) model of this FBW process was developed in the present work. Its implementation and solution is realized with the help of ESI’s FE-software SYSWELD. A strong coupled thermo-electrokinetical and metallurgical calculation routine was used. The model comprises the transition resistance at the welding surfaces as the main heat source to the process. Temperature dependent material properties and a corresponding metallurgical model based on an experimental CCT diagram of the rail steel R350HT are implemented in the simulation as well.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Heavy industrialization, specifically in the developing countries, has generated several unwanted environmental pollution. A variety of toxic organic compounds is produced in chemical and petroleum industries, which have resulted in collectively hazardous effects on the environment that needs immediate attention for remediation. Degradation of these pollutants has been tried through the various mechanism, out of which photocatalytic degradation seems to be one of the most promising approaches to reduce environmental pollution specifically in waste water treatment. Photocatalytic degradation has potential for the effective decomposition of organic pollutants due to efficiency to convert light energy into chemical energy. Additionally, the photocatalytic oxidation process is an advanced technique as it offers high degradation and effective mineralization at moderate temperature and specific radiation wavelength. Among various known photocatalysts, TiO2 is regarded as the one of the potential photocatalysts because of its hydrophilic property, high reactivity, reduced toxicity, chemical stability and lower costs. Therefore, the present chapter focuses on the role of TiO2 as the photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants. The general mechanism of degradation of organic pollutants along with properties of TiO2 as the photocatalyst, existing mechanism of degradation via TiO2 was explained. The possible approaches to enhance degradation via TiO2 nanoparticle along with existing bottlenecks have been also discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The effect of loss of ignition, specific gravity, fineness, specific surface area and soluble fly ash to compressive strength of geopolymer paste were studied. Six fly ashes from two different sources and different time of collection were evaluated. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as alkali activator. Concentration of sodium hydroxide and mass ratio of sodium hydroxide to sodium silicate were fixed 14M and one respectively. The result indicated that the improvement in compressive strength of geopolymer paste was more influenced by fineness, specific surface area and soluble content of fly ash. Soluble content of fly ash greatly affected the compressive strength of geopolymer paste compare to the compressive strength of cement paste with 20% fly ash replacement.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Calculated values of joint plastic deformation for forming a connection layer of the bimetal during cold rolling. Deflection of the primary setting of the bimetal layers depends on the thickness and sizes of destruction blocks, the ratio of the geometric shapes of the blocks of the surface layer destruction, the external friction during rolling, the strip tension, the diameter of the rolls, the thickness of the bimetallic billet.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Geopolymer that was made with high CaO content fly ash was found to have higher compressive strength than the low CaO fly ash, using the same mixture composition. This effect could be due to the physico-chemical properties of the fly ash, in respect to its particle size or the chemical composition. Although it was not widely published, the occurrence of flash setting of geopolymer was known to occur when using high CaO content fly ash as the precursor. Geopolymer paste may solidify within minutes after the addition of alkali activators, making it very difficult to cast in big volume. This paper investigate the effect of borax addition to the high calcium fly ash-based geopolymer mixture to reduce the occurrence of flash setting. It was found that the setting time can be extended significantly, with the addition of 5% borax, by mass, of fly ash. The addition of borax also have positive effect on increasing the compressive strength of geopolymer.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The extraction of vanadium and chromium from high chromium content vanadium slag by salt roasting and water leaching process has been investigated, which uses mixed sodium salts (Na2CO3 and NaOH) as additive agent in roasting process. The mineralogical morphology was prospected by TG-DSC, XRD, SEM and EDS. The oxidation of slag and transversion of V/Cr-containing phase and sodium salts have been discussed. It has been demonstrated that the presence of NaOH contributes to decompose spinel and olivine phases, which is beneficial to reduce the roasting temperature and elevate V, Cr leaching ratio. The roasting parameters have been studied as a function of roasting temperature, roasting time and ratio of alkali, in which the roasting temperature is the most effective factor on the leaching rate of vanadium and chromium. Under the optimum condition, the leaching rates of V and Cr reached 95.8% and 97.6%, respectively.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper we report TDDB results on SiO2/SiC MOS capacitors fabricated in a matured production environment. A key feature is the absence of early failure out of over 600 capacitors tested. The observed field accelerations and activation energies are higher than what is reported on SiO2/Si of similar oxide thickness. The great improvement in oxide reliability and the deviation from typical SiO2/SiC observations are explained by the quality of the oxide in this study.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Alkaline earth elements Sr and Ba provide SiO2/SiC interface conditions suitable for obtaining high channel mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) on the Si-face (0001) of 4H-SiC, without the standard nitric oxide (NO) anneal. The alkaline earth elements Sr and Ba located at/near the SiO2/SiC interface result in field-effect mobility (μFE) values as high as 65 and 110 cm2/V.s, respectively, on 5×1015 cm-3 Al-doped p-type SiC. As the SiC doping increases, peak mobility decreases as expected, but the peak mobility remains higher for Ba interface layer (Ba IL) devices compared to NO annealed devices. The Ba IL MOSFET field-effect mobility decreases as the temperature is increased to 150 °C, as expected when mobility is phonon-scattering-limited, not interface-trap-limited. This is in agreement with measurements of the interface state density (DIT) using the high-low C-V technique, indicating that the Ba IL results in lower DIT than that of samples with nitric oxide passivation. Vertical power MOSFET (DMOSFET) devices (1200V, 15A) fabricated with the Ba IL have a 15% lower on-resistance compared to devices with NO passivation. The DMOSFET devices with a Ba IL maintain a stable threshold voltage under NBTI stress conditions of-15V gate bias stress, at 150 °C for 100hrs, indicating no mobile ions. Secondary-ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analysis confirms that the Sr and Ba remain predominantly at the SiO2/SiC interface, even after high temperature oxide annealing, consistent with the observed high channel mobility after these anneals. The alkaline earth elements result in enhanced SiC oxidation rate, and the resulting gate oxide breakdown strength is slightly reduced compared to NO annealed thermal oxides on SiC.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Composite nanofibers of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Garcinia mangostana L. extract (GME) have been synthesized through electrospinning method for application in drug delivery systems. The precursor solution of 10 mL PVP 10% w/w and GME 2% w/w was then electrospun collected at the rotating collector at the following optimum parameters: a voltage of 15 kV, a collector-nozzle distance of 12 cm, and a flow rate of 1 mL/hour. SEM images showed that the average diameters were 476 nm and 690 nm for the PVP and PVP-GME composite nanofibers, respectively. To some degree, the addition of GME into PVP nanofibers increased the average diameter size of nanofibers. Moreover, the release studies, it was shown that 80% of the GME was released within 30 minutes. Therefore, the PVP-GME composite nanofibers can be applied as the drug delivery systems.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Challenging issues concerning energy efficiency and environmental politics require novel approaches to materials design. A recent example with regard to structural materials is the emergence of lightweight intermetallic TiAl alloys. Their excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, low density, and high stiffness constitute a profile perfectly suitable for their application as advanced aero-engine turbine blades or as turbocharger turbine wheels in next-generation automotive engines. Advanced so-called 3rd generation TiAl alloys, such as the TNM alloy described in this paper, are complex multi-phase alloys which can be processed by ingot or powder metallurgy as well as precision casting methods. Each process leads to specific microstructures which can be altered and optimized by thermo-mechanical processing and/or subsequent heat treatments.

Journal ArticleDOI
Naoki Watanabe1, Hiroyuki Yoshimoto1, Akio Shima1, Renichi Yamada1, Yasuhiro Shimamoto1 
Abstract: Thin drift layers were used to realize n-channel 4H-SiC IGBTs with an extremely low switching loss. The thickness of a drift layer was 60 μm, which was designed for a blocking voltage of 6.5 kV. An on-voltage of 5.4 V was obtained at a collector current of 100 A/cm2 and the specific differential on-resistance at 100 A/cm2 was 20 mΩcm2 at room temperature, indicating proper bipolar operation. A switching evaluation of the SiC IGBTs was performed with a bus voltage of 3.6 kV and a load current of 10 A, and a turn-off loss of 1.2 mJ was obtained. This turn-off loss is very small compared to the values in the current literatures, and was estimated to be an over 80% reduction. The series operation of thin-drift-layer 6.5 kV SiC IGBTs can ensure a lower switching loss than the single operation of higher blocking voltage devices in power conversion systems.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The growing focus on the efficiency of the reduction process in blast furnace generates an alteration in the way they operate. This modifies the conditions of transfer of silicon for the hot metal and can cause problems in the added value of your product. To evaluate the changes of the operational parameters of the reduction on the conditions of transfer of silicon process a mathematical model based on artificial neural networks has been implemented. Through this model it was possible to predict the silicon content to determine the influence of each operational parameter. Artificial neural networks were able to predict the silicon content through parameters of the reduction in blast furnace process, and this was verified by the precision of this model. The ANN showed that Theoretical flame temperature, Pressure blow and Coke rate have a positive influence on the silicon content in hot metal, and the Hot metal rate is inversely proportional to the silicon content of the hot metal.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Sintering involves several interactions as particles bond and enable microstructure evolution toward a minimized energy condition, resulting in a complex interplay of measurement parameters. Overriding the evolution is energy minimization, and from that perspective some simple relations emerge. The natural progression is determined by energy reduction, measured by surface area, density, and grain boundary area (grain size). Contrary to the usual sintering analysis that starts with atomic level mass transport mechanisms, presented here is an approach that links to global energy reduction during sintering to simple monitors. Initially sintering converts surface area into lower energy grain boundary area. Subsequently grain growth annihilates grain boundary area. Thus, grain boundary area peaks at intermediate sintered densities, while surface area continuously declines. The trajectory follows a straightforward dependence on density as illustrated using data for a wide variety of materials and consolidation conditions.