Showing papers in "Materials Today: Proceedings in 2021"
TL;DR: In this article, a surface roughness mathematically framework was designed using the surface reaction methods of this model to aid a genetic algorithm, which is used to decide the optimum machining parameters.
Abstract: In the present analysis 15 experiments were performed in conjunction with the Box-Behnken architecture matrix based on the machining parameter's effect, like spindle speed, feed rate, and cutting width., A surface roughness mathematically framework was designed using the surface reaction methods of this model to aid a genetic algorithm. Which is used to decide the optimum machining parameters. Response surface methodology has been used in this paper due to certain advantages as compare to other methodology such as it needs fewer experiments to study the effects of all the factors and the optimum combination of all the variables can be revealed. Finally, a genetic algorithm was used to determine the optimum setting of process parameters that maximize the rate of content removal. The best surface roughness response value obtained from single-objective genetic algorithm optimization was 1.19 μm.
TL;DR: A review of the major developments that have taken place in developing the various samples and parameter optimization for FDM can be found in this article, where the major constraint of FDM technique is its narrow range of industrial applications is limited to either demonstrational part or as a conceptual model rather than to be used as a fully functional component.
Abstract: FDM (Fused deposition Modeling) is a unique technique ofAM (additive manufacturing) where computers are used to build successive layers to produce a complete 3D entity. The major constraint of FDM technique is its narrow range of industrial applications, where the usage of components produced by FDM is limited to either demonstrational part or as a conceptual model rather than to be used as a fully functional component. Many studies are being continuously carried out to enlarge the spectrum of materials used which could result in increased usage of FDM in various production scenarios. Greater cost efficiencies and material process ability have drawn greater focus toward this extrusion-based technique. Many researchers have focused on developing various composite materials such as ceramic based composites, metal matrix, fiber-reinforced and polymer composites. This paper focuses to review the major developments that have taken place in developing the various samples and parameter optimization for FDM.
TL;DR: The aim of the researcher was to determine the effectiveness of artificial intelligence techniques against cyber security risks particularly in case of Iraq and the quantitative method of research design along with primary data was opted.
Abstract: The aim of the researcher was to determine the effectiveness of artificial intelligence techniques against cyber security risks particularly in case of Iraq, Researcher has opted for quantitative method of research design along with primary data. The researcher collected the data from employees working in this IT industry. The sample size for this study was 468 and confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, basic analysis of model and lastly, hypothesis assessment was carried out. The P-values of all variables were obtained as significant apart from expert system which had no significant relation with artificial intelligence and cyber security. Geographical area, sample size, less variables and accessibility was the main issue.
TL;DR: There is a need for cybersecurity because it defines the body of processes, technologies, and practices in terms of how they are designed to help protect various programs, devices, networks, and data from the malicious persons who perform unauthorized access and damage these resources.
Abstract: The rising of information and communication technologies brought about new challenges that need to be dealt with is the citizens' security is considered. Undoubtedly, the latest well known electronic attacks have indicated the losses that are likely to happen as ICT and security as a field widens. There are several types of electronic attacks like Denial of service, phishing attacks, backdoors, Day-Zero gaps, and technical gaps that facilitate the vulnerabilities that are often taken advantage of by malicious persons. There is a need for cybersecurity because it defines the body of processes, technologies, and practices in terms of how they are designed to help protect various programs, devices, networks, and data from the malicious persons who perform unauthorized access and damage these resources. There have been technical measures, development of cyber talents, and investment in cybersecurity insurances, community awareness, cyber alliances, as well as encryption and backing up of data to ensure their security is guaranteed. There have been technological steps to help counter cyber-attacks that need the response from organizations at the technical, operational, and managerial levels, such as security of the networks, malware defences, and data recovery systems. Based on the process side, there is a need to activate cybersecurity strategies and plans. From the users' side, there is a need for the adoption of a focused method of monitoring the security and threat intelligence as well as a continued awareness of the need for security among its users and those who apply executive management of the visible support.
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential and market stability of gelatin has been discussed and its recent studies are summarised in this paper, focusing on assessing the general utilities of the various sources of collagen as gelatin derivatives.
Abstract: This review begins with a discussion of the general properties of gelatin and its sources, particularly in the food and health industries, and then briefly address the status quo of gelatin in today's market. Apart from the basic chemical compounds and gelatin types, this paper also discussed the commercialisation of gelatin. This study also highlights the production of conventional gelatin and its current method of processing, i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, the variety of raw materials of collagen is outlined and briefly broached the plant hydrocolloids which have been labeled as 'veggie-gelatin'. With regard to the potential and market stability of gelatin, its recent studies are summarised in this paper. Accordingly, this paper focuses on assessing the general utilities of the various sources of collagen as gelatin derivatives. At that basis, the aim of this review is to provide an insight into gelatin in current applications, market value and progress in gelatin extraction.
TL;DR: IoT application in AM improves production processes' efficiency followed by reduced manufacturing waste and fulfilled customer specifications and concludes that IoT application inAM improves production process' efficiency and fulfilled customers' specifications.
Abstract: Mass customization and personalization are the significant implications of Industry 4.0. Even though additive manufacturing (AM) technologies possess the capability to personalize final products, they cannot be used for mass production of the 3D printed job on a large scale. Their inability to perform production processes for large-sized objects adds to the disadvantages. Consequently, the industries are hesitant regarding the idea of AM techniques to carry out commercial productions. Therefore, this research-based study aims to efficiently identify and utilize Industry 4.0 technologies to improve AM processes' reliability and mass 3D print smart materials for manufacturers globally. We explore the requirement for Industry 4.0 technologies for AM processes and study the advantages of the application of information technologies (IT) in AM. Further, we analyze how the Internet of Things (IoT) additive manufacturing integrated techniques will benefit the industries and material manufacturers. However, the paperwork is confined to theoretical work. Since automation in AM is a fledgling concept, the available material for research-based study is limited. We conclude that IoT application in AM improves production processes' efficiency followed by reduced manufacturing waste and fulfilled customer specifications. AM has become an essential industrial technique for product innovation and development, therefore, it is necessary to bring reforms to make this technology customer-friendly.
TL;DR: In this paper, the response surface methodology (RSM) is used to optimize the process parameters in casting, welding and machinability studies of composite materials, and regression equations are developed to predict the response and process parameters are optimised for obtaining a specific objective function.
Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) is used to optimize the process parameters in casting, welding and machinability studies of composite materials. Response surface methodology is commonly used to design the experiments and it minimizes the numbers of experiments for specific number of factors and its levels. It has many advantages over Taguchi method of design. Experiments are conducted as per the experimental design and the responses such as output is recorded. Analysis of variance is used to identify the factors which significantly influence the response. Regression equations are developed to predict the response and the process parameters are optimised for obtaining a specific objective function.
TL;DR: This paper reviews the literature with specific attention to aspects of wireless networking for the preservation of energy and aggregation of data in IoT-WSN systems.
Abstract: In recent times, it has been witnessed that wireless systems based on IoT-based have developed rapidly in various sectors. The IoT (Internet of Things) is the network in which physical devices, equipment, sensors and other objects can communicate among themselves without human involvement. The WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) is a central component of the IoT, which has proliferated into several different applications in real-time. The IoT and WSNs now have various critical and non-critical applications impacting nearly every area of our everyday life. WSN nodes are usually small and battery-driven machines. Thus, the energy effective data aggregation techniques that increase the lifespan of the network are highly significant. Various approaches and algorithms for energy-efficient data aggregation in IoT-WSN systems were presented. This paper reviews the literature with specific attention to aspects of wireless networking for the preservation of energy and aggregation of data.
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of a conventional single slope passive solar still (CSS) under the influence of a paraffin based phase change material (PCM) and a nano-PCM (n-PCMC) in terms of the fresh water production per day was investigated.
Abstract: The present paper investigates the performance of a conventional single slope passive solar still (CSS) under the influence of a paraffin based phase change material (PCM) and a nano-PCM (n-PCM) in terms of the fresh water production per day To achieve this objective, three solar stills with the same dimensions were designed and fabricated Among them, one still was left without any modification (CSS), another one was incorporated with paraffin as PCM (PCMSS), and third one was assimilated with an n-PCM (NPCMSS) Previously, the n-PCM was prepared by adding 05% mass of silica nanoparticles in paraffin The experiments had steered on a hot and humid weather at Coimbatore, India during the month of April 2020 The results evidenced that the incorporation of PCM and n-PCM improved the fresh water production by 5122% and 6707%, respectively
TL;DR: The main problems in fiber-reinforced composite plastic machining were discussed in this review concerning the most recent research in this field and the unconventional and conventional machining processes were considered.
Abstract: The Fiber Refinement Polymer Composites (FRPCs) are of great interest nowadays. Composites are employed in diverse areas such as automobiles, aerospace, and the military due to their multiple advantages for better mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness features. Several researchers have constructed FRPCs using different natural fibers and matrix materials. However, to complete the assembly of the components or pieces, FRPC's actual applications require some secondary activities. Very few scientists discussed the machinability of these FRPCs. The main problems in fiber-reinforced composite plastic machining were discussed in this review concerning the most recent research in this field. In contrast, the unconventional and conventional machining processes were considered, this paper includes annual research in production, traditional machining, unconventional machining, and hybrid MMC machining. The final part of the paper addresses conclusions and future scope.
TL;DR: In this article, the design of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) composites and the characteristics of their constituent materials are reviewed and a brief information about the potential of FRP composites as an alternative to steel reinforcement in concrete structural members by providing evaluation of the mechanical properties in terms of compressive, shear, flexural and tensile strength against extreme loading and environmental conditions.
Abstract: Competition in civil engineering markets usually imposes low-cost, low-density and environmentally resistant materials with minimum maintenance and extended service life features to withstand the undesired sever loading and aggressive environmental conditions. As a result, using advanced composite materials as reinforcing for many different structures has been developed acceptably in past decades through new construction and rehabilitation applications. “Fiber reinforced polymers” as composite materials are powerful strengthening technique for various structural applications and have been the main focus for many researchers in the latest years due to their aforementioned properties. FRPs technique has been successfully implemented for strengthening bridges, buildings, tunnels, silos, tanks, and underground infrastructures. FPRs have been conducted as high-performance materials owing to their advantages including light-weight, fatigue resistance, high tensile strength, anti-corrosion, and thermal insulation. This paper intends to review the design of FRP composites and the characteristics of their constituent materials. This review also provides a brief information about the potential of FRPs as an alternative to steel reinforcement in concrete structural members by providing evaluation of the mechanical properties of FRP composite materials in terms of compressive, shear, flexural and tensile strength against extreme loading and environmental conditions.
TL;DR: A review of the classification methods for machine learning and image fusion that have been demonstrated to help healthcare professionals identify heart disease and a summary of the mainly used classification techniques for diagnosing diseases of heart.
Abstract: Disease diagnosis is the most critical health-care function. If an illness is diagnosed before the normal or planned period it can save people's lives. Classification method of machine learning can be useful to help the medical branch by delivering reliable and instant disease diagnosis. Hence the convenient time for both physicians and patients because heart disease is one of the world's most ultra-hazardous and dangerous diseases today, due to the difficulty to diagnose the disease. Within this paper we include a review of the classification methods for machine learning and image fusion that have been demonstrated to help healthcare professionals identify heart disease. We begin with the machine learning brief and summarize descriptions of the mainly used classification techniques for diagnosing diseases of heart. Then, we review and demonstrate some work on the use of classification techniques for machine learning and image fusion in this area. It also provides an overview of the working algorithm, and provides a description of the current work.
TL;DR: In this article, the type of fuel cell used in automobile, various supporting components and flow diagram of fuel-cell systems, the implementation of fuelcell systems in automobiles, the design and development of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) by various automobile companies are discussed.
Abstract: The natural petroleum by-product will come into in-existence and unavailable in future. The emission from IC engine vehicles is also a critical problem. So the new technologies depending on electrical powered conveyance are developing. In that way, a fuel cell concept has been introduced for various applications along with electric vehicles. The various efforts are being taken to implement the fuel cell systems in automobiles. Still there is a technological gap in success of such fuel cell electric vehicles due to the problem in handling hydrogen, high cost of battery and fuel cell components, water management etc. In this paper, the type of fuel cell used in automobile, various supporting components and flow diagram of fuel cell systems, the implementation of fuel cell systems in automobiles, the design and development of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) by various automobile companies are discussed. Further the related issues in FCEV and the methods to improve performance of FCEV are discussed.
TL;DR: A simple multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology based on the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is presented to choose an industrial robot for the arc welding operation and showed that the MCDM approaches for robot selection are quite useful.
Abstract: Industrial robots have enabled manufacturing firms to produce high-quality products cost-effectively and thus are essential components of advanced manufacturing technologies. Industrial robots are designed for various applications such as welding, painting, assembly, disassembly, pick and place for printed circuit boards, packaging and labelling, palletizing, product inspection, and testing. All the features are accomplished with high endurance, speed and precision. The performance of industrial robots is determined by multiple and conflicting criteria that have to be simultaneously considered in a robust selection procedure. In this study, a simple multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology based on the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is presented to choose an industrial robot for the arc welding operation. The weights of significance are attained with objective preferences using the Entropy weight method. The order of ranking obtained with the TOPSIS-Entropy technique is presented. The results showed that the MCDM approaches for robot selection are quite useful. The novelty of the study lies to prioritize industrial arc welding robots with TOPSIS-Entropy MCDM methods.
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental investigation was carried out to reduce the indoor temperature of the metal roof single storey industrial building with the help of paraffin based phase changing material (PCM).
Abstract: The energy consumption of the buildings for cooling, especially during the days of high solar exposure is large due to the increased indoor temperature. The roof of the building contributes more for this cause by allowing a large quantity of heat during day hours. Further, the single storey buildings with the metal roof would help to penetrate a greater quantity of heat and increase the total heat gain of the building. In this way, they could increase the cooling load to attain the human comfort. In this current work, an experimental investigation was carried-out to reduce the indoor temperature of the metal roof single storey industrial building with the help of paraffin based phase changing material (PCM). In this fashion, an attempt was made to reduce the total cooling load of the building which can diminish a greater quantity of conventional power requirement. A scale model of the proposed building was fabricated and tested for the analysis. The experiments conducted in two modes such as the first case without any PCM in the roof (Plain Roof) and next case with encapsulated paraffin as PCM within the roof (PCM Roof). The test results proved that the encapsulation of PCM within the metal roof of the single storey building reduced the temperature of the outer roof, inner roof and consequently the indoor temperature of the building space to a vast extent. Quantitatively, the daily average indoor temperature was dropped by 5 °C and peak indoor temperature was reduced by 9.5 °C with the help of PCM.
TL;DR: A review about biodegradable plastics and the microorganisms which help in degrading the synthetic and natural plastics is presented in this paper, which is an attempt to understand the recent development in biodegradation of plastics by enzymes to reduce the impacts of plastic and make the environment safe.
Abstract: Plastics are unquestionably superior materials in terms of their costs, process ability and functional properties. Human lives starts with the use of plastics and more and more plastics are being employed on daily basis. Since polymeric materials do not decompose easily, considering their abundance in the environment, accumulation of plastics in landfill and ocean has been increasing from decades. Most of the plastics waste enters into water which is consumed by sea creatures destroy their habitat. To overcome the problem researchers have researched about the biodegradation of plastics by the degradable enzymes. This review is about biodegradable plastics and the microorganisms which help in degrading the synthetic and natural plastics. Industries have started manufacturing biodegradable plastics using additives like prooxidant and starch etc. Micro-organisms show rapid action on thermoset plastics like polyester polyurethane and some organisms have been segregated or isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This review is an attempt to understand the recent development in biodegradation of plastics by enzymes to reduce the impacts of plastic and make the environment safe.
TL;DR: The recent implementing studies as well as the challenges that may occur on using response surface methodology as an effective technique to develop the performance of industrial microbial strains are reviewed.
Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) was effectively used for the optimization and modelling of a wide variety of microbial products. This method is a combination of statistical and mathematical technique for model construction, assessing the effect of several independent variables and getting optimum values of variables. The purpose of this paper is to review recent research on the utilization of response surface methodology in the fermentation process to optimize microbial activities and products. In addition to discussing the usefulness of using this method, this article also reviews the current information and the hypothetical concepts as well as the main steps for the application of RSM in microbial cultures. Furthermore, this paper attempts to show the recent implementing studies as well as the challenges that may occur on using response surface methodology as an effective technique to develop the performance of industrial microbial strains.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated a method of recovering potable water from the atmospheric air with the help of a desiccant based solar recuperation system, where the orange silica gel was used as the descant by which the water molecules from the atmosphere were adsorbed during the night time.
Abstract: Drinking water scarcity becomes the alarming issue in recent days. On the other way, the atmospheric air carries a huge amount of water content in the form of water vapour. The suitable harvesting method can appositely address the water scarcity issue to a certain extent. This paper investigates a method of recovering potable water from the atmospheric air with the help of a desiccant based solar recuperation system. The orange silica gel was used as the desiccant by which the water molecules from the atmospheric air were adsorbed during the night time. The water from the laden silica gel was recuperated using a solar recuperation system during the day time. The experiments were conducted for three similar solar days during the month of April 2020 in Coimbatore, India, and the average results are presented. It was observed that the system produced 0.98 L of potable water per day, economically.
TL;DR: This chapter will address the blockchain impact on the healthcare and biomedical industry for security and privacy purpose.
Abstract: Blockchain is now one of the world's fast-growing and most critical innovations. Many assume blockchain is about cryptocurrencies or bitcoin, but we can claim that it goes far further than that. It is a technology that generates unchangeable and distributed data records exchanged by individuals in network database systems and record digital events so that they cannot be changed or remembered before they reach their destinations. Most companies have in recent times used blockchain to reinvent their technology. Many of the prominent industries include finance, real estate, health, the Internet, insurance, and much more. Healthcare is one of those industries which takes blockchain very quickly. This chapter will address the blockchain impact on the healthcare and biomedical industry for security and privacy purpose.
TL;DR: In this article, an indirect type single-pass forced convection solar dryer was fabricated and paraffin was integrated with solar collector as phase changing material (PCM) to improve the off-sunshine hour performance of the solar dryers.
Abstract: The solar dryers are playing a pivotal role in the food industries for preserving edible items such as grains, vegetables, fish, etc., through the removal of moisture content from them. They are having benefit over the open air drying by protecting the food items from dust, insects and other detrimental things. Further, they are attributed to save a greater amount of energy and protect the ecosphere from degradation. The indirect type solar dryers are primarily consisting of a solar collector and a space to place sliced potatoes. Their moisture removal rate is high and the quality of the end product would also be improved by them. In this present work, an indirect type single-pass forced convection solar dryer was fabricated and paraffin was integrated with solar collector as phase changing material (PCM) to improve the off-sunshine hour performance of the solar dryer. The process parameters such as, moisture removal rate, moisture ratio and the dryer inlet temperature were investigated for drying sliced potatoes in two cases, namely, solar dryer without PCM (Plain Dryer) and solar dryer with PCM (PCM Dryer). The mass flow rate of air was maintained as 0.065 kg/s and the dryer was operated from 10.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. The obtained results were compared and the influence of amalgamating PCM with the solar dryer was analyzed and presented. The results demonstrated that the presence of PCM within the solar collector enhanced the drying room temperature significantly, two more hours after solar period. In addition, the percentage weight of moisture removal from potato slices was enhanced by 5.1% per day with the aid of paraffin.
TL;DR: In this paper, the synthesis and applications of polymer nanocomposites and its applications are discussed and discussed in detail, and a discussion of the synthesis of polymeric nanomaterials is presented.
Abstract: Nanomaterials have been the most studied in the last decade because of their wide applications. Nanomaterials are used in both industrial and domestic purposes. For example, zinc oxide (ZnO) is used in both industrial and domestic applications. Nanomaterials have evolved to nanocomposites and these composites have countless applications. Its applications gave them a winning positions in the world of material science. This article discusses about the synthesis and applications of polymer nanocomposites and its applications.
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental work was carried to improve the performance of a conventional solar still by coating its absorber with a nano-doped black paint (NDBP), and the results provided the evidence that the yield of the solar still was augmented by 8.78% and 7.83% for 15-mm and 25-mm water depths, respectively, with the coating of NDBP as compared to the plain black paint.
Abstract: Solar still has been proposed as a potential solution to tap potable water from the brackish water in recent times. The absorber of the solar still is playing a pivotal role on the performance of the solar still. This paper presents the outcome of an experimental work, which was carried to improve the performance of a conventional solar still by coating its absorber with a nano-doped black paint (NDBP). Two solar stills with similar dimensions were used in this work. One solar still was fabricated by coating the black paint on the absorber and labelled as conventional still with black paint (CS-BP). The second still was fabricated by coating the absorber with nano-doped black paint and labelled as conventional still with nano-doped black paint (CS-NDBP). The experiments were conducted on two consecutive days by maintaining 15 mm and 25 mm water depths in both solar stills, respectively. Before hand, nano-SiO2 particles (0.5% mass) were thoroughly mixed with the black paint for fabricating CS-NDBP. The results provided the evidence that the yield of the solar still was augmented by 8.78% and 7.83% for 15 mm and 25 mm water depths, respectively, with the coating of NDBP as compared to the plain black paint.
TL;DR: This research work is an analysis of actions taken by governments under their jurisdictions towards building energy consumers based on the different governments responses and actions taken towards energy consumption in buildings in COVID-19 pandemic outbreak.
Abstract: The corona virus pandemic outbreak in 2019-2020 has almost touched everyone's life and is affecting every sector. The daily routine life has come to a standstill, many sector including businesses, finance, transport and many more critical industries has come to a halt. Only essential sectors like healthcare have been permitted to operate. Many G20 countries-imposed curfew, mandatory stay-in-home orders and lockdown of cities and countries. Among all these close down scenarios and locked down industries, utility companies and energy distribution sector were operational 24/7 round the clock providing uninterrupted power supply for a comfortable lockdown "stay in home". The success of Fighting COVID-19 and shutdowns is highly dependent upon uninterrupted power supply and power consumption by the building residents. This paper reviews the various actions taken by G20 member countries towards electricity consumption while in COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. This research work is an analysis of actions taken by governments under their jurisdictions towards building energy consumers. The outcome of this paper are energy policy recommendations that are based on the different governments responses and actions taken towards energy consumption in buildings.
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of nano-enhanced phase changing materials (nano-PCMs) in terms of their thermal storage properties is investigated for renewable energy-based thermal systems such as solar thermal collectors.
Abstract: Reliable thermal storage has become a critical factor for renewable energy-based thermal systems such as solar thermal collectors, because the incoming energy is inconsistent with time and, hence, an efficient energy management mechanism is required. Therefore, the collection of maximum possible energy during their availability and their uniform distribution during the lagging period has been the topic of research in recent times. The nano-enhanced phase changing materials (nano-PCMs) are recognized to be the eminent energy storage materials in terms of their thermal storage characteristics. However, their reliability over the period of thermal cycles is yet again in an interrogation. In this work, the nano-silica based paraffin was prepared through the dispersion of nano-silica in paraffin at three different lower volume fractions (0.5 vol%, 1.0 vol% and 2.0 vol%). Then, the thermal consistency and thermal properties of nano-silica/PCM such as latent heat, melting and solidifying temperatures were investigated using different instruments, namely thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after initial preparation and after 100 thermal cycles. The findings evidence that the nano-silica/PCMs are having good thermal consistency even after 100 thermal cycles up to a volume fraction of 1.0%. The deterioration of the properties has become prominent after 1.0% volume of nano-silica in paraffin.
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental assessment is presented to improve the performance of the evacuated tube solar water heater using two different forms of diffuse reflectors, namely flat diffuse reflector (FDR) and WDR.
Abstract: In recent days, evacuated tube (ETC) solar water heating systems are proposed to be the prominent solution for the residential as well as industrial water heating needs of various capacities, without depending on the electrical grids. They serve hot water economically, and independently. However, the efficiency of the water heater is a main concern, especially on the days having low solar insolation and on rainy days. In addition, the underneath of the evacuated tubes is usually not exposed to the direct sunlight and become inactive, which further diminishes the performance of these water heaters. Hence, it is the hot topic of research to improve the performance of these water heaters with the aid special arrangements. In this paper, an experimental assessment is presented to improve the performance of the evacuated tube solar water heater using two different forms of diffuse reflectors, namely flat diffuse reflector (FDR) and wavy diffuse reflector (WDR). The results evidenced that the use of diffuse reflectors enhanced the tank water temperature during the day time, significantly. Further, it was discerned that the tank water temperature was enhanced by 4 °C and 6 °C respectively, with the aid of flat diffuse reflector and wavy diffuse reflector. Comparatively, the wavy diffuse reflector improved the water temperature by 2 °C higher than the flat diffuse reflector.
TL;DR: In this paper, a multi-perspective analyzes are necessary for surviving to endure in the production environment and considering supply chain risks and resilience, the recent growth in the manufacturing industry focusing on sustainability changes the way manufacturers are thinking, which may also play a major part in influencing the industrial industry, both ethical and reputational.
Abstract: Due to the economic growth and worldwide interference with today’s globalization and industrialization, the manufacturing sector has gained greater prominence in the last decade. Many fresh revolutionary tactics have been created, and revolution is an endless narrative. Recent popularity for 3D and additive printing concerns established norms worldwide. In contrast, the manufacture rate, quality and efficiency of existing systems are greatly enhanced. This recurrent technological transformation pushes firms to adopt these new technologies to their production methods. Most manufacturers are unlikely to fit into the new system because of a number of issues such as capital shortages, lack of funds, lack of knowledge, lack of professional organizations and so on. Besides with these technical advances may also play a major part in influencing the industrial industry, both ethical and reputational. In addition to consideration of supply chain risks and resilience, the recent growth in the manufacturing industry focusing on sustainability changes the way manufacturers are thinking. Multi-perspective analyzes are necessary for surviving to endure in the production environment. Contrary to this, manufacturers and shareholders have been showing in the last several years that the financial benefits not only improve production but also bring considerable returns to the business in view of the ecological and social advantages. In recent years, manufacturers have had a huge push in combination with economic, environmental and social principles to look at technical advancement.
TL;DR: This article reviews to bridge knowledge gap concerning the assessment of commercial and efficient aspects of extensive application of WAAM, with an overview on the materials that can be worked upon and some insight on the future prospects of the process.
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) has shown a way to the scientific and industrial community for the direct formation of products and has also replaced the traditional approaches in some industrial contexts by minimizing the material consumption. Out of various AM processes, Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has acquired more recognition on account of peerless efficiency and benefits that mainly comprises high deposition rates, increased material efficiency, lesser lead time, better component performance and reduced inventory costs. WAAM is similar to welding, as it includes layer by layer deposition for large parts with fewer complexities. Significant research has been done in this area in order to widen its applications, especially to reap benefits attributable to high buy-to-fly ratio parts of aviation industry. This article reviews to bridge knowledge gap concerning the assessment of commercial and efficient aspects of extensive application of WAAM. The equipment cost of WAAM is comparatively low than any other AM process involving metal deposition but still the procurement of structurally-sound and defect-free parts has many strenuous variables in-between. Various research work and novel practice have been evolved in order to uplift the properties of material and its strength by removing defects such as deformation, cracking, porosity and spatter. The material and manufacturing process amalgamation still needs crucial experimentation and analysis into the future. Different WAAM designs are awaited to advance the efficiency for particular applications, rather than a generalized system to address all the possible problems. In future, WAAM adoption will accelerate, as it opens the possibilities to produce heavy metal parts, providing industries the alternative which is fast and cost-effective. This paper aims to describe the various stagewise developments and capabilities of WAAM process, with an overview on the materials that can be worked upon and some insight on the future prospects of the process.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the historical perspective of research and development and application of machine learning techniques on fly ash-based concrete and the models, algorithms, and approaches developed for predicting engineering properties of fly ash based concrete were also discussed.
Abstract: A machine learning technique provides rapid access to various information models, approaches, complex systems, and algorithms. In the present scenario the artificial neural network, multiple linear regression, support vector machine, water cycle algorithm, and linear regression have much accessible. Continuously advancements of these techniques become a high impact on civil engineering, especially for the construction and infrastructure sector. In the present study, the historical perspective of research and development and application of machine learning techniques on fly ash-based concrete is presented. The models, algorithms, and approaches developed for predicting engineering properties of fly ash-based concrete were also discussed. These predictions using machine learning techniques have been much impacted on fly ash utilization in concrete. The utilization of fly ash in concrete also has revolutionary impacts on the environment and human health in the future. Machine learning is a useful and powerful technique that can predict concrete engineering properties and represent the scientific challenge in the construction and infrastructure sectors.
TL;DR: An automated model for detecting and classifying plant leaf diseases using an optimal mobile network-based convolutional neural network (OMNCNN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) based classifier is utilized to allocate proper class labels to the applied plant leaf images.
Abstract: Agriculture is the major occupation in India and it loses 35% of the crop productivity annually owing to plant diseases. Earlier plant disease detection is a tedious process because of improper laboratory facilities and expert knowledge. Automated plant disease detection techniques are advantageous for reducing the laborious task of monitoring large crop farms and for identifying disease symptoms early on, i.e., when they appear on plant leaves. Recent advances in computer vision and deep learning (DL) models have demonstrated the value of developing automatic plant disease detection models based on visible symptoms on leaves. With this in mind, this article proposes an automated model for detecting and classifying plant leaf diseases using an optimal mobile network-based convolutional neural network (OMNCNN). The proposed OMNCNN model operates on different stages namely preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. It involves bilateral filtering (BF) based preprocessing and Kapur’s thresholding based image segmentation to identify the affected portions of the leaf image. In addition, the MobileNet model is applied as a feature extraction technique in which the hyperparameters are optimized by the use of emperor penguin optimizer (EPO) algorithm to enhance the plant disease detection rate. Finally, extreme learning machine (ELM) based classifier is utilized to allocate proper class labels to the applied plant leaf images. An extensive set of simulations were performed to highlight the superior performance of the OMNCNN model. The experimental outcome has shown promising results of the OMNCNN model over the recent state-of-art methods with the maximum precision of 0.985, recall of 0.9892, accuracy of 0.987, F-score of 0.985, and kappa of 0. 985.
TL;DR: A detailed review of the most promising surface modification techniques used for the surface modification of titanium dental implant surfaces is presented in this article, where a systematic classification of these methods is provided, followed by their advantages Mechanical methods like acid etching and grit blasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, acidic treatment, nitride coatings, hydroxyapatite and metal oxide coatings.
Abstract: The materials used for biomedical applications include metal and their alloys, polymers, and ceramics Of these, titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are widely used as implant materials owing to its superior corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength Although titanium has several advantages, being biologically inert, it cannot osseointegrate with the human cells Thus, the surface of the titanium implant has a very important role, as it determines the rate of osseointegration and the success of the implant The main objective of this review is to offer a thorough and detailed description of the most promising techniques used for the surface modification of titanium dental implants A systematic classification of these methods is provided, followed by their advantages Mechanical methods like acid etching and grit blasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, acidic treatment, nitride coatings, hydroxyapatite coatings, metal oxide coatings and silver coatings have been analyzed and selected for this review These methods have been experimentally proven to enhance the osseointegration rate, improving the biocompatibility and stability as well as the antibacterial properties of the implants Thus, the surface modification of the titanium implant surface significantly improves the properties of the implant However, further research is necessary to study the implant surface and the human cell interface in more detail and develop new surface modification techniques to manufacture implants with superior properties