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Showing papers in "Maternal and Child Health Journal in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The pooled evidence indicates that substantial benefits in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity can be achieved with effective promotion of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding during the first month of life.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to review the evidence on the effect of initiation of breastfeeding early after birth and of exclusive breastfeeding during the first month in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. We searched Cochrane and PubMed databases for all available papers addressing our review questions and identified eleven papers. Data were extracted using a standard abstraction form. Evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Meta-analysis was done using STATA 11.0. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of neonatal mortality. Initiating breastfeeding after the first hour doubled the risk of neonatal mortality. Exclusively breastfed neonates had a lower risk of mortality and infection-related deaths in the first month than partially breastfed neonates. Exclusively breastfed neonates also had a significantly lower risk of sepsis, diarrhea and respiratory infections compared with those partially breastfed. The pooled evidence indicates that substantial benefits in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity can be achieved with effective promotion of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding during the first month of life.

249 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the evidence may not be strong enough to support routine depression screening for risk of adverse outcomes, screening to enable detection and timely treatment to reduce risk of postpartum depression is warranted.
Abstract: Complications related to preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal depression is a hypothesized psychosocial risk factor for both birth outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine evidence published between 1977 and 2013 on prenatal depression and risks of these primary adverse birth outcomes. A systematic search of the PUBMED and PsycINFO databases was conducted to identify studies testing the associations between prenatal depressive symptoms, or diagnoses of depression, and risk of PTB or LBW. We systematically selected 50 published reports on PTB and length of gestation, and 33 reports on LBW and BW. Results were reviewed by two independent reviewers and we evaluated the quality of the evidence with an established systematic review method, the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. We then undertook a narrative synthesis of the results following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Less than a quarter of 50 published reports found that prenatal depression was significantly associated with PTB or gestational age. In contrast, slightly more than half of the 33 reports found that prenatal depression was associated with LBW or BW. When weighing methodological features, we determined that the effects of prenatal depression on LBW are more consistent than effects on length of gestation or PTB. Although the evidence may not be strong enough to support routine depression screening for risk of adverse outcomes, screening to enable detection and timely treatment to reduce risk of postpartum depression is warranted. Further rigorous research on prenatal depression and adverse birth outcomes is needed.

217 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11–18 years of age, compared to 25–29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia.
Abstract: We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11–18 years of age, compared to 25–29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15–19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications.

200 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers’ mental health during pregnancy.
Abstract: This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the effects of breastfeeding on mothers’ mental health measured at 8 weeks, 8, 21 and 32 months postpartum. The estimated effect of breastfeeding on PPD differed according to whether women had planned to breastfeed their babies, and by whether they had shown signs of depression during pregnancy. For mothers who were not depressed during pregnancy, the lowest risk of PPD was found among women who had planned to breastfeed, and who had actually breastfed their babies, while the highest risk was found among women who had planned to breastfeed and had not gone on to breastfeed. We conclude that the effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers’ mental health during pregnancy. Our results underline the importance of providing expert breastfeeding support to women who want to breastfeed; but also, of providing compassionate support for women who had intended to breastfeed, but who find themselves unable to.

193 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among U.S. delivery hospitalizations, the prevalence of diabetes was higher among women in older age groups, living in ZIP codes with lower household incomes, or with public insurance, and among GDM at delivery in 2009.
Abstract: To describe recent trends in prevalence of pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM) (i.e., type 1 or type 2 diabetes) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among delivery hospitalizations in the United States. Data on delivery hospitalizations from 1993 through 2009 were obtained from the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Diagnosis-Related Group codes were used to identify deliveries and diagnosis codes on presence of diabetes. Rates of hospitalizations with diabetes were calculated per 100 deliveries by type of diabetes, hospital geographic region, patient’s age, degree of urbanicity of patient’s residence, categorized median household income for patient’s ZIP Code, expected primary payer, and type of delivery. From 1993 to 2009, age-standardized prevalence of diabetes per 100 deliveries increased from 0.62 to 0.90 for PDM (trend p < 0.001) and from 3.09 to 5.57 for GDM (trend p < 0.001). In 2009, correlates of PDM at delivery included older age [40–44 vs. 15–24: odds ratio 6.45 (95 % CI 5.27–7.88)], Medicaid/Medicare versus private payment sources [1.77 (95 % CI 1.59–1.98)], patient’s ZIP Code with a median household income in bottom quartile versus other quartiles [1.54 (95 % CI 1.41, 1.69)], and C-section versus vaginal delivery [3.36 (95 % CI 3.10–3.64)]. Correlates of GDM at delivery were similar. Among U.S. delivery hospitalizations, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. In 2009, the prevalence of diabetes was higher among women in older age groups, living in ZIP codes with lower household incomes, or with public insurance.

129 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the association between reported disrespectful treatment during childbirth and delivery satisfaction, perceived quality of care, and intention to deliver at the same facility in the future.
Abstract: In Tanzania, maternal mortality is high and coverage with health facility delivery low, despite efforts to reduce barriers to utilization. Disrespect and abuse during childbirth has not been explored as a contributor to delivery satisfaction or as a deterrent to institutional delivery. We assessed the association between reported disrespectful treatment during childbirth and delivery satisfaction, perceived quality of care, and intention to deliver at the same facility in the future. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted in Tanga Region, Tanzania with women on discharge from delivery at two hospitals. Disrespect and abuse was measured by asking women about specific disrespectful events during childbirth. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between disrespect/abuse and (1) satisfaction with delivery, (2) perceived quality of care for delivery, and (3) intent to use the same facility for a future delivery, controlling for confounders. 1388 women participated in the survey (67 % response rate). Disrespect/abuse during childbirth was associated with lower satisfaction with delivery (OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.19–0.36) and reduced likelihood of rating perceived quality of care as excellent/very good (OR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.35–0.85). Of women who planned to have more children (N = 766), those who experienced disrespect/abuse were half as likely to plan to deliver again at the same facility (OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.32–0.82). Our study highlights disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth as an important factor in reducing women’s confidence in health facilities. Improving interpersonal care must be an integral part of quality improvement in maternal health.

114 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression.
Abstract: Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers.

108 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups.
Abstract: We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child’s race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009–2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3–17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (≥5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3–4-year-olds. For 5–17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups.

103 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Multivitamin/mineral supplementation can reduce the negative impact of alcohol use during pregnancy and MVM supplementation on developmental outcomes while controlling sex, social class, and smoking.
Abstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are more common in disadvantaged populations. Environmental factors, like suboptimal nutrition, may potentiate the developmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. To evaluate the impact of micronutrients, including choline, on reduction of effects of exposure, we examined timing and dose of alcohol and effects of nutritional supplementation at two OMNI-Net sites in Western Ukraine that included high and low risk individuals. Alcohol-using and nondrinking women were randomized to one of three multivitamin/mineral supplement groups: none, multivitamins/minerals (MVM), and multivitamin/minerals plus choline. Children (N = 367) were tested at 6 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ED) yielding standard scores for Mental Development Index (MDI), Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Behavior. Generalized linear modeling was used: (1) for factorial analysis of effects of alcohol group, multivitamin/minerals, and choline supplementation; and (2) to examine the relationship between amount and timing of alcohol (ounces of absolute alcohol/day [ozAA/day] peri-conception and on average in the second trimester) and MVM supplementation on developmental outcomes while controlling sex, social class, and smoking. MDI was significantly impacted by peri-conceptual alcohol dose ( $$\upchi_{(1)}^{2} = 8.54$$ , p < .001) with more alcohol associated with lower scores and males more negatively affected than females ( $$\upchi_{(3)}^{2} = 11.04$$ , p < .002). Micronutrient supplementation had a protective effect; those receiving supplements performed better ( $$\upchi_{(1)}^{2} = 8.03$$ , p < .005). The PDI motor scores did not differ by group but were affected by peri-conceptual alcohol dose ( $$\upchi_{(1)}^{2} = 4.17$$ , p < .04). Multivitamin/mineral supplementation can reduce the negative impact of alcohol use during pregnancy on specific developmental outcomes.

103 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.
Abstract: Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Building on the growing body of evidence for text message interventions reviewed here, as well as the growing popularity of text messaging as a medium, researchers should be able to use this technology to engage difficult to reach populations.
Abstract: Text messaging is an increasingly popular communication tool in health interventions, but has been little studied in maternal and infant health. This literature review evaluates studies of text messaging that may be applied to the promotion of maternal and infant health. Articles from peer-reviewed journals published before June 2012 were included if they were experimental or quasi-experimental studies of behaviors endorsed either by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Pediatrics Association, or the United States Preventive Services Task Force; included reproductive age women (12–50 years) or infants up to 2 years of age; and were available in English. Qualitative studies of text messaging specific to pregnant women were also included. Studies were compared and contrasted by key variables, including: design, time-period, study population, and results. Forty-eight articles were included, 30 of which were randomized controlled trials. Interventions vary greatly in effectiveness and soundness of methodology, but collectively indicate that there is a wide range of preventative behaviors that text message interventions can effectively promote, including smoking cessation, diabetes control, appointment reminders, medication adherence, weight loss, and vaccine uptake. Common methodological issues include not accounting for attention affect and not aligning text message content to measured outcomes. Those interventions that are based on an established theory of behavior change and use motivational as opposed to informational language are more likely to be successful. Building on the growing body of evidence for text message interventions reviewed here, as well as the growing popularity of text messaging as a medium, researchers should be able to use this technology to engage difficult to reach populations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network through community-based participatory research processes, the PSRP model may help realize the goal of sustaining engagement of communities, health and social services providers, and scientists to overcome the siloes, inefficiencies, and lack of innovation in efforts to reduce family health disparities.
Abstract: Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple levels to promote resiliency, reduce chronic and acute stressors, and expand individualized health care that integrates promotive and prevention strategies. If widely adopted, the PSRP model may help realize the goal of sustaining engagement of communities, health and social services providers, and scientists to overcome the siloes, inefficiencies, and lack of innovation in efforts to reduce family health disparities. Model limitations include tremendous breadth and difficulty measuring all elements with precision and sensitivity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Future research should examine parents’ decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice, and public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting.
Abstract: Mother-infant bed-sharing has been a common practice for centuries. Understanding the reasons parents choose to bed-share can help tailor safe sleep education. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the international literature on: (1) reasons parents bed-share, (2) the cultural context of bed-sharing, and (3) implications for interventions and future research. The search occurred August-September 2013 via PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyc INFO using the terms: "infant," "sleep," "bed shar*," "co sleep*," "sleep location," "sleep practices," and "sleep arrangements," alone or in combination. Google Scholar was searched using: "bed share," "bed sharing," "co sleep," and "co sleeping." Inclusion criteria were: (1) referenced bed-sharing with infants 12 months or younger; (2) provided reasons for bed-sharing; and (3) published between 1990 and 2013. Studies were excluded if they focused on disorders such as epilepsy, breathing disorders, or among multi-gestational infants. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize findings. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. The main themes around bed-sharing based on this synthesis included: (1) breastfeeding, (2) comforting, (3) better/more sleep, (4) monitoring, (5) bonding/attachment, (6) environmental, (7) crying, (8) tradition, (9) disagree with danger, and (10) maternal instinct. Findings suggest that future research should examine parents' decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice. Public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting. Clinicians should discuss infant sleep environment with each family, along with their motivations for choosing this environment, and work within that framework to address the safety of the sleep environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant and underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states.
Abstract: The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current state of the evidence is controversial for some other endpoints and the actual benefit of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy remains unclear, and randomised trials are required to define the benefits of vitaminD supplementation in reducing the incidence of adverse outcomes in the mother and infant.
Abstract: Research into the extra-skeletal functions of vitamin D has been expanding in recent years. During pregnancy, maternal vitamin D status may be of concern because of the key role of this vitamin in fetal skeletal development and due to the association between hypovitaminosis D and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript was to review the maternal-fetal impact of gestational vitamin D deficiency and the benefits of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase employing the following keywords: vitamin D deficiency, pregnancy, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and hypovitaminosis D. All relevant articles in English language published since 1980 were analysed by the two authors. Neonatal complications derived from vitamin D deficiency include low birth weight, growth restriction, and respiratory tract infection. In the mother, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with altered glucose homeostasis and increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, and bacterial vaginosis. However, the current state of the evidence is controversial for some other endpoints and the actual benefit of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy remains unclear. Additional longitudinal studies may clarify the actual impact of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, and randomised trials are required to define the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence of adverse outcomes in the mother and infant.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Compared to families without CSHCN, those with CMC have, on average, lower satisfaction with health care (8.4 vs. 8.9 out of 10), and health care models for CMC should account for mental health conditions that may be driving high numbers of outpatient encounters.
Abstract: Children with medical complexity (CMC) have multiple specialty need, technology dependence, and high health care utilization. The objective of this study is to profile types of pediatric health care utilization and costs by increasing levels of medical complexity. This is a cross-sectional study of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Full-Year Data Sets from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Medical complexity was defined by a higher number of positive items from the five question children with special health care needs (CSHCN) Screener. CMC were defined by ≥ 4 positive screener items. Outcomes included the number of inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department visits, associated costs and diagnoses, and reported satisfaction. ICD-9 codes were grouped by Clinical Classifications Software. Of 27,755 total study subjects ≤ 17 years, 4,851 had special needs and 541 were CMC. Older age, male gender, white/non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and public insurance were all associated with medical complexity (all p < 0.001). CMC had an annual mean of 19 annual outpatient visits ($616) and 0.26 inpatient visits ($3,308), with other significant cost drivers including home health ($2,957) and prescriptions ($2,182). The most common reasons for non-CSHCN and less-complex CSHCN outpatient visits were viral illnesses, while the main reasons for CMC visits were for mental health. Compared to families without CSHCN, those with CMC have, on average, lower satisfaction with health care (8.4 vs. 8.9 out of 10, p < 0.001). Health care models for CMC should account for mental health conditions that may be driving high numbers of outpatient encounters.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time and women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.
Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Most of the negative associations between intention status and health outcomes were concentrated among women with births mistimed by two or more years or unwanted births, and Surveys should incorporate questions on the extent of mistiming when measuring pregnancy intentions.
Abstract: Better understanding of the impact of unintended childbearing on infant and early childhood health is needed for public health practice and policy Data from the 2004–2008 Oklahoma Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey and The Oklahoma Toddler Survey 2006–2010 were used to examine associations between a four category measure of pregnancy intentions (intended, mistimed <2 years, mistimed ≥2 years, unwanted) and maternal behaviors and child health outcomes up to age two Propensity score methods were used to control for confounding Births mistimed by two or more years (OR 58) and unwanted births (OR 33) had significantly lower odds than intended births of having a mother who recognized the pregnancy within the first 8 weeks; they were also about half as likely as intended births to receive early prenatal care, and had significantly higher likelihoods of exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy Breastfeeding was significantly less likely among unwanted births (OR 68); breastfeeding for at least 6 months was significantly less likely among seriously mistimed births (OR 70) We find little association between intention status and early childhood measures Measured associations of intention status on health behaviors and outcomes were most evident in the prenatal period, limited in the immediate prenatal period, and mostly insignificant by age two In addition, most of the negative associations between intention status and health outcomes were concentrated among women with births mistimed by two or more years or unwanted births Surveys should incorporate questions on the extent of mistiming when measuring pregnancy intentions

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns before and during pregnancy among Chinese, Malay and Indian women were described and determinants of change in PA and SB during pregnancy were investigated.
Abstract: To describe physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns before and during pregnancy among Chinese, Malay and Indian women. In addition, to investigate determinants of change in PA and SB during pregnancy. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort recruited first trimester pregnant women. PA and SB (sitting time and television time) before and during pregnancy were assessed as a part of an interview questionnaire at weeks 26–28 gestational clinic visit. Total energy expenditure (TEE) on PA and time in SB were calculated. Determinants of change in PA and SB were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. PA and SB questions were answered by 94 % (n = 1171) of total recruited subjects. A significant reduction in TEE was observed from before to during pregnancy [median 1746.0–1039.5 metabolic equivalent task (MET) min/week, p < 0.001]. The proportion of women insufficiently active (<600 MET-min/week) increased from 19.0 to 34.1 % (p < 0.001). Similarly, sitting time (median 56.0–63.0 h/week, p < 0.001) and television time (mean 16.1–16.7 h/week, p = 0.01) increased. Women with higher household income, lower level of perceived health, nausea/vomiting during pregnancy and higher level of pre-pregnancy PA were more likely to reduce PA. Women with children were less likely to reduce PA. Women reporting nausea/vomiting and lower level of pre-pregnancy sitting time were more likely to increase sitting time. Participants substantially reduced PA and increased SB by 26–28 weeks of pregnancy. Further research is needed to better understand determinants of change in PA and SB and develop effective health promotion strategies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Frequent requests for pregnancy and STI testing and emergency contraception among young females seeking care may be an indicator of greater risk for recent RC, alone and in combination with IPV.
Abstract: To examine the associations of recent intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) with frequency of use of reproductive and sexual health services, a cross-sectional survey was administered to 16-29 year old women seeking care in five family planning clinics (n = 1,262). We evaluated associations of recent experiences of IPV, RC, or both IPV and RC with recent care seeking for pregnancy testing, emergency contraception, and sexually transmitted infection testing using multinomial logistic regression. Sixteen percent of respondents reported IPV and 13.5 % reported RC in the past 3 months. Four percent of all respondents reported both IPV and RC. Recent RC without IPV was associated with increased odds of seeking one (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.3-2.9) or multiple pregnancy tests (AOR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.5), multiple STI tests (AOR = 2.5, 95 % CI 1.5-4.1), or using emergency contraception once (AOR = 2.6, 95 % CI 1.2-5.8) or multiple times (AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI 1.7-2.7). Recent IPV without RC was associated with increased odds of seeking one (AOR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.7) or multiple pregnancy tests (AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI 1.4-3.2) and using emergency contraception once (AOR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3-2.0). The combined effect of recent IPV and RC increased the odds of seeking multiple pregnancy tests (AOR = 3.6, 95 % CI 3.3-3.8), using emergency contraception multiple times (AOR = 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-4.1) and seeking STI testing once (AOR = 2.5, 95 % CI 1.6-3.9) or multiple times (AOR = 2.9, 95 % CI 1.02-8.5). Frequent requests for pregnancy and STI testing and emergency contraception among young females seeking care may be an indicator of greater risk for recent RC, alone and in combination with IPV.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This case study provides a high-level overview of the human-centered design (HCD) or “design thinking” process and its relevance to public health and suggests that HCD can enhance community engagement; expedite the timeframe for challenge identification, program design, and implementation; and create innovative programs that address complex challenges.
Abstract: This case study provides a high-level overview of the human-centered design (HCD) or “design thinking” process and its relevance to public health. The Best Babies Zone (BBZ) initiative is a multi-year project aimed at reducing inequities in infant mortality rates. In 2012, BBZ launched pilot programs in three US cities: Cincinnati, Ohio; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Oakland, California. The Alameda County Public Health Department (ACPHD), the lead for the Oakland BBZ site, identified HCD as a promising approach for addressing the social and economic conditions that are important drivers of health inequities. HCD is a process for creating innovative products, services, and strategies that prioritizes the needs of the intended population. ACPHD partnered with the Gobee Group (a social innovation design consultancy) to develop the Design Sprint. The Design Sprint was a 12-week pilot in which 14 professionals from nine organizations used the HCD process to develop concepts for stimulating a vibrant local economy in the Oakland Best Babies Zone. Thirty- to sixty-minute semi-structured interviews were conducted with all 14 individuals involved in the Design Sprint. With the exception of one interview, the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and inductively coded to identify themes. Our experience suggests that HCD can: enhance community engagement; expedite the timeframe for challenge identification, program design, and implementation; and create innovative programs that address complex challenges.

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TL;DR: Cultural factors, including immigration status, are important in understanding the use of health information sources and their role in decision-making about pregnancy and child health among Hispanic mothers and healthcare providers and public health professionals should consider Hispanic mothers health information environment and provide culturally-relevant communication strategies and interventions.
Abstract: This qualitative research aimed to explore how health information sources inform decision-making among Hispanic mothers during their children’s first 1000 days of life (conception-age 24 months), and to generate appropriate health information sources and communication strategies for future interventions. We conducted seven focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children <2 years old. Domains included interpersonal and media sources, source trustworthiness, dealing with contradictory information, and how information affects decision-making. We used immersion/crystallization process for analysis. Trusted health information sources included health care providers, female and male family members, BabyCenter.com and other Internet sources, selected social media, and television. Some immigrant women reported preferring the Internet citing less established local support networks. Women highlighted the importance of validating health information through checking multiple sources for consistency and resolving contradictory information. Mothers expressed interest in receiving reliable website links from healthcare professionals and outreach to extended family. Cultural factors, including immigration status, are important in understanding the use of health information sources and their role in decision-making about pregnancy and child health among Hispanic mothers. Healthcare providers and public health professionals should consider Hispanic mothers health information environment and provide culturally-relevant communication strategies and interventions during this high information-seeking time period.

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TL;DR: Couples’ increased communication on pregnancy care and men’s subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits, but more efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health.
Abstract: Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health.

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TL;DR: Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms, underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources.
Abstract: This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery among 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities.
Abstract: Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child’s birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes.

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TL;DR: There is a need to move the application of ICT for MCH care from pilot initiatives to interventions involving all stakeholders on a sub-regional scale and these interventions should also adopt an integrated approach that takes care of the information needs at every stage along the continuum of care.
Abstract: To review e-health interventions for maternal and child health (MCH) and to explore their influence on MCH practices in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). Keyword searches were used to retrieve articles from four databases and the websites of organisations involved in e-health projects for MCH in SSA. A total of 18relevant articles were retrieved using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researchers reveal the prevalence of the application of mobile phones for MCH care and the influence of the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering MCH information and services to target populations. There is a need to move the application of ICT for MCH care from pilot initiatives to interventions involving all stakeholders on a sub-regional scale. These interventions should also adopt an integrated approach that takes care of the information needs at every stage along the continuum of care. It is anticipated that the study would be useful in the evolution and implementation of future ICT-based programmes for MCH in the region.

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TL;DR: Self-reported prenatal diagnosis of depression was not associated with symptoms of PPD and depression during pregnancy was marginally associated with PPD symptomatology for women with disabilities.
Abstract: The adverse consequences of postpartum depression on the health of the mother and her child are well documented. However, there is little information on postpartum depression among mothers with disabilities. This study examines the patterns of depression and depressive symptoms before, during and after pregnancy and the association between depression before and during pregnancy and postpartum depression symptomatology (PPD) among women with and without disabilities. Data from the 2009–2011 Rhode Island Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were analyzed in 2013. Almost 30 % (28.9 %; 95 % CI 22.8–35.8) of mothers with disabilities reported often or always feeling down, depressed or sad after childbirth compared to 10 % of those without disabilities (95 % CI 8.9–11.3). Compared to other women in the study, women with disabilities had a greater likelihood for PPD symptoms (RR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1–2.2) after accounting for sociodemographics, maternal characteristics related to PPD, and depression before and during pregnancy. Adjusting for other covariates, self-reported prenatal diagnosis of depression was not associated with symptoms of PPD and depression during pregnancy was marginally associated with PPD symptomatology for women with disabilities. Women with disabilities are at a greater risk of experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression than other women. Screening for PPD among new mothers with disabilities and timely referral of those with PPD diagnosis are vital to the health of mothers with disabilities and their children.

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TL;DR: Maternal support through a cell phone based case manager approach was highly acceptable among South African HIV infected women on HAART and feasible, warranting further assessment of effectiveness.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a cell phone based case manager intervention targeting HIV-infected pregnant women on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Pregnant women ≥36 weeks gestation attending antenatal care and receiving HAART through the Option B+ program at a primary care clinic in South Africa were enrolled into a prospective pilot intervention to receive text messages and telephone calls from a case manager through 6 weeks postpartum. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were assessed along with infant HIV testing rates and 10-week and 12-month postpartum maternal retention in care. Retention outcomes were compared to women of similar eligibility receiving care prior to the intervention. Fifty women were enrolled into the pilot from May to July 2013. Most (70 %) were HAART-naive at time of conception and started HAART during antenatal care. During the intervention, the case manager sent 482 text messages and completed 202 telephone calls, for a median of 10 text messages and 4 calls/woman. Ninety-six percent completed the postpartum interview and 47/48 (98 %) endorsed the utility of the intervention. Engagement in 10-week postpartum maternal HIV care was >90 % in the pre-intervention (n = 50) and intervention (n = 50) periods; by 12-months retention fell to 72 % and was the same across periods. More infants received HIV-testing by 10-weeks in the intervention period as compared to pre-intervention (90.0 vs. 63.3 %, p < 0.01). Maternal support through a cell phone based case manager approach was highly acceptable among South African HIV infected women on HAART and feasible, warranting further assessment of effectiveness.

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TL;DR: Only a small proportion of CSHCN receive all identified attributes of a high-quality system of services, and significant disparities exist whereby those most impacted by their conditions and those in traditionally disadvantaged groups are served least well by the current system.
Abstract: To provide a national, population-based assessment of the quality of the health care system for children and youth with special health care needs using a framework of six health care system quality indicators. 49,242 interviews with parents of children with special health care needs from the 2009–10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were examined to determine the extent to which CSHCN had access to six quality indicators of a well-functioning system of services. Criteria for determining access to each indicator were established and applied to the survey data to estimate the proportion of CSHCN meeting each quality indicator by socio-demographic status and functional limitations. 17.6 % of CSHCN received care consistent with all six quality indicators. Results for each component of the system quality framework ranged from a high of 70.3 % of parents reporting that they shared decision-making with healthcare providers to a low of 40 % of parents reporting receipt of services needed for transition to adult health care. Attainment rates were lower for CSHCN of minority racial and ethnic groups, those residing in households where English was not the primary language, those in lower income households, and those most impacted by their health condition. Only a small proportion of CSHCN receive all identified attributes of a high-quality system of services. Moreover, significant disparities exist whereby those most impacted by their conditions and those in traditionally disadvantaged groups are served least well by the current system. A small proportion of CSHCN appear to remain essentially outside of the system, having met few if any of the elements studied.

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TL;DR: Evidence is provided that structured community care coordination coupled with tracking and payment for outcomes may reduce LBW birth among high-risk women.
Abstract: The evidence is limited on the effectiveness of home visiting care coordination in addressing poor birth outcome, including low birth weight (LBW). The Community Health Access Project (CHAP) utilizes community health workers (CHWs) to identify women at risk of having poor birth outcomes, connect them to health and social services, and track each identified health or social issue to a measurable completion. CHWs are trained individuals from the same highest risk communities. The CHAP Pathways Model is used to track each maternal health and social service need to resolution and CHWs are paid based upon outcomes. We evaluated the impact of the CHAP Pathways program on LBW in an urban Ohio community. Women participating in CHAP and having a live birth in 2001 through 2004 constituted the intervention group. Using birth certificate records, each CHAP birth was matched through propensity score to a control birth from the same census tract and year. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of CHAP participation with LBW while controlling for risk factors for LBW. We identified 115 CHAP clients and 115 control births. Among the intervention group there were seven LBW births (6.1 %) compared with 15 (13.0 %) among non-CHAP clients. The adjusted odds ratio for LBW was 0.35 (95 % confidence interval, 0.12–0.96) among CHAP clients. This study provides evidence that structured community care coordination coupled with tracking and payment for outcomes may reduce LBW birth among high-risk women.