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JournalISSN: 0730-8639

Mathematics and Computer Education 

About: Mathematics and Computer Education is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Connected Mathematics & Reform mathematics. It has an ISSN identifier of 0730-8639. Over the lifetime, 430 publications have been published receiving 10839 citations. The journal is also known as: Mathematics and computer education.


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TL;DR: Thaler and Sunstein this paper described a general explanation of and advocacy for libertarian paternalism, a term coined by the authors in earlier publications, as a general approach to how leaders, systems, organizations, and governments can nudge people to do the things the nudgers want and need done for the betterment of the nudgees, or of society.
Abstract: NUDGE: IMPROVING DECISIONS ABOUT HEALTH, WEALTH, AND HAPPINESS by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein Penguin Books, 2009, 312 pp, ISBN 978-0-14-311526-7This book is best described formally as a general explanation of and advocacy for libertarian paternalism, a term coined by the authors in earlier publications. Informally, it is about how leaders, systems, organizations, and governments can nudge people to do the things the nudgers want and need done for the betterment of the nudgees, or of society. It is paternalism in the sense that "it is legitimate for choice architects to try to influence people's behavior in order to make their lives longer, healthier, and better", (p. 5) It is libertarian in that "people should be free to do what they like - and to opt out of undesirable arrangements if they want to do so", (p. 5) The built-in possibility of opting out or making a different choice preserves freedom of choice even though people's behavior has been influenced by the nature of the presentation of the information or by the structure of the decisionmaking system. I had never heard of libertarian paternalism before reading this book, and I now find it fascinating.Written for a general audience, this book contains mostly social and behavioral science theory and models, but there is considerable discussion of structure and process that has roots in mathematical and quantitative modeling. One of the main applications of this social system is economic choice in investing, selecting and purchasing products and services, systems of taxes, banking (mortgages, borrowing, savings), and retirement systems. Other quantitative social choice systems discussed include environmental effects, health care plans, gambling, and organ donations. Softer issues that are also subject to a nudge-based approach are marriage, education, eating, drinking, smoking, influence, spread of information, and politics. There is something in this book for everyone.The basis for this libertarian paternalism concept is in the social theory called "science of choice", the study of the design and implementation of influence systems on various kinds of people. The terms Econs and Humans, are used to refer to people with either considerable or little rational decision-making talent, respectively. The various libertarian paternalism concepts and systems presented are tested and compared in light of these two types of people. Two foundational issues that this book has in common with another book, Network of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders, that was also reviewed for this issue of the Journal are that 1 ) there are two modes of thinking (or components of the brain) - an automatic (intuitive) process and a reflective (rational) process and 2) the need for conformity and the desire for imitation are powerful forces in human behavior. …

3,435 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Antifragile as discussed by the authors is a book about the structure and behavior of dynamic systems, where the author classifies systems by the nonlinearity (convexity and concavity) of their utility or health functions as either ant-fragile or fragile.
Abstract: ANTIFRAGILE: THINGS THAT GAIN FROM DISORDER Nassim Nicholas Taleb Random House, New York, 2012, 519 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4000-6782-4Antifragile is a book about the structure and behavior of dynamic systems. To a mathematician, this is mainstream mathematics. However, Taleb, writing for a general audience, seems to try to hide the formal mathematics and obscure its usefulness by his focus on a more literary, historical, and philosophical presentation. Yet, in the end, enough mathematical evidence and explanation of Taleb's antifragile theory as well as examples make this book worthy of consideration. Taleb's theory is simple enough. He classifies systems by the nonlinearity (convexity and concavity) of their utility or health functions as either antifragile or fragile. While never producing a precise measure for this property for systems or entities, he does give myriad interesting examples of his theory in systems, items, and concepts from biology, human nature, natural science, information science, social science, business, literature, politics, and philosophy. Taleb's reason for inventing the term "antifragile" is interesting: "Half of life - the interesting half of life - we don't have a name for." (p. 33)It's a shame that Taleb does not take a more mathematical and scientific approach to his fragility concept, because many excellent points could be made and insights developed that could help to understand his examples. Taleb uses the word "antifragile" to describe systems that are the opposite of fragile, and therefore, usually, a property to celebrate, advocate, design and use to one's benefit. Systems and items that improve or gain from disorder and stress are antifragile to that disorder or stress. The nonlinearity of antifragility can come from many properties of the system: redundancy, complexity, volatility, randomness, and asymmetry, the author's interesting examples come from all areas of life. Some that are rich in flavor and insight include health, medicine, love, banking, traffic, research, decision making, education, ethics, government, religion, smoking, technology, and weightlifting. The author is careful to contrast the antifragility property with related but different concepts of robustness and resilience.This book contains seven sections (called books), a glossary, a bibliography, and two appendices. The first and most insightful table is a five-page Table of Triads - a classification of dozens of elements by their range of fragility (fragility on one end, antifragile on the other, and robustness in the middle - thus the term triad). For example, directed research is fragile, opportunistic research is robust, and stochastic tinkering is antifragile. Corporate employment is fragile, the dental profession is robust, and taxi driving can be considered antifragile. Bureaucrats are fragile and entrepreneurs are antifragile. In literature, e-readers are fragile, books are robust, and oral tradition is antifragile. Mother Nature is Taleb's prime example of antifragility - living things like "a certain measure of randomness and disorder", (p. …

390 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
201611
201513
201412
201323
201215
201117