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Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-physical Metallurgy and Materials Science is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Microstructure & Alloy. Over the lifetime, 17076 publications have been published receiving 497707 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that very large stresses may be present in the thin films that comprise integrated circuits and magnetic disks and that these stresses can cause deformation and fracture to occur.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of thin films on substrates are described and studied. It is shown that very large stresses may be present in the thin films that comprise integrated circuits and magnetic disks and that these stresses can cause deformation and fracture to occur. It is argued that the approaches that have proven useful in the study of bulk structural materials can be used to understand the mechanical behavior of thin film materials. Understanding the mechanical properties of thin films on substrates requires an understanding of the stresses in thin film structures as well as a knowledge of the mechanisms by which thin films deform. The fundamentals of these processes are reviewed. For a crystalline film on a nondeformable substrate, a key problem involves the movement of dislocations in the film. An analysis of this problem provides insight into both the formation of misfit dislocations in epitaxial thin films and the high strengths of thin metal films on substrates. It is demonstrated that the kinetics of dislocation motion at high temperatures are expecially important to the understanding of the formation of misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures. The experimental study of mechanical properties of thin films requires the development and use of nontraditional mechanical testing techniques. Some of the techniques that have been developed recently are described. The measurement of substrate curvature by laser scanning is shown to be an effective way of measuring the biaxial stresses in thin films and studying the biaxial deformation properties at elevated temperatures. Submicron indentation testing techniques, which make use of the Nanoindenter, are also reviewed. The mechanical properties that can be studied using this instrument are described, including hardness, elastic modulus, and time-dependent deformation properties. Finally, a new testing technique involving the deflection of microbeam samples of thin film materials made by integrated circuit manufacturing methods is described. It is shown that both elastic and plastic properties of thin film materials can be measured using this technique.

2,347 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of hydrogen on the physical and mechanical properties of iron and steel are reviewed and a new mechanism for the cold work peak for hydrogen in iron is considered.
Abstract: The effects of hydrogen on the physical and mechanical properties of iron and steel are reviewed. A new mechanism for the cold work peak for hydrogen in iron is considered. Together, internal friction and mechanical properties indicate that hydrogen softens iron by enhancing screw dislocation mobility at room temperature but hardens iron by core interactions at low temperatures. No single mechanism exists for the degradation of the properties of steel by hydrogen. Instead a complex process involving many of the proposed mechanisms as contributing factors is shown to account for most degradation phenomena.

1,596 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of deformation twinning in fracture of hexagonal close-packed metals is reviewed from a theoretical point of view in this paper, where strength and ductility are correlated with the intrinsic physical and metallurgical variables.
Abstract: The role of deformation twinning in fracture of hexagonal close-packed metals is reviewed from a theoretical point of view. Strength and ductility are correlated with the intrinsic physical and metallurgical variables. The importance of c + a slip and of both “tension” and “compression” twins as independent modes for a generalized polycrystalline deformation is emphasized. Effects of slip-twin and twin-twin interactions on crack initiation and high-order twinning are reviewed. The competitive role of twin nucleationvs crack initiation is discussed. Shortcomings of our current understanding of the role of twinning are indicated, and some futher studies are recommended.

1,556 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an expression for the volume fraction of martensite vs plastic strain is derived by considering the course of shear-band formation, the probability of shears-band intersections, and probability of an intersection generating a martensitic embryo.
Abstract: Intersections of shear bands in metastable austenites have been shown to be effective sites for strain-induced martensitic nucleation. The shear bands may be in the form of e’ (hcp) martensite, mechanical twins, or dense bundles of stacking faults. Assuming that shear-band intersection is the dominant mechanism of strain-induced nucleation, an expression for the volume fraction of martensite vs plastic strain is derived by considering the course of shear-band formation, the probability of shear-band intersections, and the probability of an intersection generating a martensitic embryo. The resulting transformation curve has a sigmoidal shape and, in general, approaches saturation below 100 pct. The saturation value and rate of approach to saturation are determined by two temperature-dependent parameters related to the fee-bee chemical driving force and austenite stacking-fault energy. Fitting the expression to available data on 304 stainless steels gives good agreement for the shape of individual transformation curves as well as the temperature dependence of the derived parameters. It is concluded that the temperature dependence of the transformation kinetics (an important problem in the development of TRIP steels) may be minimized by decreasing the fee, bec, and hep entropy differences through proper compositional control.

1,231 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2021480
2020552
2019525
2018579
2017561
2016622