About: Microbiological Research is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Biology & Medicine. It has an ISSN identifier of 0944-5013. Over the lifetime, 3297 publications have been published receiving 297318 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Phylogenetic analysis of the retrieved rRNA sequence of an uncultured microorganism reveals its closest culturable relatives and may, together with information on the physicochemical conditions of its natural habitat, facilitate more directed cultivation attempts.
Abstract: The frequent discrepancy between direct microscopic counts and numbers of culturable bacteria from environmental samples is just one of several indications that we currently know only a minor part of the diversity of microorganisms in nature. A combination of direct retrieval of rRNA sequences and whole-cell oligonucleotide probing can be used to detect specific rRNA sequences of uncultured bacteria in natural samples and to microscopically identify individual cells. Studies have been performed with microbial assemblages of various complexities ranging from simple two-component bacterial endosymbiotic associations to multispecies enrichments containing magnetotactic bacteria to highly complex marine and soil communities. Phylogenetic analysis of the retrieved rRNA sequence of an uncultured microorganism reveals its closest culturable relatives and may, together with information on the physicochemical conditions of its natural habitat, facilitate more directed cultivation attempts. For the analysis of complex communities such as multispecies biofilms and activated-sludge flocs, a different approach has proven advantageous. Sets of probes specific to different taxonomic levels are applied consecutively beginning with the more general and ending with the more specific (a hierarchical top-to-bottom approach), thereby generating increasingly precise information on the structure of the community. Not only do rRNA-targeted whole-cell hybridizations yield data on cell morphology, specific cell counts, and in situ distributions of defined phylogenetic groups, but also the strength of the hybridization signal reflects the cellular rRNA content of individual cells. From the signal strength conferred by a specific probe, in situ growth rates and activities of individual cells might be estimated for known species. In many ecosystems, low cellular rRNA content and/or limited cell permeability, combined with background fluorescence, hinders in situ identification of autochthonous populations. Approaches to circumvent these problems are discussed in detail.
TL;DR: Wild aquatic bird populations have long been considered the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses with virus transmission from these birds seeding other avian and mammalian hosts, but recent studies in bats have suggested other reservoir species may also exist.
Abstract: Wild aquatic bird populations have long been considered the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses with virus transmission from these birds seeding other avian and mammalian hosts. While most evidence still supports this dogma, recent studies in bats have suggested other reservoir species may also exist. Extensive surveillance studies coupled with an enhanced awareness in response to H5N1 and pandemic 2009 H1N1 outbreaks is also revealing a growing list of animals susceptible to infection with influenza A viruses. Although in a relatively stable host–pathogen interaction in aquatic birds, antigenic, and genetic evolution of influenza A viruses often accompanies interspecies transmission as the virus adapts to a new host. The evolutionary changes in the new hosts result from a number of processes including mutation, reassortment, and recombination. Depending on host and virus these changes can be accompanied by disease outbreaks impacting wildlife, veterinary, and public health.
TL;DR: A group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram- positive pathogenic bacteria.
Abstract: In recent years, a group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. They are ribosomally synthesized peptides of 30 to less than 60 amino acids, with a narrow to wide antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive bacteria; the antibacterial property is heat stable, and a producer strain displays a degree of specific self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, in general, they appear to be translated as inactive prepeptides containing an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide component. During posttranslational modifications, the leader peptide is removed. In addition, depending on the particular type, some amino acids in the propeptide components may undergo either dehydration and thioether ring formation to produce lanthionine and beta-methyl lanthionine (as in lantibiotics) or thio ester ring formation to form cystine (as in thiolbiotics). Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. Following posttranslational modification and depending on the pH, the molecules may either be released into the environment or remain bound to the cell wall. The antibacterial action against a sensitive cell of a gram-positive strain is produced principally by destabilization of membrane functions. Under certain conditions, gram-negative bacterial cells can also be sensitive to some of these molecules. By application of site-specific mutagenesis, bacteriocin variants which may differ in their antimicrobial spectrum and physicochemical characteristics can be produced. Research activity in this field has grown remarkably but sometimes with an undisciplined regard for conformity in the definition, naming, and categorization of these molecules and their genetic effectors. Some suggestions for improved standardization of nomenclature are offered.
TL;DR: The present study focuses on the development and outline of a new treatment based on 16-year-old ribonucleic acid, as well as evidence in support of the new taxonomic treatment.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION ........ ...... ........ 261 GROWTH OF METHANOGENS 262 Techniques for Growth of Methanogens ..... 262 Principal Media......6..3.. . .... ....... .. . 263 Strain Histories.................2..6..4............. 264 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition Determination (Moles Percent Guanine plusCytosine). 264 GENERATION OF 16S RIBOSOMAL RIBONUCLEIC ACID OLIGONUCLEOTIDE CATALOGS ..............................2................... 264 Labeling and Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Isolation ..... .. . 264 Determination of Oligonucleotide Catalog .26........6.. 26 Analysis ofData ............2......6.. .. . . .... . ..6. ... ... 26 COMPARATIVE CATALOGING OF 17 METHANOGENS 266 DEVELOPMENT AND OUTLINE OF A NEW TAXONOMIC TREATMENT BASED ON 16S RIBOSOMAL RIBONUCLEIC ACID ................ 267 Orders ................................................... 268 Families .2......6.8......................6....... 268 Genera.......... 269 Species ...2.6.......9......... 269 EVIDENCE IN SUPPORT OF THE NEW TAXONOMIC TREATMENT ........ 276 Cell Wall Structure and Composition .. .......... ........ 276 Order I, Methanobacteriales.276 Order II, Methanococcales 8 Order m, Methanomicrobiales.27 LFimpid Composition.279 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition (Moles Percent Guanine plus Cytosine) ................................................................ 280 Substrates for Growth and Methane Production 280 Metabolic Pathways ................. .. 281 Coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) .. .. ....... .... 281 Coenzyme F420 .......................................... 282 Intermediary metabolism .... .... ...... .... .... 282 Ribosomal and Transfer Ribonucleic Acids of Typical Bacteria and Methanogens .............. 282 Genome Sizes of Typical Bacteria and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophi-
TL;DR: The physiological functions of PHB as a reserve material and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and its presence in bacterial plasma membranes and putative role in transformability and calcium signaling are also considered.
Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant, are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. They are composed of 3-hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic granules per cell. The properties of the C4 homopolymer PHB as a biodegradable thermoplastic first attracted industrial attention more than 20 years ago. Copolymers of C4 (3-hydroxybutyrate [3HB]) and C5 (3-hydroxyvalerate [3HV]) monomer units have modified physical properties; e.g., the plastic is less brittle than PHB, whereas PHAs containing C8 to C12 monomers behave as elastomers. This family of materials is the centre of considerable commercial interest, and 3HB-co-3HV copolymers have been marketed by ICI plc as Biopol. The known polymers exist as 2(1) helices with the fiber repeat decreasing from 0.596 nm for PHB to about 0.45 nm for C8 to C10 polymers. Novel copolymers with a backbone of 3HB and 4HB have been obtained. The native granules contain noncrystalline polymer, and water may possibly act as a plasticizer. Although the biosynthesis and regulation of PHB are generally well understood, the corresponding information for the synthesis of long-side-chain PHAs from alkanes, alcohols, and organic acids is still incomplete. The precise mechanisms of action of the polymerizing and depolymerizing enzymes also remain to be established. The structural genes for the three key enzymes of PHB synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A in Alcaligenes eutrophus have been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polymer molecular weights appear to be species specific. The factors influencing the commercial choice of organism, substrate, and isolation process are discussed. The physiological functions of PHB as a reserve material and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and its presence in bacterial plasma membranes and putative role in transformability and calcium signaling are also considered.