Showing papers in "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution in 2005"
TL;DR: This study represents the first effort to combine variable regions of RPB1 and RPB2 with nLSU-rDNA for low-level phylogenetic studies in mushroom-forming fungi and suggests the evolution of at least five major lineages in Inocybe.
Abstract: Approximately 3000 bp across 84 taxa have been analyzed for variable regions of RPB1, RPB2, and nLSU-rDNA to infer phylogenetic relationships in the large ectomycorrhizal mushroom genus Inocybe (Agaricales; Basidiomycota). This study represents the first effort to combine variable regions of RPB1 and RPB2 with nLSU-rDNA for low-level phylogenetic studies in mushroom-forming fungi. Combination of the three loci increases non-parametric bootstrap support, Bayesian posterior probabilities, and resolution for numerous clades compared to separate gene analyses. These data suggest the evolution of at least five major lineages in Inocybe —the Inocybe clade, the Mallocybe clade, the Auritella clade, the Inosperma clade, and the Pseudosperma clade. Additionally, many clades nested within each major lineage are strongly supported. These results also suggest the family Crepiodataceae sensu stricto is sister to Inocybe . Recognition of Inocybe at the family level, the Inocybaceae, is recommended.
TL;DR: A combination of population genetics and phylogenetic inference methods was used to delineate Bradyrhizobium species and uncover the evolutionary forces acting at the population-species interface of this bacterial genus.
Abstract: A combination of population genetics and phylogenetic inference methods was used to delineate Bradyrhizobium species and to uncover the evolutionary forces acting at the population-species interface of this bacterial genus. Maximum-likelihood gene trees for atpD, glnII, recA, and nifH loci were estimated for diverse strains from all but one of the named Bradyrhizobium species, and three unnamed “genospecies,” including photosynthetic isolates. Topological congruence and split decomposition analyses of the three housekeeping loci are consistent with a model of frequent homologous recombination within but not across lineages, whereas strong evidence was found for the consistent lateral gene transfer across lineages of the symbiotic (auxiliary) nifH locus, which grouped strains according to their hosts and not by their species assignation. A well resolved Bayesian species phylogeny was estimated from partially congruent glnII + recA sequences, which is highly consistent with the actual taxonomic scheme of the genus. Population-level analyses of isolates from endemic Canarian genistoid legumes based on REP-PCR genomic fingerprints, allozyme and DNA polymorphism analyses revealed a non-clonal and slightly epidemic population structure for B. canariense isolates of Canarian and Moroccan origin, uncovered recombination and migration as significant evolutionary forces providing the species with internal cohesiveness, and demonstrated its significant genetic differentiation from B. japonicum, its sister species, despite their sympatry and partially overlapped ecological niches. This finding provides strong evidence for the existence of well delineated species in the bacterial world. The results and approaches used herein are discussed in the context of bacterial species concepts and the evolutionary ecology of (brady)rhizobia.
TL;DR: This work inferred the phylogeny of colubroids with special reference to the largest family, the Colubridae, and proposed an updated classification based on the reallocation of species as indicated by the inferred phylogeny.
Abstract: The Colubroidea contains over 85% of all the extant species of snakes and is recognized as monophyletic based on morphological and molecular data. Using DNA sequences (cyt b, c-mos) from 100 species we inferred the phylogeny of colubroids with special reference to the largest family, the Colubridae. Tree inference was obtained using Bayesian, likelihood, and parsimony methods. All analyses produced five major groups, the Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, the Elapidae, and the Colubridae. The specific content of the latter two groups has been altered to accommodate evolutionary history and to yield a more stable taxonomy. We propose an updated classification based on the reallocation of species as indicated by our inferred phylogeny.
TL;DR: A phylogenetic analysis of labrids was conducted to investigate relationships among the six classical tribes of wrasses, the affinities of the wrasses to the parrotfishes (scarines), and the broad phylogenetic structure among labrid genera, confirming the monophyly of a family Labridae that includes the parrots and butterfishes and strong support for many previously identified taxonomic subgroups.
Abstract: The family Labridae (including scarines and odacines) contains 82 genera and about 600 species of fishes that inhabit coastal and continental shelf waters in tropical and temperate oceans throughout the world. The Labridae (the wrasses) is the fifth largest fish family and second largest marine fish family, and is one of the most morphologically and ecologically diversified families of fishes in size, shape, and color. Labrid phylogeny is a long-standing problem in ichthyology that is part of the larger question of relationships within the suborder Labroidei. A phylogenetic analysis of labrids was conducted to investigate relationships among the six classical tribes of wrasses, the affinities of the wrasses to the parrotfishes (scarines), and the broad phylogenetic structure among labrid genera. Four gene fragments were sequenced from 98 fish species, including 84 labrid fishes and 14 outgroup taxa. Taxa were chosen from all major labrid clades and most major global ocean regions where labrid fishes exist, as well as cichlid, pomacentrid, and embiotocid outgroups. From the mitochondrial genome we sequenced portions of 12S rRNA (1000 bp) and 16S rRNA (585 bp), which were aligned by using a secondary structure model. From the nuclear genome, we sequenced part of the protein-coding genes RAG2 (846 bp) and Tmo4C4 (541 bp). Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses on the resulting 2972 bp of DNA sequence produced similar topologies that confirm the monophyly of a family Labridae that includes the parrotfishes and butterfishes and strong support for many previously identified taxonomic subgroups. The tribe Hypsigenyini (hogfishes, tuskfishes) is the sister group to the remaining labrids and includes odacines and the chisel-tooth wrasse Pseudodax moluccanus, a species previously considered close to scarines. Cheilines and scarines are sister-groups, closely related to the temperate Labrini, and pseudocheilines and cheilines are split in all phylogenies. The razorfishes (novaculines) and temperate pseudolabrines form successive sister clades to the large crown group radiation of the Julidini. The cleaner wrasses (Labrichthyini) are nested within this radiation and several julidine genera do not appear to be monophyletic (e.g., Coris and Halichoeres). Invasion of temperate water by this predominantly tropical group has occurred multiple times and the reconstruction of biogeography assuming an Indo-Pacific ancestor results in five different lineages invading the Atlantic/Caribbean region. Functional novelties in the feeding apparatus have allowed labrid fishes to occupy nearly every feeding guild in reef environments, and trophic variation is a central axis of diversification in this family.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the most suitable methods are penalized likelihood and Bayesian when a global clock assumption has been rejected, as these methods are more successful at finding optimal levels of smoothing to correct for rate heterogeneity, and are less sensitive to undersampling.
Abstract: Three commonly used molecular dating methods for correction of variable rates (non-parametric rate smoothing, penalized likelihood, and Bayesian rate correction) as well as the assumption of a global molecular clock were tested for sensitivity to taxon sampling. The test dataset of 6854 basepairs for 300 terminals includes a nearly complete sample of the Restio-clade of the African Restionaceae (272 of the 288 species), as well as 26 outgroup species. Of this, nested subsets of 35, 51, 80, 120, 150, and the full 300 species were used. Molecular dating experiments with these datasets showed that all methods are sensitive to undersampling, but that this effect is more severe in analyses that use more extreme rate smoothing. Additionally, the undersampling effect is positively related to distance from the calibration node. The combined effect of undersampling and distance from the calibration node resulted in up to threefold differences in the age estimation of nodes from the same dataset with the same calibration point. We suggest that the most suitable methods are penalized likelihood and Bayesian when a global clock assumption has been rejected, as these methods are more successful at finding optimal levels of smoothing to correct for rate heterogeneity, and are less sensitive to undersampling.
TL;DR: Divergence time estimation using fossils as lower and upper limits performed well with as few as one upper limit and a single deep fossil lower limit calibration, while node time estimation under both approaches is severely affected by the number and phylogenetic distribution of the fossil calibrations chosen.
Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships among all of the major decapod infraorders have never been estimated using molecular data, while morphological studies produce conXicting results. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships among the decapod basal suborder Dendrobranchiata and all of the currently recognized decapod infraorders within the suborder Pleocyemata (Caridea, Stenopodidea, Achelata, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Anomala, and Brachyura) were inferred using 16S mtDNA, 18S and 28S rRNA, and the histone H3 gene. Phylogenies were reconstructed using the model-based methods of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods coupled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo inference. The phylogenies revealed that the seven infraorders are monophyletic, with high clade support values (bp > 70; pP > 0.95) under both methods. The two suborders also were recovered as monophyletic, but with weaker support (bp D 70; pP D 0.74). Although the nodal support values for infraordinal relationships were low (bp < 50; pP <0 .77) the Anomala and Brachyura were basal to the rest of the ‘Reptantia’ in both reconstructions and using Bayesian tree topology tests alternate morphology-based hypotheses were rejected (P < 0.01). Newly developed multi-locus Bayesian and likelihood heuristic rate-smoothing methods to estimate divergence times were compared using eight fossil and geological calibrations. Estimated times revealed that the Decapoda originated earlier than 437 MYA and that the radiation within the group occurred rapidly, with all of the major lineages present by 325 MYA. Node time estimation under both approaches is severely aVected by the number and phylogenetic distribution of the fossil calibrations chosen. For analyses incorporating fossils as Wxed ages, more consistent results were obtained by using both shallow and deep or clade-related calibration points. Divergence time estimation using fossils as lower and upper limits performed well with as few as one upper limit and a single deep fossil lower limit calibration.
TL;DR: In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion.
Abstract: Comparative phylogeography has revealed remarkable patterns of concordance in the maternal phylogenies of many species. The phylogeography and historical demography of the mitochondrial control region I for 607 Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and 275 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were analyzed to clarify the complex phylogenetic signals in the North Atlantic-Mediterranean region where they are sympatric. Atlantic bluefin tuna mtDNA is polyphyletic, and includes rare sequences sister to Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and introgressed albacore (Thunnus alalunga) sequences. There is no geographic partitioning between Atlantic and Mediterranean samples of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Phi(ST)=0.002). In contrast, Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish are differentiated (Phi(ST)=0.091) due to the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, and dissimilar regional demographic histories. Mediterranean swordfish has substantially less variation, and a more recent history (tau=2.42) than that of Atlantic swordfish (tau=7.02). In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna (tau=7.51) suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion. Possible scenarios of cladogenesis, expansion, and contraction, influenced by glacial cycles during the Pleistocene, are formulated.
TL;DR: Monophyly of sea eagles and booted eagles was supported, however, harpy eagles (Harpiinae), snake eagles, and Old World vultures were found to be non-monophyletic, presenting an example of convergent evolution for specialized limb morphology enabling predation on cavity nesting species.
Abstract: We assessed phylogenetic relationships for birds of prey in the family Accipitridae using molecular sequence from two mitochondrial genes (1047 bases ND2 and 1041 bases cyt-b) and one nuclear intron (1074 bases b-fibrinogen intron 7). We sampled representatives of all 14 Accipitridae subfamilies, focusing on four subfamilies of eagles (booted eagles, sea eagles, harpy eagles, and snake eagles) and two subfamilies of Old World vultures (Gypaetinae and Aegypiinae) with nearly all known species represented. Multiple well-supported relationships among accipitrids identified with DNA differ from those traditionally recognized based on morphology or life history traits. Monophyly of sea eagles (Haliaeetinae) and booted eagles (Aquilinae) was supported; however, harpy eagles (Harpiinae), snake eagles (Circaetinae), and Old World vultures were found to be non-monophyletic. The Gymnogene (Polyboroides typus) and the Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens) were not found to be close relatives, presenting an example of convergent evolution for specialized limb morphology enabling predation on cavity nesting species. Investigation of named subspecies within Hieraaetus fasciatus and H. morphnoides revealed significant genetic differentiation or non-monophyly supporting recognition of H. spilogaster and H. weiskei as distinctive species. 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: The mitochondrial sequences supported many of the previous hypotheses of relationships of New World Rana, although there were some differences involving the placement of the species R. pipiens, R. sierramadrensis, and R. sylvatica.
Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships among the species of true frogs (Rana) from North, South, and Central America were investigated based on the sequences of approximately 2 kb from the mitochondrial genome, sampled from most of the described species, as well as eight undescribed species. This analysis, combined with previous studies of the phylogeny of New World Rana, served as the basis for a revised classification of the group. The American species of Rana are not monophyletic; the western North American Amerana is more closely related to the R. temporaria group of Eurasia (together, these frogs form the group Laurasiarana). The remaining species from the Americas form the monophyletic group Novirana, which includes: R. sylvatica; Aquarana (the R. catesbeiana group); Ranula (the R. palmipes group, including the mostly upland Levirana species and the mostly lowland Lithobates species); Torrentirana (the R. tarahumarae group, or Zweifelia, plus R. sierramadrensis), Stertirana (the R. montezumae group, or Lacusirana, plus R. pipiens), Nenirana (the R. areolata group), and Scurrilirana (most of the southern and tropical leopard frogs). The mitochondrial sequences supported many of the previous hypotheses of relationships of New World Rana, although there were some differences involving the placement of the species R. pipiens, R. sierramadrensis, and R. sylvatica. Parametric bootstrap analyses indicated significant support for the relationships inferred from the mtDNA sequences, and rejected the previous hypotheses of relationships for these three species.
TL;DR: Three instances of trans-continental sistergroup relationships are revealed and, in light of the fossil evidence, suggest that marine dispersal cannot be ruled out a priori and that a simple model of vicariance does not readily explain the biogeographic history of the characiform fishes.
Abstract: Suprafamilial relationships among characiform Wshes and implications for the taxonomy and biogeographic history of the Characiformes were investigated by parsimony analysis of four nuclear and two mitochondrial genes across 124 ingroup and 11 outgroup taxa. Simultaneous analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the mitochondrial 16S and cytochrome b genes and the nuclear recombination activating gene (RAG2), seven in absentia (sia), forkhead (fkh), and -tropomyosin (trop) gene loci conWrmed the non-monophyly of the African and Neotropical assemblages and corroborated many suprafamilial groups proposed previously on the basis of morphological features. The African distichodontids plus citharinids were strongly supported as a monophyletic Citharinoidei that is the sistergroup to all other characiforms, which form a monophyletic Characoidei composed of two large clades. The Wrst represents an assemblage of both African and Neotropical taxa, wherein a monophyletic African Alestidae is sister to a smaller clade comprised of the Neotropical families Ctenolucidae, Lebiasinidae, and the African Hepsetidae, with that assemblage sister to a strictly Neotropical clade comprised of the Crenuchidae and Erythrinidae. The second clade within the Characoidei is strictly Neotropical and includes all other Characiformes grouped into two well supported major clades. The Wrst, corresponding to a traditional deWnition of the Characidae, is congruent with some groupings previously supported by morphological evidence. The second clade comprises a monophyletic Anostomoidea that is sister to a clade formed by the families Hemiodontidae, Parodontidae, and Serrasalmidae, with that assemblage, in turn, the sistergroup of the Cynodontidae. Serrasalmidae, traditionally regarded as a subfamily of Characidae, was recovered as the sistergroup of (Anostomoidea (Parodontidae + Hemiodontidae)) and the family Cynodontidae was recovered with strong support as the sistergroup to this assemblage. Our results reveal three instances of trans-continental sistergroup relationships and, in light of the fossil evidence, suggest that marine dispersal cannot be ruled out a priori and that a simple model of vicariance does not readily explain the biogeographic history of the characiform Wshes.
TL;DR: Two different genomic regions (ND2 mitochondrial gene and EF1-alpha intron) were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced for the ten known honey bee species collected within their natural range distribution to investigate phylogenetic relationships within Apis.
Abstract: Two different genomic regions (ND2 mitochondrial gene and EF1-α intron) were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced for the ten known honey bee species collected within their natural range distribution. DNA sequences were analyzed using parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood methods to investigate phylogenetic relationships within Apis . The phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the basic topology recoverable from morphometric analysis, grouping the honey bees into three major clusters: giant bees ( A. dorsata , A. binghami , and A. laboriosa ), dwarf bees ( A. andreniformis and A. florea ), and cavity-nesting bees ( A. mellifera , A. cerana , A. koschevnikovi , A. nuluensis , and A. nigrocincta ). However, the clade of Asian cavity-nesting bees included paraphyletic taxa. Exemplars of Apis cerana collected from divergent portions of its range were less related to each other than were sympatric A. cerana , A. nuluensis , and A. nigrocincta taxa. Nucleotide sequence divergence between allopatrically distributed western ( A. mellifera ) and eastern ( A. cerana , A. koschevnikovi , A. nigrocincta , and A. nuluensis ) cavity-nesting species, around 18% for the mitochondrial gene and 10–15% for the nuclear intron, suggested an earlier divergence for these groups than previously estimated from morphometric and behavioral studies. This latter finding neccessitates reevaluation of the hypothesized origin of extant European, African, and west Asian Apis mellifera . Sequence divergence between A. laboriosa and A. dorsata was consistent with behavioral data and supports the species status of A. laboriosa .
TL;DR: Molecular phylogenies of an eudicotyledon family previously hypothesized to have a Gondwanan origin, the Burseraceae, are used to test this and other alternative biogeographical hypotheses in light of recalibrated geological events.
Abstract: Generalized hypotheses for the vicariant, Gondwanan origin of pantropically distributed eudicotyledon families must be refined to accommodate recently revised dates that indicate major continental rifting events predate the evolution of many tricolpate angiosperm clades. Here, we use molecular phylogenies of an eudicotyledon family previously hypothesized to have a Gondwanan origin, the Burseraceae, to test this and other alternative biogeographical hypotheses in light of recalibrated geological events. Phylogenies based on nuclear and chloroplast data were reconstructed for 13 of the 18 genera (50 spp. total) of Burseraceae using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Ages of all lineages were estimated using penalized likelihood and semiparametric rate smoothing [Bioinformatics 2003 (19) 301], which allows the user to calibrate phylogenies based on non-clock-like DNA sequence data with fossil information. Biogeographical hypotheses were tested by comparing ages of species and more inclusive lineages with their extant and most parsimonious ancestral distributions. Our data support a North American Paleocene origin for the Burseraceae followed by dispersal of ancestral lineages to eastern Laurasia and Southern Hemisphere continents.
TL;DR: Results suggest plueralistic origins of biodiversity, but that vast amounts of habitat may favor the survival of biodiversity in the IAA biodiversity hotspot, and that Pleistocene sea level changes in the origins of IAA marine biodiversity may be less important than previously thought.
Abstract: Halichoeres is a widely distributed coral reef fish genus with high levels of biodiversity in both the Indo-Pacific and New World tropics. This study employed molecular phylogenetic techniques and biogeographic analyses on 1700-1800 bp of mitochondrial CO1, 16s, and 12s to test competing hypotheses regarding the origins of biodiversity in this genus in these two biodiversity hotspots. Analyses indicate that Halichoeres is polyphyletic with distinct New World and Indo-Pacific Ocean components. The Halichoeres in the New World tropics formed a strongly supported clade (99% MP, 100% ML bootstrap values) that diverged 21.2-18.1 mya, suggesting that this lineage may represent a relictual fauna of the ancient Tethys Sea. The closure of the Isthmus of Panama contributed to the creation of Halichoeres biodiversity, but diversification across the Isthmus prior to its closure and within the W. Atlantic after the closure 3.1 mya were also important processes creating biodiversity in the New World tropics. Within the Indonesian Australian Archipelago (IAA) analysis of age vs. geographic distribution supported neither Center of Origin, Center of Accumulation or Center of Overlap hypotheses, and molecular clock estimates indicated that the role of Pleistocene sea level changes in the origins of IAA marine biodiversity may be less important than previously thought. Ancestral distribution reconstructions within the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) clade (99% ML bootstrap value) also failed to support these hypotheses as the reconstructions were highly sensitive to the inclusion of missing taxa. Results suggest plueralistic origins of biodiversity, but that vast amounts of habitat may favor the survival of biodiversity in the IAA biodiversity hotspot.
TL;DR: Molecular evidence together with Eurasian fossils suggest that the early diversification of Moraceae in Eurasia and subsequent migration into the southern hemisphere is at least as plausible as the Gondwanan hypothesis.
Abstract: The biogeographical history of the mulberry family (Moraceae) was investigated using phylogenetic inferences from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, molecular dating with multiple fossil calibrations, and independent geological evidence. The Moraceae are centered in the tropics which has invited the hypothesis that the family has Gondwanan origins and extant distribution is the result of vicariance due to the break-up of Gondwana. However, the cosmopolitan distribution of Moraceae suggests a more complicated biogeographical history. The timing and location of Moraceae diversification also bears on the origin of the fig pollination mutualism, a model for the study of coevolution and specialization. Recent molecular dating of pollinating fig wasps suggested that an ancient Gondwanan origin coupled with vicariance and dispersal could account for the present day distribution of the mutualism. Here, we provide the first assessment of this hypothesis based on dating of figs and their relatives. Minimum age estimates suggest that the Moraceae had diversified by at least the mid-Cretaceous and major clades including the figs may have radiated during the Tertiary after the break-up of Gondwanaland. Molecular evidence together with Eurasian fossils suggest that the early diversification of Moraceae in Eurasia and subsequent migration into the southern hemisphere is at least as plausible as the Gondwanan hypothesis. These findings invite a reevaluation of the biogeography of fig pollination and highlight the need for incorporating multiple sources of evidence in biogeographical reconstructions.
TL;DR: The present study clearly indicated a sister relationship between the Atlantic and Oceanian species, which now have distantly separated geographic distributions, and suggest that the hypotheses for the dispersal route and divergence time of the genus Anguilla should be reconsidered.
Abstract: Molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the whole mitochondrial genome sequences of all 18 species/subspecies of the freshwater eels genus Anguilla to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to evaluate hypotheses about the possible dispersal routes of this genus. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses using a total of 15,187 sites of mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested that A. mossambica was the most basal species of anguillid eel, and that the other species (except for A. borneensis) formed three geographic clades: Atlantic (two species), Oceania (three species), and Indo-Pacific (11 species). The present study clearly indicated a sister relationship between the Atlantic and Oceanian species, which now have distantly separated geographic distributions. This suggests that the previous hypotheses to estimate the dispersal route of anguillid eels into the Atlantic Ocean based on the current geographic distribution of species are unsupported by the present more complete analysis. Alternatively, the unique geographic distribution of the present day species in the genus Anguilla appears to have resulted from multiple dispersal events. Although the age of the beginning of speciation among anguillid eels was tentatively estimated as 20 million years ago using a calibration for bony fishes of 7.3x10(-4) substitutions/site/million years, it is possible that this divergence time was underestimated because of the ecological characteristics of these fishes. The results of the present study suggest that the hypotheses for the dispersal route and divergence time of the genus Anguilla should be reconsidered.
TL;DR: The present study explores the utility of mitochondrial COI gene sequences to reveal phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships for the entire European freshwater crayfish genus Austropotamobius to identify three main periods of radiation: the late Miocene/early Pliocene, the Pleistocene for the divergence within populations south from Alps, and a postPleistocene expansion north and west from Alps.
Abstract: The present study explores the utility of mitochondrial COI gene sequences to reveal phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships for the entire European freshwater crayWsh genus Austropotamobius. The two traditional taxa, Austropotamobius pallipes and Austropotamobius torrentium, were monophyletic, showing similar genetic diversity, with 28 and 25 haplotypes, respectively, and an uncorrected average pairwise divergence of 0.059 and 0.041. A third distinct haplotype clade, in sister relation to A. torrentium, was discovered at the Upper Kolpa drainage in the northern Dinaric area. All populations north and west of the Alps are genetically impoverished (nucleotide diversity () D 0.000–0.001), while southern populations are more diverse ( D 0.001–0.034). A. pallipes reaches the highest diversity in the region of Istra, probably its primary center of radiation. The genetic diversity center for A. torrentium is the southern Balkan peninsula. Other potential glacial refugia were identiWed in Southern France, Northwestern Italy, the Apennine Peninsula, and in the northern Dinaric area. The Iberian Peninsula has been stocked artiWcially from Northern Italy. Three main periods of radiation were tentatively identiWed: late Miocene/early Pliocene for the divergence of species and main lineages, the Pleistocene for the divergence within populations south from Alps, and a postPleistocene expansion north and west from Alps.
TL;DR: It is speculated that sequence information from RNA polymerase II genes have the potential for resolving phylogenetic problems at several levels of the diverse and taxonomically very challenging genus Cortinarius.
Abstract: We sampled and analyzed approximately 2900bp across the three loci from 54 taxa belonging to a taxonomically difficult group of Cortinarius subgenus Phlegmacium. The combined analyses of ITS and variable regions of RPB1 and RPB2 greatly increase the resolution and nodal support for phylogenies of these closely related species belonging to clades that until now have proven very difficult to resolve with the ribosomal markers, nLSU and ITS. We present the first study of the utility of variable regions of the genes encoding the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2) for inferring the phylogeny of mushroom-forming fungi in combination with and compared to the widely used ribosomal marker ITS. The studied region of RPB1 contains an intron of the size and variability of ITS along with many variable positions in coding regions. Though almost entirely coding, the studied region of RPB2 is more variable than ITS. Both RNA polymerase II genes were alignable across all taxa. Our results indicate that several sections of Cortinarius need redefinition, and that several taxa treated at subspecific and varietal level should be treated at specific level. We suggest a new section for the two species, C. caesiocortinatus and C. prasinocyaneus, which constitute a well-supported separate lineage. We speculate that sequence information from RNA polymerase II genes have the potential for resolving phylogenetic problems at several levels of the diverse and taxonomically very challenging genus Cortinarius.
TL;DR: Every data partition supports the monophyly of a clade that includes the order Agelasida, some members of the genus Axinella, and two taxa tentatively identified as belonging to the orders Hadromerida and Halichondrida.
Abstract: Large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) sequence data from 120 taxa and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1(COI) sequence data from 27 taxa are analyzed separately and together to estimate the internal phylogeny of the class Demospongiae and to evaluate how consistent these data are with pre-existing hypotheses of relationship concerning order-level monophyly and relationships. The monophyly of Porifera is only slightly inconsistent with LSU data, which do not support the monophyly of the class Demospongiae regardless of the inclusion or exclusion of Homoscleromopha (this result is likely due to the placement of a single hexactinellid taxon within the Demospongiae), however, no LSU support is found for the monophyly of Silicea (Demospongiae + Hexactinellida) unless homoscleromorphs are excluded. Neither the subclasses Ceractinomorpha and Tetractinomorpha, nor the orders Halichondrida, Hadromerida, and Haplosclerida are supported as monophyletic under any data partition. The haplosclerid suborders Haplosclerina and Petrosina are supported as monophyletic to the exclusion of the suborder Spongillina, and the orders Dictyoceratida, Verongida, Poecilosclerida, Astrophorida, Spirophorida, Homosclerophorida, and Agelasida are largely reconstructed as monophyletic, with the exception of few anomalously placed taxa. Few inter-order relationships are strongly supported by any data partition, but there is moderate support for a verongid + chondrosid clade and a tetractinellid + halichondrid clade. Furthermore, LSU data strongly support the existence of two novel clades that do not correspond to the existing classification and that show no morphological uniformity. Finally, every data partition supports the monophyly of a clade that includes the order Agelasida, some members of the genus Axinella, and two taxa tentatively identified as belonging to the orders Hadromerida and Halichondrida.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the amphipod fauna of Lake Baikal is polyphyletic; originating from two independent invasions of the lake.
Abstract: Lake Baikal, in Siberia, Russia, contains the highest biodiversity of any extant lake, including an impressive radiation of gammaroidean amphipods that are often cited as a classic case of adaptive radiation. However, relationships among Baikal’s amphipods remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic history of 32 Lake Baikal amphipod species, representing most major lineages of the endemic fauna, was examined using three genes (COI, 16S rRNA, and 18S rRNA), and 152 morphological characters. Results support monophyly of the largest and most diverse of the Baikalian families, the Acanthogammaridae. Analyses suggest that a second Baikalian family, the fossorial Micruropodidae, is paraphyletic and composed of two divergent clades, one of which includes Macrohectopus branickii, a morphologically specialized pelagic planktivore traditionally assigned its own family. The extreme morphological and ecological divergence of Macrohectopus from its close genetic relatives, and conversely, the large genetic distances among other morphologically similar micruropodids, suggest that morphological and molecular evolution have often been uncoupled during the radiation of Baikal’s amphipods. This study suggests that the amphipod fauna of Lake Baikal is polyphyletic; originating from two independent invasions of the lake.
TL;DR: Phylogenetic and paleontological analyses are combined to reveal patterns of species origination and divergence and to define the significance of potential and actual barriers to dispersal in Conus, a species-rich genus of predatory gastropods distributed throughout the world's tropical oceans.
Abstract: Phylogenetic and paleontological analyses are combined to reveal patterns of species origination and divergence and to define the significance of potential and actual barriers to dispersal in Conus, a species-rich genus of predatory gastropods distributed throughout the world’s tropical oceans. Species-level phylogenetic hypotheses are based on nucleotide sequences from the nuclear calmodulin and mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes of 138 Conus species from the Indo-Pacific, eastern Pacific, and Atlantic Ocean regions. Results indicate that extant species descend from two major lineages that diverged at least 33 mya. Their geographic distributions suggest that one clade originated in the Indo-Pacific and the other in the eastern Pacific + western Atlantic. Impediments to dispersal between the western Atlantic and Indian Oceans and the central and eastern Pacific Ocean may have promoted this early separation of Indo-Pacific and eastern Pacific + western Atlantic lineages of Conus. However, because both clades contain both Indo-Pacific and eastern Pacific + western Atlantic species, migrations must have occurred between these regions; at least four migration events took place between regions at different times. In at least three cases, incursions between regions appear to have crossed the East Pacific Barrier. The paleontological record illustrates that distinct sets of Conus species inhabited the Indo-Pacific, eastern Pacific + western Atlantic, and eastern Atlantic + former Tethys Realm in the Tertiary, as is the case today. The ranges of
TL;DR: The first cladistic analysis sampling multiple representatives of most major groups based on DNA sequence for three nuclear and one mitochondrial fragments suggests that nuclear genes may be more useful even for relatively recent divergences (< 10MYA).
Abstract: Despite its great diversity and biomedical importance, the rodent subfamily Murinae is poorly resolved phylogenetically. We present the first cladistic analysis sampling multiple representatives of most major groups based on DNA sequence for three nuclear (GHR, RAG1, and AP5) and one mitochondrial (COII and parts of COI and ATPase 8) fragments. Analyzed separately, the four partitions agree broadly with each other and the combined analysis. The basal split is between a clade of Philippine Old Endemics and all remaining murines. Within the latter, rapid radiation led to at least seven geographically distinct lineages, including a Southeast Asian Rattus clade; a diverse Australo-Papuan and Philippine clade; an African arvicanthine group including the otomyines; an African Praomys group; and three independent genera from Africa and Asia, Mus, Apodemus, and Malacomys. The murines appear to have originated in Southeast Asia and then rapidly expanded across all of the Old World. Both nuclear exons provide robust support at all levels. In contrast, the bootstrap proportions from mitochondrial data decline rapidly with increasing depth in the tree, together suggesting that nuclear genes may be more useful even for relatively recent divergences (<10 MYA).
TL;DR: Phylogenetic analysis with a data set combining the six nuclear loci using MP, ML, and Bayesian approaches produced a more resolved tree that agreed with previously published mitochondrial trees in finding three well-defined clades, including the red fox-like canids, the South American foxes, and the wolf- like canids.
Abstract: We have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of 23 species in the dog family, Canidae, using DNA sequence data from six nuclear loci. Individual gene trees were generated with maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. In general, these individual gene trees were not well resolved, but several identical groupings were supported by more than one locus. Phylogenetic analysis with a data set combining the six nuclear loci using MP, ML, and Bayesian approaches produced a more resolved tree that agreed with previously published mitochondrial trees in finding three well-defined clades, including the red fox-like canids, the South American foxes, and the wolf-like canids. In addition, the nuclear data set provides novel indel support for several previously inferred clades. Differences between trees derived from the nuclear data and those from the mitochondrial data include the grouping of the bush dog and maned wolf into a clade with the South American foxes, the grouping of the side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) and black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) and the grouping of the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) with the raccoon dog (Nycteruetes procyonoides). We also analyzed the combined nuclear+mitochondrial tree. Many nodes that were strongly supported in the nuclear tree or the mitochondrial tree remained strongly supported in the nuclear+mitochondrial tree. Relationships within the clades containing the red fox-like canids and South American canids are well resolved, whereas the relationships among the wolf-like canids remain largely undetermined. The lack of resolution within the wolf-like canids may be due to their recent divergence and insufficient time for the accumulation of phylogenetically informative signal.
TL;DR: Maximum parsimony analyses of RAG-1 alone and in combination with two mitochondrial genes suggest the earliest phylogenetic splits separating into three basal branches, the pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelyidae), the softshell turtles (Trionychidae), and a clade comprising all remaining extant turtles.
Abstract: Turtles are one of Earth’s most instantly recognizable life forms, distinguished for over 200 million years in the fossil record. Even so, key nodes in the phylogeny of turtles remain uncertain. To address this issue, we sequenced >90% of the nuclear recombination activase gene 1 (RAG-1) for 24 species representing all modern turtle families. RAG-1 exhibited negligible saturation and base composition bias, and extensive base composition homogeneity. Most of the relationships suggested by prior phylogenetic analyses were also supported by RAG-1 and, for at least two critical nodes, with a much higher level of support. RAG-1 also indicates that the enigmatic Platysternidae and Chelydridae, often considered sister taxa based on morphological evidence, are not closely related, although their precise phylogenetic placement in the turtle tree is still unresolved. Although RAG-1 is phylogenetically informative, our research revealed fundamental conXicts among analytical methods for estimating phylogenetic hypotheses. Maximum parsimony analyses of RAG-1 alone and in combination with two mitochondrial genes suggest the earliest phylogenetic splits separating into three basal branches, the pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelyidae), the softshell turtles (Trionychidae), and a clade comprising all remaining extant turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses group Carettochelyidae and Trionychidae ( D Trionychoidae) in their more traditional location as the sister taxon to all other hidden-necked turtles, collectively forming the Cryptodira. Our research highlights the utility of molecular data in identifying issues of character homology in morphological datasets, while shedding valuable light on the biodiversity of a globally imperiled taxon.
TL;DR: One of the largest applications of SINE elements to phylogenetic analysis to date is reported, and the results provide a robust molecular phylogeny for platyrrhine primates.
Abstract: Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) make very useful phylogenetic markers because the integration of a particular element at a location in the genome is irreversible and of known polarity. These attributes make analysis of SINEs as phylogenetic characters an essentially homoplasy-free affair. Alu elements are primate-specific SINEs that make up a large portion of the human genome and are also widespread in other primates. Using a combination wet-bench and computational approach we recovered 190 Alu insertions, 183 of which are specific to the genomes of nine New World primates. We used these loci to investigate branching order and have produced a cladogram that supports a sister relationship between Atelidae (spider, woolly, and howler monkeys) and Cebidae (marmosets, tamarins, and owl monkeys) and then the joining of this two family clade to Pitheciidae (titi and saki monkeys). The data support these relationships with a homoplasy index of 0.00. In this study, we report one of the largest applications of SINE elements to phylogenetic analysis to date, and the results provide a robust molecular phylogeny for platyrrhine primates.
TL;DR: The phylogeny of South American spiny rats was studied using the exon 28 of the von Willebrand Factor nuclear gene and molecular divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and suggest a Middle Miocene origin for most of modern genera.
Abstract: The phylogeny of South American spiny rats (Rodentia; Echimyidae) was studied using the exon 28 of the von Willebrand Factor nuclear gene (vWF). Sequences were analysed separately and in combination with a mitochondrial dataset (cyt b, 12S and 16S rRNAs) used in previous publications. The basal polytomy of echimyids was partially resolved and unexpected intergeneric clades were recovered. Thus, the intimate nested position of Myocastor within echimyids is evidenced. A well-supported clade is identified, including all the arboreal genera, and a group formed by Myocastor, Thrichomys, and Proechimys + Hoplomys. The clustering of Euryzygomatomys + Clyomys with Trinomys is also suggested. On the opposite, the phylogenetic position of Capromys as well as the relationships among arboreal genera remain unclear. Molecular divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and suggest a Middle Miocene origin for most of modern genera. The ecomorphological diversification of echimyids is discussed in the light of these new results and past environmental modifications in South America.
TL;DR: The Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) is a widespread Neotropical bird and an origin that is substantially older than the late Pleistocene is suggested, suggesting that phylogeographic patterns within the species are not concordant with plumage-based subspecific taxonomy.
Abstract: Here we apply a combination of phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses to the study of mtDNA sequence variation within the Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata), a widespread Neotropical bird. A high degree of phylogeographic structure allowed us to demonstrate that several vicariant events, including Andean uplift, the formation of riverine barriers, and climatically induced vegetational shifts, as well as a non-vicariant process, range expansion, have all acted, at varying spatial and temporal scales, to inXuence genetic structure within L. coronata, suggesting that current historical hypotheses of the origin of Neotropical avian diversity that focus on single vicariant mechanisms may be overly simplistic. Our data also support an origin (>2 mybp) that is substantially older than the late Pleistocene for the genetic structure within this species and indicate that phylogeographic patterns within the species are not concordant with plumage-based subspeciWc taxonomy. These data add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the origin of several Neotropical avian species may have occurred in the mid-Pliocene, thus, geological arguments surrounding putative Pleistocene vicariant events, while interesting in their own right, may have little relevance to Neotropical avian diversiWcation at the species level.
TL;DR: Phylogenetic analyses of c.
Abstract: Ranunculus is a large genus with a worldwide distribution. Phylogenetic analyses of c. 200 species of Ranunculus s.l. based on sequences of the nrITS using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference yielded high congruence with previous cpDNA restriction site analyses, but strongly contradict previous classifications. A large core clade including Ranunculus subg. Ranunculus, subg. Batrachium, subg. Crymodes p.p., Ceratocephala, Myosurus, and Aphanostemma is separated from R. subg. Ficaria, subg. Pallasiantha, subg. Coptidium, subg. Crymodes p.p., Halerpestes, Peltocalathos, Callianthemoides, and Arcteranthis. Within the core clade, 19 clades can be described with morphological and karyological features. Several sections are not monophyletic. Parallel evolution of morphological characters in adaptation to climatic conditions may be a reason for incongruence of molecular data and morphology-based classifications. In some mountainous regions, groups of closely related species may have originated from adaptive radiation and rapid speciation. Split decomposition analysis indicated complex patterns of relationship and suggested hybridization in the apomictic R. auricomus complex, R. subg. Batrachium, and the white-flowering European alpines. The evolutionary success of the genus might be due to a combination of morphological plasticity and adaptations, hybridization and polyploidy as important factors for regional diversification, and a broad range of reproductive strategies.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the Decapodiformes may have radiated earlier and/or had faster rates of evolution than the Octopodiforme, and the order Octopoda and suborders Cirrata, Incirrata and Oegopsida are monophyletic groups.
Abstract: The resolution of higher level phylogeny of the coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes) has been hindered by homoplasy among morphological characters in conjunction with a very poor fossil record. Initial molecular studies, based primarily on small fragments of single mitochondrial genes, have produced little resolution of the deep relationships amongst coleoid cephalopod families. The present study investigated this issue using 3415 base pairs (bp) from three nuclear genes (octopine dehydrogenase, pax-6, and rhodopsin) and three mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome oxidase I) from a total of 35 species (including representatives of each of the higher level taxa). Bayesian analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear genes separately and also all six genes together. Separate analyses were conducted with the data partitioned by gene, codon/rDNA, gene + codon/rDNA or not partitioned at all. In the majority of analyses partitioning the data by gene + codon was the appropriate model with partitioning by codon the second most selected model. In some instances the topology varied according to the model used. Relatively high posterior probabilities and high levels of congruence were present between the topologies resulting from the analysis of all Octopodiform (octopuses and vampire “squid”) taxa for all six genes, and independently for the datasets of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. In contrast, the highest levels of resolution within the Decapodiformes (squids and cuttlefishes) resulted from analysis of nuclear genes alone. Different higher level Decapodiform topologies were obtained through the analysis of only the 1st + 2nd codon positions of nuclear genes and of all three codon positions. It is notable that there is strong evidence of saturation among the 3rd codon positions within the Decapodiformes and this may contribute spurious signal. The results suggest that the Decapodiformes may have radiated earlier and/or had faster rates of evolution than the Octopodiformes. The following taxonomic conclusions are drawn from our analyses: (1) the order Octopoda and suborders Cirrata, Incirrata, and Oegopsida are monophyletic groups; (2) the family Spirulidae (Ram’s horn squids) are the sister taxon to the family Sepiidae (cuttlefishes); (3) the family Octopodidae, as currently defined, is paraphyletic; (4) the superfamily Argonautoidea are basal within the suborder Incirrata; and (5) the benthic octopus genera Benthoctopus and Enteroctopus are sister taxa.
TL;DR: A larger genetic variation in eastern Asia than southern Asia and the pattern of phylogeographic variation in lineage B suggest that at least one subclade of lineage B originated from eastern Asia.
Abstract: China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, but so far there has been no extensive study on genetic diversity, population demographic history, and origin of Chinese goats. Here, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic goats by determining a 481-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 368 individuals representing 18 indigenous breeds. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were four mtDNA lineages (A-D) identified in Chinese goats, in which lineage A was predominant, lineage B was moderate, and lineages C and D were at low frequency. These results further support the multiple maternal origins of domestic goats. The pattern of genetic variation in goat mtDNA sequences indicated that the two larger lineages A and B had undergone population expansion events. In a combined analysis of previously reported sequences and our sequences belonging to lineage B, we detected two subclades, in which one was unique to eastern Asia and another was shared between eastern and southern Asia. A larger genetic variation in eastern Asia than southern Asia and the pattern of phylogeographic variation in lineage B suggest that at least one subclade of lineage B originated from eastern Asia. There was no significant geographical structuring in Chinese goat populations, which suggested that there existed strong gene flow among goat populations caused by extensive transportation of goats in history.
TL;DR: P phylogenetic analyses of 37 taxa of Fritillaria (Liliaceae), 15 species of Lilium, and several outgroup taxa from Liliaceae s.s. to investigate the generic delimitation of Fritchillaria in relation to Lilium as well as infrageneric relationships within Fritilaria support the new classification of Friticalia proposed by Rix.
Abstract: We present phylogenetic analyses of 37 taxa of Fritillaria (Liliaceae), 15 species of Lilium, and several outgroup taxa from Liliaceae s.s. to investigate the generic delimitation of Fritillaria in relation to Lilium as well as infrageneric relationships within Fritillaria. We used DNA sequences from the maturase-coding plastid matK gene and the trnK intron, the intron of the ribosomal protein-coding rpl16 plastid gene, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony defined Fritillaria and Lilium (the latter including Nomocharis) as sister taxa. Fritillaria sections Fritillaria and Liliorhiza are supported in part, and some of the most enigmatic species usually included in Fritillaria (sections Petilium and Theresia and the monotypic genus Korolkowia) are closely related. The results support the new classification of Fritillaria proposed by Rix. We postulate independent origins of the underground bulbils found in Fritillaria davidii and the remainder of subgenus Liliorhiza.