Showing papers in "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society in 2002"
TL;DR: The GALFORM model as discussed by the authors is a semi-analytic model for calculating the formation and evolution of galaxies in hierarchical clustering cosmologies, which employs a new Monte-Carlo algorithm to follow the merging evolution of dark matter halos with arbitrary mass resolution.
Abstract: We describe the GALFORM semi-analytic model for calculating the formation and evolution of galaxies in hierarchical clustering cosmologies. It improves upon, and extends, the earlier scheme developed by Cole et al. (1994). The model employs a new Monte-Carlo algorithm to follow the merging evolution of dark matter halos with arbitrary mass resolution. It incorporates realistic descriptions of the density profiles of dark matter halos and the gas they contain; it follows the chemical evolution of gas and stars, and the associated production of dust; and it includes a detailed calculation of the sizes of disks and spheroids. Wherever possible, our prescriptions for modelling individual physical processes are based on results of numerical simulations. They require a number of adjustable parameters which we fix by reference to a small subset of local galaxy data. This results in a fully specified model of galaxy formation which can be �
TL;DR: In this paper, a rapid binary-evolution algorithm was proposed to model the formation and evolution of binary systems, including all aspects of single-star evolution, features such as mass transfer, mass accretion, common envelope evolution, collisions, supernova kicks and angular momentum loss mechanisms.
Abstract: We present a rapid binary-evolution algorithm that enables modelling of even the most complex binary systems. In addition to all aspects of single-star evolution, features such as mass transfer, mass accretion, common-envelope evolution, collisions, supernova kicks and angular momentum loss mechanisms are included. In particular, circularization and synchronization of the orbit by tidal interactions are calculated for convective, radiative and degenerate damping mechanisms. We use this algorithm to study the formation and evolution of various binary systems. We also investigate the effect that tidal friction has on the outcome of binary evolution. Using the rapid binary code, we generate a series of large binary populations and evaluate the formation rate of interesting individual species and events. By comparing the results for populations with and without tidal friction, we quantify the hitherto ignored systematic effect of tides and show that modelling of tidal evolution in binary systems is necessary in order to draw accurate conclusions from population synthesis work. Tidal synchronism is important but, because orbits generally circularize before Roche lobe overflow, the outcome of the interactions of systems with the same semilatus rectum is almost independent of eccentricity. It is not necessary to include a distribution of eccentricities in population synthesis of interacting binaries; however, the initial separations should be distributed according to the observed distribution of semilatera recta rather than periods or semimajor axes.
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that spiral waves churn the stars and gas in a manner that largely preserves the overall angular momentum distribution and leads to little increase in random motion, and that changes in the angular momenta of individual stars are typically as large as ∼50 per cent over the lifetime of the disc.
Abstract: We show that spiral waves in galaxy discs churn the stars and gas in a manner that largely preserves the overall angular momentum distribution and leads to little increase in random motion. Changes in the angular momenta of individual stars are typically as large as ∼50 per cent over the lifetime of the disc. The changes are concentrated around the corotation radius for an individual spiral wave, but since transient waves with a wide range of pattern speeds develop in rapid succession, the entire disc is affected. This behaviour has profound consequences for the metallicity gradients with radius in both stars and gas, since the interstellar medium is also stirred by the same mechanism. We find observational support for stirring, propose a simple model for the distribution of stars over metallicity and age, and discuss other possible consequences.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the velocity dispersions of early-type galaxies obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the relation between BH mass and velocity dispersion to estimate the local BH density to be ρ•(z= 0) ≃ (2.5 ± 0.4) × 105h0.652M⊙ Mpc−3.
Abstract: We study the observational constraints on the growth of massive black holes (BHs) in galactic nuclei. We use the velocity dispersions of early-type galaxies obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the relation between BH mass and velocity dispersion to estimate the local BH mass density to be ρ•(z= 0) ≃ (2.5 ± 0.4) × 105h0.652M⊙ Mpc−3. We also use the quasi-stellar object (QSO) luminosity function from the 2dF Redshift Survey to estimate the BH mass density accreted during optically bright QSO phases. The local BH mass density is consistent with the density accreted during optically bright QSO phases if QSOs have a mass-to-energy conversion efficiency e≃ 0.1. By studying the continuity equation for the BH mass distribution, including the effect of BH mergers, we find relations between the local BH mass function and the QSO luminosity function. If the BH mass is assumed to be conserved during BH mergers, comparison of the predicted relations with the observations suggests that luminous QSOs (Lbol≳ 1046 erg s−1) have a high efficiency (e.g. e∼ 0.2, which is possible for thin-disc accretion on to a Kerr BH) and the growth of high-mass BHs (≳108M⊙) comes mainly from accretion during optically bright QSO phases, or that luminous QSOs have a super-Eddington luminosity. If luminous QSOs are not accreting with super-Eddington luminosities and the growth of low-mass BHs also occurs mainly during optically bright QSO phases, less luminous QSOs must accrete with a low efficiency, <0.1; alternatively, they may accrete with high efficiency, but a significant fraction should be obscured. We estimate that the mean lifetime of luminous QSOs (Lbol≳ 1046 erg s−1) is (3–13) × 107 yr, which is comparable to the Salpeter time. We also investigate the case in which total BH mass decreases during BH mergers due to gravitational radiation; in the extreme case in which total BH entropy is conserved, the observations again suggest that BHs in most luminous QSOs are Kerr BHs accreting with an efficiency ≳0.1.
TL;DR: In this paper, a new version of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was derived that conserves both energy and entropy if smoothing lengths are allowed to adapt freely to the local mass resolution.
Abstract: We discuss differences in simulation results that arise between the use of either the thermal energy or the entropy as an independent variable in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). In this context, we derive a new version of SPH that, when appropriate, manifestly conserves both energy and entropy if smoothing lengths are allowed to adapt freely to the local mass resolution. To test various formulations of SPH, we consider point-like energy injection, as in certain models of supernova feedback, and find that powerful explosions are well represented by SPH even when the energy is deposited into a single particle, provided that the entropy equation is integrated. If the thermal energy is instead used as an independent variable, unphysical solutions can be obtained for this problem. We also examine the radiative cooling of gas spheres that collapse and virialize in isolation, and of haloes that form in cosmological simulations of structure formation. When applied to these problems, the thermal energy version of SPH leads to substantial overcooling in haloes that are resolved with up to a few thousand particles, while the entropy formulation is biased only moderately low for these haloes under the same circumstances. For objects resolved with much larger particle numbers, the two approaches yield consistent results. We trace the origin of the differences to systematic resolution effects in the outer parts of cooling flows. When the thermal energy equation is integrated and the resolution is low, the compressional heating of the gas in the inflow region is underestimated, violating entropy conservation and improperly accelerating cooling. The cumulative effect of this overcooling can be significant. In cosmological simulations of moderate size, we find that the fraction of baryons which cool and condense can be reduced by up to a factor ∼2 if the entropy equation is employed rather than the thermal energy equation, partly explaining discrepancies with semi-analytic treatments of galaxy formation. We also demonstrate that the entropy method leads to a greatly reduced scatter in the density–temperature relation of the low-density Lyα forest relative to the thermal energy approach, in accord with theoretical expectations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare the excursion set predictions associated with spherical and ellipsoidal collapse and show that the spherical collapse-based moving barrier model provides a better description of what we measure in the numerical simulations than the spherical collapsing-based constant barrier model, although the agreement between model and simulations is better at large lookback times.
Abstract: The excursion set approach allows one to estimate the abundance and spatial distribution of virialized dark matter haloes efficiently and accurately. The predictions of this approach depend on how the non-linear processes of collapse and virialization are modelled. We present simple analytic approximations that allow us to compare the excursion set predictions associated with spherical and ellipsoidal collapse. In particular, we present formulae for the universal unconditional mass function of bound objects and the conditional mass function which describes the mass function of the progenitors of haloes in a given mass range today. We show that the ellipsoidal collapse based moving barrier model provides a better description of what we measure in the numerical simulations than the spherical collapse based constant barrier model, although the agreement between model and simulations is better at large lookback times. Our results for the conditional mass function can be used to compute accurate approximations to the local-density mass function, which quantifies the tendency for massive haloes to populate denser regions than less massive haloes. This happens because low-density regions can be thought of as being collapsed haloes viewed at large lookback times, whereas high-density regions are collapsed haloes viewed at small lookback times. Although we have applied our analytic formulae only to two simple barrier shapes, we show that they are, in fact, accurate for a wide variety of moving barriers. We suggest how they can be used to study the case in which the initial dark matter distribution is not completely cold.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the equivalent width of the Hα emission line for 11 0006 galaxies brighter than M −−19 (Ω_Λ = 0.7, Ω_m = 0.3, H_0 = 70 km s−1) Mpc^(−1)) at 0.05 < z < 0.1 in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Abstract: We have measured the equivalent width of the Hα emission line for 11 006 galaxies brighter than M_b-=-−19 (Ω_Λ = 0.7, Ω_m = 0.3, H_0 = 70 km s^(−1) Mpc^(−1)) at 0.05 < z < 0.1 in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), in the fields of 17 known galaxy clusters. The limited redshift range ensures that our results are insensitive to aperture bias, and to residuals from night sky emission lines. We use these measurements to trace μ*, the star formation rate normalized to L*, as a function of distance from the cluster centre, and local projected galaxy density. We find that the distribution of μ* steadily skews toward larger values with increasing distance from the cluster centre, converging to the field distribution at distances greater than ∼3 times the virial radius. A correlation between star formation rate and local projected density is also found, which is independent of cluster velocity dispersion and disappears at projected densities below ∼1 galaxy Mpc^(−2) (brighter than M_b = −19). This characteristic scale corresponds approximately to the mean density at the cluster virial radius. The same correlation holds for galaxies more than two virial radii from the cluster centre. We conclude that environmental influences on galaxy properties are not restricted to cluster cores, but are effective in all groups where the density exceeds this critical value. The present-day abundance of such systems, and the strong evolution of this abundance, makes it likely that hierarchical growth of structure plays a significant role in decreasing the global average star formation rate. Finally, the low star formation rates well beyond the virialized cluster rule out severe physical processes, such as ram pressure stripping of disc gas, as being completely responsible for the variations in galaxy properties with environment.
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed investigation of the three main binary evolution channels that can lead to the formation of sdB stars: the common-envelope (CE) ejection channel, the stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) channel, and the double helium white dwarfs (WDs) merger channel is presented.
Abstract: Subdwarf B (sdB) stars (and related sdO/sdOB stars) are believed to be helium-core-burning objects with very thin hydrogen-rich envelopes. In recent years it has become increasingly clear from observational surveys that a large fraction of these objects are members of binary systems. To understand their formation better, we present the results of a detailed investigation of the three main binary evolution channels that can lead to the formation of sdB stars: the common-envelope (CE) ejection channel, the stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) channel, and the double helium white dwarfs (WDs) merger channel. The CE ejection channel leads to the formation of sdB stars in short-period binaries with typical orbital periods between 0.1 and 10 d, very thin hydrogen-rich envelopes and a mass distribution sharply peaked around similar to0.46 M-.. On the other hand, under the assumption that all mass transferred is soon lost, the stable RLOF channel produces sdB stars with similar masses but long orbital periods (400-1500 d) and with rather thick hydrogen-rich envelopes. The merger channel gives rise to single sdB stars whose hydrogen-rich envelopes are extremely thin but which have a fairly wide distribution of masses (0.4-0.65 M-.). We obtained the conditions for the formation of sdB stars from each of these channels using detailed stellar and binary evolution calculations where we modelled the detailed evolution of sdB stars and carried out simplified binary population synthesis simulations. The observed period distribution of sdB stars in compact binaries strongly constrains the CE ejection parameters. The best fits to the observations are obtained for very efficient CE ejection where the envelope ionization energy is included, consistent with previous results. We also present the distribution of sdB stars in the T (eff) -log g diagram, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the distribution of mass functions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a comprehensive study of the measurement of star formation histories from colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) is presented, with an emphasis on a variety of subtle issues involved in the generation of model CMDs and maximum likelihood solution.
Abstract: A comprehensive study of the measurement of star formation histories from colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) is presented, with an emphasis on a variety of subtle issues involved in the generation of model CMDs and maximum likelihood solution. Among these are the need for a complete sampling of the synthetic CMD, the use of proper statistics for dealing with Poisson-distributed data (and a demonstration of why Χ 2 must not be used), measuring full uncertainties in all reported parameters, quantifying the goodness-of-fit, and questions of binning the CMD and incorporating outside information. Several example star formation history measurements are given. Two examples involve synthetic data, in which the input and recovered parameters can be compared to locate possible flaws in the methodology (none were apparent) and measure the accuracy with which ages, metallicities and star formation rates can be recovered. Solutions of the histories of seven Galactic dwarf spheroidal companions (Carina, Draco, Leo I, Leo II, Sagittarius, Sculptor and Ursa Minor) illustrate the ability to measure star formation histories given a variety of conditions -numbers of stars, complexity of star formation history and amount of foreground contamination. Significant measurements of ancient >8 Gyr star formation are made in all seven galaxies. Sculptor, Draco and Ursa Minor appear entirely ancient, while the other systems show varying amounts of younger stars.
Princeton University1, Rutgers University2, University of Edinburgh3, University of Padua4, Durham University5, Australian National University6, Liverpool John Moores University7, University of New South Wales8, University of Oxford9, University of St Andrews10, University of Cambridge11, California Institute of Technology12, Johns Hopkins University13, University of Leeds14, University of Nottingham15
TL;DR: In this article, the bias parameter of the 2dFGRS data set was used to measure the strength of clustering of the galaxies relative to the mass in the universe, and it was shown that on large scales, optically selected galaxies do indeed trace the underlying mass distribution.
Abstract: We compute the bispectrum of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and use it to measure the bias parameter of the galaxies. This parameter quantifies the strength of clustering of the galaxies relative to the mass in the Universe. By analysing 80 x 10 6 triangle configurations in the wavenumber range 0.1 < k < 0.5 h Mpc - 1 (i.e. on scales roughly between 5 and 30 h - 1 Mpc) we find that the linear bias parameter is consistent with unity: b 1 = 1.04 ′ 0.11, and the quadratic (non-linear) bias is consistent with zero: b 2 = -0.054 ′ 0.08. Thus, at least on large scales, optically selected galaxies do indeed trace the underlying mass distribution. The bias parameter can be combined with the 2dFGRS measurement of the redshift distortion parameter β ≃ Ω 0 . 6 m /b 1 , to yield Ωm = 0.27 ′0.06 for the matter density of the Universe, a result that is determined entirely from this survey, independent of other data sets. Our measurement of the matter density of the Universe should be interpreted as Ω m at the effective redshift of the survey (z = 0.17).
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the M b h -L b u l g e relation for a combined 90-object sample consisting of the active galactic nuclei plus a sample of 18 nearby inactive elliptical galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements.
Abstract: New black hole mass estimates are presented for a sample of 72 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) covering three decades in optical luminosity. Using a subsample of Seyfert galaxies, which have black hole mass estimates from both reverberation mapping and stellar velocity dispersions, we investigate the geometry of the AGNs' broad-line region. It is demonstrated that a model in which the orbits of the line-emitting material have a flattened geometry is favoured over randomly-orientated orbits. Using this model we investigate the M b h -L b u l g e relation for a combined 90-object sample consisting of the AGNs plus a sample of 18 nearby inactive elliptical galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. It is found that, for all reasonable mass-to-light ratios, the M b h -L b u l g e relation is equivalent to a linear scaling between bulge and black hole mass. The best-fitting normalization of the M b h -M b u l g e relation is found to be M b h = 0.0012M b u l g e , in agreement with recent black hole mass studies based on stellar velocity dispersions. Furthermore, the scatter around the M b h -L b u l g e relation for the full sample is found to be significantly smaller than has been previously reported (Δlog M b h = 0.39 dex). Finally, using the nearby inactive elliptical galaxy sample alone, it is shown that the scatter in the M b h -L b u l g e relation is only 0.33 dex, comparable with that of the M b h -σ relation. These results indicate that reliable black hole mass estimates can be obtained for high redshift galaxies.
TL;DR: The SAURON survey of the kinematics and stellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sa galaxies is described in this article, and its properties are illustrated.
Abstract: Early results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics and stellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sa galaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of the galaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a function of radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations, and the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores and nuclear black holes. The construction of the representative sample is described, and its properties are illustrated. A comparison with long-slit spectroscopic data establishes that the SAURON measurements are comparable to, or better than, the highest-quality determinations. Comparisons are presented for NGC 3384 and 4365, where stellar velocities and velocity dispersions are determined to a precision of 6 km s - 1 , and the h 3 and h 4 parameters of the line-of-sight velocity distribution to a precision of better than 0.02. Extraction of accurate gas emission-line intensities, velocities and linewidths from the data cubes is illustrated for NGC 5813. Comparisons with published line strengths for NGC 3384 and 5813 reveal uncertainties of 0.1 A on the measurements of the Hβ, Mg b and Fe5270 indices. Integral-field mapping uniquely connects measurements of the kinematics and stellar populations to the galaxy morphology. The maps presented here illustrate the rich stellar kinematics, gaseous kinematics, and line-strength distributions of early-type galaxies. The results include the discovery of a thin, edge-on, disc in NGC 3623, confirm the axisymmetric shape of the central region of M32, illustrate the LINER nucleus and surrounding counter-rotating star-forming ring in NGC 7742, and suggest a uniform stellar population in the decoupled core galaxy NGC 5813.
Durham University1, University of Nottingham2, University of Cambridge3, Johns Hopkins University4, Australian National University5, Liverpool John Moores University6, University of New South Wales7, University of Oxford8, University of St Andrews9, California Institute of Technology10, University of Leeds11, University of Edinburgh12
TL;DR: In this paper, the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and spectral type using the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) was investigated using the principal-component analysis of Madgwick et al.
Abstract: We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and spectral type using the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). Spectral types are assigned using the principal-component analysis of Madgwick et al. We divide the sample into two broad spectral classes: galaxies with strong emission lines ('late types') and more quiescent galaxies ('early types'). We measure the clustering in real space, free from any distortion of the clustering pattern owing to peculiar velocities, for a series of volume-limited samples. The projected correlation functions of both spectral types are well described by a power law for transverse separations in the range 2<(σ/h-1 Mpc)<15, with a marginally steeper slope for early types than late types. Both early and late types have approximately the same dependence of clustering strength on luminosity, with the clustering amplitude increasing by a factor of 2.5 between L* and 4L*. At all luminosities, however, the correlation function amplitude for the early types is 50 per cent higher than that of the late types. These results support the view that luminosity, and not type, is the dominant factor in determining how the clustering strength of the whole galaxy population varies with luminosity.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the full-width half maximum (FWHM) of the low-ionization Mgii emission line and the correlation between broad-line region (BLR) radius and continuum luminosity at 3000u using archival UV spectra.
Abstract: A new technique is presented for determining the black-hole masses of high-redshift quasars from optical spectroscopy. The new method utilizes the full-width half maximum (FWHM) of the low-ionization Mgii emission line and the correlation between broad-line region (BLR) radius and continuum luminosity at 3000u Using archival UV spectra it is found that the correlation between BLR radius and 3000u luminosity is tighter than the established correlation with 5100u luminosity. Furthermore, it is found that the correlation between BLR radius and 3000u continuum luminosity is consistent with a relation of the form RBLR / �L 0.5 � , as expected for a constant ionization parameter. Using a sample of objects with broad-line radii determined from
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple metallicity estimator based on the logarithmic [N ǫ] λ6584/Hα ratio, hereafter N2, is presented.
Abstract: We present a simple metallicity estimator based on the logarithmic [N ii] λ6584/Hα ratio, hereafter N2, which we envisage will become very useful for ranking galaxies in a metallicity sequence from redshift survey-quality data even for moderately low spectral resolution. We have calibrated the N2 estimator using a compilation of H ii galaxies having accurate oxygen abundances, plus photoionization models covering a wide range of abundances. The comparison of models and observations indicates that both primary and secondary nitrogen are important for the relevant range of metallicities. The N2 estimator follows a linear relation with log(O/H) that holds for the whole abundance range covered by the sample, from approximately 1/50th to twice the Solar value [7.2<12+log(O/H)<9.1]. We suggest that the ([S ii] λλ6717,6731/Hα) ratio (hereafter S2) can also be used as a rough metallicity indicator. Because of its large scatter the S2 estimator will be useful only in systems with very low metallicity, where [N ii] λ6584 is not detected or in low-resolution spectra where [N ii] λ6584 is blended with Hα.
TL;DR: In this paper, a Monte Carlo technique was developed to test models for the true power spectrum of intermittently sampled light curves against the noisy, observed power spectra, and produce a reliable estimate of the goodness of fit of the given model.
Abstract: We develop a Monte Carlo technique to test models for the true power spectra of intermittently sampled light curves against the noisy, observed power spectra, and produce a reliable estimate of the goodness of fit of the given model. We apply this technique to constrain the broad-band power spectra of a sample of four Seyfert galaxies monitored by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE ) over three years. We show that the power spectra of three of the AGN in our sample (MCG-6-30-15, NGC 5506 and NGC 3516) flatten significantly towards low frequencies, while the power spectrum of NGC 5548 shows no evidence of flattening. We fit two models for the flattening: a 'knee' model, analogous to the low-frequency break seen in the power spectra of BHXRBs in the low state (where the power-spectral slope flattens to α =0), and a 'high-frequency break' model (where the power-spectral slope flattens to α =1), analogous to the high-frequency break seen in the high- and low-state power spectra of the classic BHXRB Cyg X-1. Both models provide good fits to the power spectra of all four AGN. For both models, the characteristic frequency for flattening is significantly higher in MCG-6-30-15 than in NGC 3516 (by a factor of ~10), although both sources have similar X-ray luminosities, suggesting that MCG-6-30-15 has a lower black hole mass and is accreting at a higher rate than NGC 3516. Assuming linear scaling of characteristic frequencies with black hole mass, the high accretion rate implied for MCG-6-30-15 favours the high-frequency break model for this source, and further suggests that MCG-6-30-15, and possibly NGC 5506, may be analogues of Cyg X-1 in the high state. Comparison of our model fits with naive fits, where the model is fitted directly to the observed power spectra (with errors estimated from the data), shows that Monte Carlo fitting is essential for reliably constraining the broad-band power spectra of AGN light curves obtained to date.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore a model for these sources and suggest that in some tens of per cent of globular clusters a very massive black hole, M≳50 m⊙, is formed.
Abstract: The discovery of numerous non-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities L>1039 erg s−1 in several starburst galaxies has stimulated speculation about their nature and origin. The strong variability seen in several sources points to massive black holes as the central engines. If the flux is isotropic, the luminosities range up to ≈1041 erg s−1, implying masses of M≳103 M⊙ if the luminosity is sub-Eddington. Here we explore a model for these sources. We suggest that in some tens of per cent of globular clusters a very massive black hole, M≳50 M⊙, is formed. This black hole sinks in ≲106 yr to the centre of the cluster, where in the ∼1010 yr lifetime of the cluster it accretes ∼103 M⊙, primarily in the form of lighter black holes. Unlike less-massive black holes in binaries, which are flung from clusters by recoil before they can merge gravitationally, a ≳50 M⊙ black hole has enough inertia that it remains bound to the cluster. We suggest that ∼103 M⊙ black holes may be common in the centres of dense globular clusters, and may therefore exist in some tens of per cent of current globulars. If the cluster later merges with its host galaxy, accretion from young star clusters in molecular clouds by the black hole can generate luminosity consistent with that observed. We also consider the detectability of massive black holes in globular clusters with gravitational wave detectors, and speculate on future observations that may test our predictions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used more than 110,500 galaxies from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) to estimate the bJ-band galaxy luminosity function at redshift z = 0, taking account of evolution, the distri- bution of magnitude measurement errors and small corrections for incompleteness in the galaxy catalogue.
Abstract: We use more than 110 500 galaxies from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) to estimate the bJ-band galaxy luminosity function at redshift z = 0, taking account of evolution, the distri- bution of magnitude measurement errors and small corrections for incompleteness in the galaxy catalogue. Throughout the interval −16.5 > MbJ − 5 log10 h > −22, the luminosity function is accurately described by a Schechter function with MJ − 5 log10 h =− 19.66 ± 0.07, α = −1.21 ± 0.03 and � � = (1.61 ± 0.08) × 10 −2 h 3 Mpc −3 , giving an integrated luminosity den- sity of ρL = (1.82 ± 0.17) × 10 8 h LMpc −3 (assuming an � 0 = 0.3, 0 = 0.7 cosmology). The quoted errors have contributions from the accuracy of the photometric zero-point, from large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution and, importantly, from the uncertainty in the ap- propriate evolutionary corrections. Our luminosity function is in excellent agreement with, but has much smaller statistical errors than, an estimate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data when the SDSS data are accurately translated to the bJ band and the luminosity functions are normalized in the same way. We use the luminosity function, along with maps describing the redshift completeness of the current 2dFGRS catalogue, and its weak dependence on ap- parent magnitude, to define a complete description of the 2dFGRS selection function. Details and tests of the calibration of the 2dFGRS photometric parent catalogue are also presented.
TL;DR: In this article, a coupled model for the evolution of the global properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the formation of galaxies, in the presence of a photoionizing background due to stars and quasars, was developed.
Abstract: We develop a coupled model for the evolution of the global properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the formation of galaxies, in the presence of a photoionizing background due to stars and quasars. We use this model to predict the thermodynamic history of the IGM when photoionized by galaxies forming in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The evolution of the galaxies is calculated using a semi-analytical model, including a detailed treatment of the effects of tidal stripping and dynamical friction on satellite galaxies orbiting inside larger dark matter haloes. We include in the model the negative feedback on galaxy formation from the photoionizing background. Photoionization inhibits galaxy formation in low-mass dark matter haloes in two ways: (i) heating of the IGM and inhibition of the collapse of gas into dark haloes by the IGM pressure, and (ii) reduction in the rate of radiative cooling of gas within haloes. The result of our method is a self-consistent model of galaxy formation and the IGM. The IGM is reheated twice (during reionization of H I and He II), and we find that the star formation rate per unit volume is slightly suppressed after each episode of reheating. We find that galaxies brighter than L★ are mostly unaffected by reionization, while the abundance of faint galaxies is significantly reduced, leading to present-day galaxy luminosity functions with shallow faint-end slopes, in good agreement with recent observational data. Reionization also affects other properties of these faint galaxies, in a readily understandable way.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider an alternative model in which the jet has a beam pattern where the luminosity per unit solid angle (and perhaps also the initial Lorentz factor) decreases smoothly away from the axis, rather than having a well-defined cone angle within which the flow is uniform.
Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts are often modelled as jet-like outflows directed towards the observer; the cone angle of the jet is then commonly inferred from the time at which there is a steepening in the power-law decay of the afterglow. We consider an alternative model in which the jet has a beam pattern where the luminosity per unit solid angle (and perhaps also the initial Lorentz factor) decreases smoothly away from the axis, rather than having a well-defined cone angle within which the flow is uniform. We show that the break in the afterglow light curve then occurs at a time that depends on the viewing angle. Instead of implying a range of intrinsically different jets – some very narrow, and others with a similar power spread over a wider cone – the data on afterglow breaks could be consistent with a standardized jet, viewed from different angles. We discuss the implication of this model for the luminosity function.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the morphology, photometry and kinematics of the bars which have formed in three N-body simulations, and show that the disc dominates over the halo in the inner parts, even for model MH, for which the disc contributions were initially comparable in that region.
Abstract: We discuss the morphology, photometry and kinematics of the bars which have formed in three N-body simulations. These have initially the same disc and the same halo-to-disc mass ratio, but their haloes have very differentcentral concentrations. The third model includes a bulge. The bar in the model with the centrally concentrated halo (model MH) is much stronger, longer and thinner than the bar in the model with the less centrally concentrated halo (model MD). Its shape, when viewed side-on, evolves from boxy to peanut and then to 'X'-shaped, as opposed to that of model MD, which stays boxy. The projected density profiles obtained from cuts along the bar major axis, for both the face-on and the edge-on views, show a flat part, as opposed to those of model MD which are falling rapidly. A Fourier analysis of the face-on density distribution of model MH shows very large m = 2, 4, 6 and 8 components. Contrary to this, for model MD the components m = 6 and 8 are negligible. The velocity field of model MH shows strong deviations from axial symmetry, and in particular has wavy isovelocities near the end of the bar when viewed along the bar minor axis. When viewed edge-on, it shows cylindrical rotation, which the MD model does not. The properties of the bar of the model with a bulge and a non-centrally concentrated halo (MDB) are intermediate between those of the bars of the other two models. All three models exhibit a lot of inflow of the disc material during their evolution, so that by the end of the simulations the disc dominates over the halo in the inner parts, even for model MH, for which the halo and disc contributions were initially comparable in that region.
TL;DR: In this article, a new grid of ionizing fluxes for O and Wolf-Rayet (W•R) stars is presented for use with evolutionary synthesis codes and single-star H II region analyses.
Abstract: We present a new grid of ionizing fluxes for O and Wolf‐Rayet (W‐R) stars for use with evolutionary synthesis codes and single-star H II region analyses. A total of 230 expanding, non-LTE, line-blanketed model atmospheres have been calculated for five metallicities (0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 1 and 2 Z� ) using the WM-BASIC code of Pauldrach, Hoffmann & Lennon for O stars and the CMFGEN code of Hillier & Miller for W‐R stars. The stellar wind parameters are scaled with metallicity for both O and W‐R stars. We compare the ionizing fluxes of the new models with the CoStar models of Schaerer & de Koter and the pure helium W‐R models of Schmutz, Leitherer & Gruenwald. We find significant differences, particularly above 54 eV, where the emergent flux is determined by the wind density as a function of metallicity. The new models have lower ionizing fluxes in the He I continuum with important implications for nebular line ratios. We incorporate the new models into the evolutionary synthesis code STARBURST99 and compare the ionizing outputs for an instantaneous burst and continuous star formation with the work of Schaerer & Vacca (SV98), and Leitherer et al. The changes in the output ionizing fluxes as a function of age are dramatic. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, nebular He II λ4686 will be at, or just below, the detection limit in low metallicity starbursts during
TL;DR: The angular power spectrum of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is a powerful probe of cosmology as discussed by the authors, and it is easier to detect than individual clusters in the field, is insensitive to observational selection effects and does not require a calibration between cluster mass and flux, reducing the systematic errors that dominate the cluster-counting constraints.
Abstract: The angular power spectrum of the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is a powerful probe of cosmology. It is easier to detect than individual clusters in the field, is insensitive to observational selection effects and does not require a calibration between cluster mass and flux, reducing the systematic errors that dominate the cluster-counting constraints. It receives a dominant contribution from virialized cluster region between 20 and 40 per cent of the virial radius and is thus relatively insensitive to the poorly known gas physics in the cluster centre, such as cooling or (pre)heating. In this paper we derive a refined analytic prediction for the SZ angular power spectrum using the universal gas density and temperature profile and the dark matter halo mass function. The predicted power spectrum has no free parameters and fits all of the published hydrodynamic simulation results to better than a factor of 2 for 2000 < l < 10 000. We find that the angular power spectrum Cl scales as Cl∝σ78(Ωbh)2 and is almost independent of all of the other cosmological parameters. This differs from the local cluster abundance studies, which give a relation between σ8 and Ωm. We also compute the covariance matrix of Cl using the halo model and find a good agreement relative to the simulations. We argue that the best constraint from the SZ power spectrum comes from l∼ 3000, where the sampling variance is sufficiently small and the spectrum is dominated by massive clusters above 1014h−1 M⊙ for which cooling, heating and details of star formation are not very important. We estimate how well we can determine σ8(Ωbh)2/7 with sampling-variance-limited observations and find that for a several-square-degree survey with arcmin resolution one should be able to determine σ8 to within a few per cent, with the remaining uncertainty dominated by theoretical modelling. If the recent excess of the cosmic microwave background power on small scales reported by Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) and Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association (BIMA) experiments is due to the SZ effect, then we find σ8(Ωbh/0.035)0.29= 1.04 ± 0.12 at 95 per cent confidence level (statistical) and with a residual 10 per cent systematic (theoretical) uncertainty.
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple, efficient, robust and fully automatic algorithm for the determination of a Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) fit to galaxy images, to be used as a parametrization for the galaxy stellar surface brightness, is presented.
Abstract: We describe a simple, efficient, robust and fully automatic a lgorithm for the determination of a Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) fit to galaxy images, to be u sed as a parametrization for the galaxy stellar surface brightness. In most cases the lea st-squares solution found by this method essentially corresponds to the minimax, constant relative error, MGE approximation of the galaxy surface brightness, with the chosen number of Gaussians. The algorithm is well suited to be used with multiple resolution images (e.g., Hubble Space Telescope[HST] and ground-based). It works orders of magnitude faster and is more accurate than currently available methods. An alternative, more computing intensive, fully linear algorithm, that is guaranteed to converge to the smallest � 2 solution, is also discussed. Examples of MGE fits are presented for objects with HST or ground-based photo metry, including galaxies with significant isophote twist.
TL;DR: The SCUBA 8-mJy survey is the largest sub-millimetre (submm) extragalactic mapping survey undertaken to date, covering 260arcmin 2 to a 4� detection limit of ≃8m Jy at 850µm, centred on the Lockman Hole and ELAIS N2 regions as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The SCUBA 8-mJy survey is the largest submillimetre (submm) extragalactic mapping survey undertaken to date, covering 260arcmin 2 to a 4� detection limit of ≃8mJy at 850µm, centred on the Lockman Hole and ELAIS N2 regions. Here, we present the results of new 1.4-GHz imaging of these fields, of the depth and resolution necessary to reliably identify radio counterparts for 18 of 30 submm sources, with possible detections of a further 25 per cent. Armed with this greatly improved positional information, we present and analyse new optical, near-infrared (IR) and XMM-Newton X-ray imaging to identify optical/IR host galaxies to half of the submm-selected sources in those fields. As many as 15 per cent of the submm sources detected at 1.4GHz are resolved by the 1.4 ′′ beam and a further 25 per cent have more than one radio counterpart, suggesting that radio and submm emission arise from extended starbursts and that interactions are common. We note that less than a quarter of the submm-selected sample would have been recovered by targeting optically faint radio sources, underlining the selective nature of such surveys. At least 60 per cent of the radio-confirmed optical/IR host galaxies appear to be morphologically distorted; many are composite systems — red galaxies with relatively blue companions; just over one half are found to be very red (I −K > 3.3) or extremely red (I −K > 4); contrary to popular belief, most are sufficiently bright to be tackled with spectrographson 8-m telescopes. We find one submm source which is associated with the steep-spectrum lobe of a radio galaxy, at least two more with flatter radio spectra typical of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), one of them variable. The latter is amongst four sources (≡15 per cent of the full sample) with X-ray emission consistent with obscured AGN, though the AGN would need to be Compton thick to power the observed far-IR luminosity. We exploit our well-matched radio and submm data to estimate the median redshift of the S850µm ∼8mJy submm galaxy population. If the radio/far-IR correlation holds at high redshift, and our sample is unbiased, we derive a conservative limit of ≥2.0, or ≥2.4 using spectral templates more representative of known submm galaxies.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the source catalogue for the SCUBA Lens Survey and summarize the results of extensive multiwavelength observations of the 15 submillimetre-selected galaxies in the catalogue, from X-rays to radio.
Abstract: We present the source catalogue for the SCUBA Lens Survey. We summarize the results of extensive multiwavelength observations of the 15 submillimetre-selected galaxies in the catalogue, from X-rays to radio. We discuss the main observational characteristics of faint submillimetre galaxies as a population, and consider their interpretation within the framework of our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present simulations of disc formation in mergers of gas-rich galaxies, showing that up to half of the total gas settles into embedded discs; the most massive instances result from encounters in which both galaxies are inclined to the orbital plane.
Abstract: Observations indicate that much of the interstellar gas in merging galaxies may settle into extended gaseous discs. Here, I present simulations of disc formation in mergers of gas-rich galaxies. Up to half of the total gas settles into embedded discs; the most massive instances result from encounters in which both galaxies are inclined to the orbital plane. These discs are often warped, many have rather complex kinematics, and roughly a quarter have counter-rotating or otherwise decoupled central components. Discs typically grow from the inside out; infall from tidal tails may continue disc formation over long periods of time.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented maps, source lists and derived number counts from the largest, unbiased, extragalactic submillimetre (submm) survey so far undertaken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT).
Abstract: We present maps, source lists and derived number counts from the largest, unbiased, extragalactic submillimetre (submm) survey so far undertaken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Our maps are located in two regions of sky (ELAIS N2 and Lockman-Hole E) and cover 260arcmin2 , to a typical rms noise level of sigma 850 ~=2.5mJybeam-1 . We have reduced the data using both the standard JCMT surf procedures, and our own IDL -based pipeline which produces zero-footprint maps and noise images. The uncorrelated noise maps produced by the latter approach have enabled us to apply a maximum likelihood method to measure the statistical significance of each peak in our maps, leading to properly quantified errors on the flux density of all potential sources. We detect 19 sources with signal-to-noise ratios (S/N)>4, and 38 with S/N>3.5. To assess both the completeness of this survey and the impact of source confusion as a function of flux density, we have applied our source-extraction algorithm to a series of simulated images. The result is a new estimate of the submm source counts over the flux-density range S 850 ~=5-15mJy, which we compare with estimates derived by other workers, and with the predictions of a number of models. Our best estimate of the cumulative source count at S 850 >8mJy is per square degree. Assuming that the majority of sources lie at z >1.5, this result implies that the comoving number density of high-redshift galaxies forming stars at a rate in excess of 1000Msolar yr-1 is ~=10-5 Mpc-3 , with only a weak dependence on the precise redshift distribution. This number density corresponds to the number density of massive ellipticals with L >3-4L * in the present-day Universe , and is also the same as the comoving number density of comparably massive, passively evolving objects in the redshift band 1
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the evolution of massive binary black holes (BBHs) in realistic galaxy models, using a generalization of techniques used to study tidal disruption rates around massive BHs.
Abstract: ABSTRA C T Since many or most galaxies have central massive black holes (BHs), mergers of galaxies can form massive binary black holes (BBHs). In this paper we study the evolution of massive BBHs in realistic galaxy models, using a generalization of techniques used to study tidal disruption rates around massive BHs. The evolution of BBHs depends on BH mass ratio and host galaxy type. BBHs with very low mass ratios (say, &0.001) are hardly ever formed by mergers of galaxies, because the dynamical friction time-scale is too long for the smaller BH to sink into the galactic centre within a Hubble time. BBHs with moderate mass ratios are most likely to form and survive in spherical or nearly spherical galaxies and in highluminosity or high-dispersion galaxies; they are most likely to have merged in low-dispersion galaxies (line-of-sight velocity dispersion &90 km s 21 ) or in highly flattened or triaxial galaxies. The semimajor axes and orbital periods of surviving BBHs are generally in the range 10 23 ‐ 10 pc and 10 ‐ 10 5 yr; they are also larger in high-dispersion galaxies than in lowdispersion galaxies, larger in nearly spherical galaxies than in highly flattened or triaxial galaxies, and larger for BBHs with equal masses than for BBHs with unequal masses. The orbital velocities of surviving BBHs are generally in the range 10 2 ‐1 0 4 km s 21 . The methods of detecting surviving BBHs are also discussed. If no evidence of BBHs is found in AGNs, this may be either because gas plays a major role in BBH orbital decay or because nuclear activity switches on soon after a galaxy merger, and ends before the smaller BH has had time to spiral to the centre of the galaxy.
TL;DR: In this paper, the first hydrodynamical star formation calculation is presented, showing that brown dwarfs are a natural and frequent product of the collapse and fragmentation of a turbulent molecular cloud.
Abstract: We present results from the first hydrodynamical star formation calculation to demonstrate that brown dwarfs are a natural and frequent product of the collapse and fragmentation of a turbulent molecular cloud. The brown dwarfs form via the fragmentation of dense molecular gas in unstable multiple systems and are ejected from the dense gas before they have been able to accrete to stellar masses. Thus, they can be viewed as 'failed stars'. Approximately three-quarters of the brown dwarfs form in gravitationally unstable circumstellar discs while the remainder form in collapsing filaments of molecular gas. These formation mechanisms are very efficient, producing roughly the same number of brown dwarfs as stars, in agreement with recent observations. However, because close dynamical interactions are involved in their formation, we find a very low frequency of binary brown dwarf systems (≤5 per cent) and that those binary brown dwarf systems that do exist must be close, ≤ 10 au. Similarly, we find that young brown dwarfs with large circumstellar discs (radii ≥ 10 au) are rare ( 5 per cent).