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Showing papers in "Multilingua-journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication in 2018"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theme and the title for this special issue of Multilingua stem from a thematic colloquium that we organized at the 21st Sociolinguistics Symposium in Murcia, Spain, in June 2016.
Abstract: With increased national and transnational migration in Europe in recent years where people move to different cities, cross borders, integrate into new culturallinguistic landscapes, form intermarriages and create multilingual families, Family Language Policy as a field of study has emerged and is now receiving considerable attention. Caregivers, parents, and society at large are more and more concerned about what language(s) should be used when raising children, what language(s) should be maintained and further developed, what kind of (socio)linguistic environment is conducive to learning more languages, and what literacy practices provide affordances and constraints for multilingual development. The theme and the title for this special issue of Multilingua stem from a thematic colloquium that we organized at the 21st Sociolinguistics Symposium in Murcia, Spain, in June 2016. It brings together four papers that respond to the challenges of family language policy as a result of the intensified urban development, socio-political changes and transnational movement that have taken place in different European countries. Many questions arise concerning language in contemporary multilingual, transnational families: If apparently adequate linguistic inputs are provided and linguistic environments are conducive, can we expect raising children in multiple languages to be an unproblematic endeavour? If literacy resources are rich and various measures are in place, could we not raise children with a desirable bi/multi-lingual outcome? This thematic issue answers these questions by addressing the particular topic of languagemanagement, that is, language efforts andmeasures provided by caregivers as well as the manner in which family members encounter and address challenges related to language learning and use. The notion of language management actually derives from the work of the Prague Linguistic Circle in the 1920s in which language was perceived as a self-contained linguistic production (Jernudd and Neustrupný 1987). According to Jernudd and Neustrupný (1987), language management starts

45 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored and described how family language policy is managed through literacy resources and literacy related activities in transnational families in the UK and found that sociocultural and socio-political realities present difficulties and constraints that prevent families from developing literacy in the home language.
Abstract: Abstract Drawing on theories of family language policy and literacy environment, this inquiry explores and describes how family language policy is managed through literacy resources and literacy related activities in transnational families in the UK. A total of 66 families, each with at least one child between the age of 2 and 8, participated in this study. All children spoke English alongside their heritage/home language (HL), either Chinese, Italian, or Urdu. Data sources include: (a) a questionnaire about the children’s general background and the parents’ socio-economic and cultural capital and language practice in English and HL; (b) literacy resources and activities in both HL and English; (c) interview with parents. The results of this study show some interesting differences among Italian, Urdu and Chinese speakers, not only in their family language practices, but also in their attitudes towards mother tongue literacy and application of literacy practices in the home language. Although parental language management efforts were motivated by their aspirations to enrich their children’s language repertoires, the different degrees of variation in family language input indicate that sociocultural and socio-political realities present difficulties and constraints that prevent families from developing literacy in the home language.

43 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine a recorded interaction between a grandmother, Nana, and her granddaughter Maggie (3;4) and discuss how Nana's high use of questions and laissez-faire attitude to Maggie's use of English contribute to the child-centred nature of the interaction, and in turn, to Maggie’s playful use of Gaelic.
Abstract: Abstract The aim of this article is to illustrate the fluid nature of family language policy (FLP) and how the realities of any one FLP are re-negotiated by caregivers and children in tandem. In particular, the paper will focus on the affective dimensions of FLP and will demonstrate how the same reality – in this case, a grandmother’s use of a child-centred discourse style as a means to encouraging her grandchildren to use their minority language, Scottish Gaelic – can play out differently among siblings. Using a longitudinal perspective, the paper begins by examining a recorded interaction between a grandmother, Nana, All names are pseudonyms. and her granddaughter Maggie (3;4) and will discuss how Nana’s high use of questions and laissez-faire attitude to Maggie’s use of English contribute to the child-centred nature of the interaction, and in turn, to Maggie’s playful use of Gaelic. The paper then examines an interaction recorded five years later in which Nana interacts with Maggie’s brother Jacob (4;0) in the same affective style; however, unlike Maggie, Jacob evidences overtly negative affective stances towards his minority language. The paper concludes by discussing these observations in light of the reflexive nature of FLP in terms of emotional affect, linguistic input, and language shift.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical look at multilingual policies and practices and their consequences for speakers within the workplace is presented, where the authors investigate how language is conceptualised in language policies and enacted in language practice.
Abstract: Abstract Transnational mobility results in a diversification of languages and cultures in the workplace. A common means of managing this diversity is to introduce language policies that often privilege English or the locally dominant language(s). In contrast, managing their everyday working lives may require employees to draw on a range of multilingual and non-verbal resources. Such tensions between policy and practice in multilingual workplaces may impact structures and processes of inequality and power in the workplace. By looking at two sites within logistics and construction, this article offers a critical look at multilingual policies and practices and their consequences for speakers within the workplace. The article investigates how language is conceptualised in language policies and enacted in language practice. From this point of departure we discuss how the tensions between policies and practices impact on the daily working life and professional opportunities of the workers. Our findings suggest that even though multilingual practices are crucial for the flow of everyday work interactions on the floor, the language requirements within the workplace mirror the repertoires and practices of high-status employees, and therefore their competence is valued more highly than the more multilingual repertoires of their subordinates. A consequence of this unequal valorisation of the different linguistic repertoires is the maintenance of existing hierarchies in the workplace and the creation of new ones.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors develop the notion of English as corporate language by making a distinction between the front-stage official language used in corporate communication and backstage working language used for interactions among MNC employees.
Abstract: Abstract This conceptual paper advances the notion of “English as corporate language” in the multilingual reality of multinational companies (MNC) with novel insights from the English as lingua franca (ELF) paradigm of sociolinguistics. Inspired by Goffman, Erving. 1959. The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday. dramaturgical metaphor of social life, we develop the notion of English as corporate language by making a distinction between the frontstage official language used in corporate communication and backstage working language used in interactions among MNC employees. We argue that the former approaches the notion of English as a native language and the latter represents ELF in the business domain (BELF); they are different in terms of understanding language competence, multilingualism and role of language in building legitimacy. Our conclusions imply first, that the frontstage English may not always be accessible to the backstage BELF users, due to which employees may feel disadvantaged or disempowered. Second, the use of formal language testing in recruitment and performance appraisal may transform into a gate-keeping mechanism that leads to power inequalities. In our recommendations, we call for an emancipatory language policy accepting different standards of English for different positions and adopting ideas of the Plain Language initiative to better reach all MNC employees.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated how individual and collective linguistic practices of Galician parents act as language governmentality measures influencing their children's language learning, and demonstrated that in Galicia's language shift-induced shrinking Galician-speaker pool, pro-Galician parents can play an important role in the language revitalization process.
Abstract: Abstract Macro-level policy makers, perceived as stakeholders of language management, employ a range of language policy strategies to legitimise hegemonic control over meso- (i.e. family) and micro- (i.e. individual) level language ideologies (Cassels-Johnson 2013). However, language policies of an individual are often difficult to detect because they are implicit, subtle, informal, and often hidden from the public eye, and therefore frequently overlooked by language policy researchers and policy makers. The primary focus of this study is to investigate how individual, as well as collective linguistic practices of Galician parents act as language governmentality (Foucault 1991) measures influencing their children’s language learning. Drawing from multiple ethnographic research tools, including observations, in-depth fieldwork interviews and focus group discussions with parents, this paper demonstrates that in Galicia’s language shift-induced shrinking Galician-speaker pool, pro-Galician parents can play an important role in the language revitalisation process. The goal is also to ascertain whether these parents’ grassroots level interrogation of the dominant Castilian discourse takes the form of bottom-up language policies.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that LX users are less sure about the exact meaning of the word, underestimate its offensiveness and use it less frequently than L1 users, while high levels of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism were associated with more frequent use of the curse word, as were lower levels of education, a younger age, being a male and working in a swearing rich environment for both L1 and LX users.
Abstract: “Cunt” is currently one of the most offensive words in the English language and is usually censored in the English press and media. The present study looks firstly at differences between 1159 first (L1) and 1165 foreign (LX) users of English in their understanding of the word, its perceived offensiveness and their self-reported frequency of use. Secondly, it considers the relationships between the three dependent variables and a number of psychological, sociobiographical and linguistic profile variables. The findings suggest that LX users are less sure about the exact meaning of the word, underestimate its offensiveness and use it less frequently than L1 users. Links between understanding of word and perceived offensiveness vary for L1 and LX users. High levels of Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism were linked to more frequent use of the word, as were lower levels of education, a younger age, being a male and working in a swearing-rich environment for both L1 and LX users. Variation in the group of LX users was linked to age of onset of acquisition of English, context of acquisition, self-reported oral proficiency, frequency of use of English and having lived in an English-speaking environment.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on how different historical stages of socio-economic development in Brussels are played out on the ground over time in one particular inner city neighbourhood, the Quartier Dansaert.
Abstract: Abstract This paper focuses on how different historical stages of socio-economic development in Brussels are played out on the ground over time in one particular inner-city neighbourhood, the Quartier Dansaert. In particular, I document the history of this neighbourhood and how urban change and gentrification have impacted the outlook of multilingualism and the development of multilingual discourses and language hierarchies in its material and semiotic landscape over time. By using the rich history of multilingualism in the Quartier Dansaert as a case-study, I argue in favour of more historically-sensitive and longitudinal approaches to social and, in particular, linguistic change as played out in urban landscape.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a case study of two families who have recently migrated from Greece to Luxembourg is presented, where they have contrasting language ideologies and management strategies that are informed by their differing transnational experiences, competences and worldview.
Abstract: Abstract Against the backdrop of the ongoing crisis-led migration from Southern to Northwestern Europe, the present paper reports on a case study of two families who have recently migrated from Greece to Luxembourg. Luxembourg has a trilingual education system and many pupils of migrant background face difficulties on this account. Drawing on the framework of Family Language Policy, this paper explores the language ideologies and management strategies of two families as well as factors influencing their policies. This qualitative study was based on interviews, observations, and videos recorded by one of the families. The findings show that the families have contrasting language ideologies and management strategies that are informed by their differing transnational experiences, competences and worldviews. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which migrant families use their language resources in their new country.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper analyzed seven hours of audio recordings of dinnertime talk in a Japanese-speaking immigrant family with a university-aged adult daughter living together in Australia and revealed the dynamics of language socialization in a bilingual/immigrant setting in which the relative roles of expert and novice emerge, shift and are negotiated in interaction.
Abstract: Abstract This article explores the construction and shifting of “expert” and “novice” roles between and within two languages (Japanese and English). Taking a language socialization perspective while drawing upon insights from conversation analysis on epistemics in interaction, it analyzes seven hours of audio recordings of dinnertime talk in a Japanese-speaking immigrant family with a university-aged adult daughter living together in Australia. The analysis identifies several key communicative practices, such as word definitions and repair, which participants deploy in displaying epistemic stances that constitute the self and family members as possessing relatively more or less knowledge and expertise (epistemic status) with respect to these two languages. The findings reveal the dynamics of language socialization in a bilingual/immigrant setting in which the relative roles of expert and novice emerge, shift, and are negotiated in interaction. In conclusion, the findings are discussed in relation to language expertise, power and hierarchy, agency and bidirectional language socialization.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated second/foreign language teachers' translingual identity development through a narrative approach to their life histories and found that teachers' intercultural experiences shape their identity formation and pedagogies.
Abstract: Abstract In this article, we investigate second/foreign language teachers’ translingual identity development through a narrative approach to their life histories. While several studies have investigated how teachers’ intercultural experiences shape their identity formation and pedagogies, we explore not only the impact of teachers’ identity on their practice but also highlight the influences of language teaching itself on teacher identity development. In this process, an emergent theoretical framework of translingual practice becomes particularly useful in interpreting our participants’ “sociocultural in-betweenness,” that is, the capacity and disposition to co-construct meaning across languages and language varieties (Canagarajah 2013b: 3). We aim to contribute to a deeper understanding of this framework by capturing how our two focal participants’ translingual practice emerged, developed, and changed in relation to their identities through a range of intercultural experiences in their life time. As they eventually became language teachers, we also explore their perspectives on language and culture, especially in terms of how they see their interculturality manifesting in their classroom practices, as well as how their pedagogies simultaneously shaped their teacher identities. Our findings have pedagogical implications in regards to narrative knowledge construction in language teacher education.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated Polish expatriates' stories of encounters with local personnel in a Chinese subsidiary of a Western multinational company and found that low proficiency in the host language was a serious obstacle to expatriate socialization.
Abstract: Abstract This study investigates Polish expatriates’ stories of encounters with local personnel in a Chinese subsidiary of a Western multinational company. A narrative analysis of the stories produced important insights into Polish-Chinese communication in an intra-subsidiary context. Low proficiency in the host language was a serious obstacle to expatriate socialization and a source of expatriates’ exclusion and social isolation in the workplace, which often led to stress, frustration, and negative attitudes toward collaboration with local personnel. Language-related issues prevented the expatriates from acquiring information from Chinese superiors, learning about problems within a team, and participating in decision-making. The findings of this case study relate to communication challenges in the Chinese subsidiary, expatriates’ accounts of how they overcame communication difficulties, and their reflections on what fostered and hampered intercultural communication.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines language ideologies underlying the media representation of Chinese citizens speaking multiple foreign languages and argues that a figure of good citizenship is being articulated via valorization of multilingual competence that is grounded both in the newly cherished moral values of neoliberal globalization, entrepreneurship, reflexivity and flexibility.
Abstract: Abstract This paper examines language ideologies underlying the media representation of Chinese citizens speaking multiple foreign languages. It argues that a figure of good citizenship is being articulated via valorization of multilingual competence that is grounded both in the newly cherished moral values of neoliberal globalization – entrepreneurship, reflexivity and flexibility – and in the traditional moral values of patriotism and contribution to society. Such configuration of citizenship departs from the nationalist monoglot language ideology, and yet demonstrates a flexible nationalism that links multilingual competence to personal welfare and social harmony. This study shows the importance of paying attention to the dynamic interplay between social class, nationalism, and neoliberal globalization in our analysis of language and citizenship.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Tetun Dili, an Austronesian language spoken in East Timor, was until 1999 primarily an oral language of intercultural communication as discussed by the authors, but it has become the dominant language of public life, including the government, education and the media, as well as becoming an official language alongside Portuguese, a former colonial language.
Abstract: Tetun Dili, an Austronesian language spoken in East Timor, was until 1999 primarily an oral language of intercultural communication. Since the 1999 vote on independence from Indonesia, Tetun Dili has become the dominant language of public life, including the government, education and the media, as well as becoming an official language alongside Portuguese, a former colonial language. The rapidly evolving press register of Tetun shows significant impact from language contact. Portuguese influence is seen primarily in extensive lexical borrowing, brought in by the Portuguese-educated elite as well as by translators and writers. Indonesian influence is seen in several calques for expressing anaphora, brought in by Indonesian-educated writers, and an adversative passive. Other new constructions, including a more general passive and final quote margins, have come about through the combined influence of Portuguese, Indonesian and English, the last as a source language for much literal translation into Tetun. Some discourse features of press Tetun, such as high information density and events being told out of chronological order, are the results of international journalistic style. While a rapid evolution of new written registers is not uncommon, the East Timor situation is unique in its combination of contact languages, and the significant number of grammatical innovations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the diversity of languages displayed in the linguistic landscape of Julfa district, a largely Armenian dominated area, in the city of Isfahan in Iran was reported.
Abstract: Abstract This paper reports on the diversity of languages displayed in the linguistic landscape of Julfa district, a largely Armenian dominated area, in the city of Isfahan in Iran. The data included a corpus of 323 photographs taken from the top-down and bottom-up signage in this quarter of the city. Ethnographic fieldwork was also conducted to reach a deeper understanding of the linguistic landscape in Julfa. The results of the analyses indicated that Julfa, as home to Armenians in diaspora and also a luxurious neighborhood frequented by more modern strata of the Isfahani society, is occupied more noticeably with Persian and English language and to a lesser extent with Armenian language. The findings further revealed that this neighborhood represents not only Iranian but also Armenian and Christian identities. The results are analyzed based on Bourdieu’s theory of language as a symbolic power. Furthermore, the collective identity and language ecology of Julfa in Isfahan are discussed. At the end, some lines of research for further studies in the LL of Iran are provided.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated code-switching and script switching in medieval documents from the Cairo Geniza, written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew script), Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic.
Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates code-switching and script-switching in medieval documents from the Cairo Geniza, written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew script), Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic. Legal documents regularly show a macaronic style of Judaeo-Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew, while in letters code-switching from Judaeo-Arabic to Hebrew is tied in with various socio-linguistic circumstances and indicates how markedly Jewish the sort of text is. Merchants in particular employed a style of writing devoid of Hebrew elements, whereas community dignitaries are much more prone to mixing of Hebrew and Judaeo-Arabic (and Arabic), although the degree of mixing also depends on a number of other factors, such as on the individual education. Analyses show great variation within the repertoire of single authors, as shown on the example of Daniel b. ʿAzariah, according to the purpose of the correspondence, with religious affairs attracting the highest Hebrew content, whereas letters pertaining to trade exhibit the lowest Hebrew content. Script-switching between Hebrew and Arabic may be prompted by convenience of individual writers, or occur as an idiosyncratic quirk, but reveal the close familiarity of the writer with both alphabets.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the public service provider Kind & Gezin (K&G), the agency that monitors the wellbeing of young children on behalf of the Flemish authorities in Belgium.
Abstract: Abstract This paper addresses the challenges service providers are facing amidst growing ethnolinguistic diversity in a neoliberal climate. We focus on the public service provider Kind & Gezin (K&G), the agency that monitors the wellbeing of young children on behalf of the Flemish authorities in Belgium. We demonstrate that the organisation has taken various multilingual measures that go against the government’s preference for monolingual service provision. This is particularly the case for ‘bottom-up’ bilingual practices, where bilingual family support workers and medical staff developed bilingual routines in service provision, much in line with the ‘client-centered communication’ which K&G professes. Whereas these practices were initially endorsed by K&G’s management, a further diversification of K&G’s clientele, along with budgetary restrictions, prompted management to restrict these practices and explore alternative ways of providing multilingual services that do not require the recruitment of extra staff. Drawing on ethnographic data we explore the rationale underlying the organisation’s decision to restrict its multilingual policy and the way this decision is influenced by neoliberal principles which foreground effectiveness, efficiency, flexibility and entrepreneurialism. We conclude that the policy shift leads to ideological reconceptualisations of ‘language’ and ‘language difference’ that sit uncomfortably with the reality of language-discordant service encounters, as well as to redefinitions of the professional identity of bilingual family support workers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, two orders of multiple languages that are present in vocational high schools in Semarang, Central Java are analyzed and the authors suggest that each order represents differing strategies of dealing with the demands of globalization.
Abstract: Abstract Indonesian vocational secondary education reflects the increasingly multilingual demands of globalized education and labor market. This study focuses on two orders of multiple languages that are present in vocational high schools in Semarang, Central Java. It aims not only to describe the different orders of languages, but also to suggest that each order represents differing strategies of dealing with the demands of globalization. One order represents the state-backed institutional approach, which views multiple languages as distinct entities and demands students to have monolingual competence in English, Indonesian, and Javanese to engage in globalization, cultivate nationalism and preserve tradition. The other order represents the market-oriented way vocational schools meet the demands of globalized industries and labor markets by directly adopting the multilingual industry register into local learning processes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze the use of the minority language Basque in the workplace and the challenges it faces in an emerging multilingual global context and conclude that there is a need to establish new policies that are truly multilingual as well as to raise awareness in companies about the importance of adequate language management practices.
Abstract: Abstract Several studies on multilingualism in the workplace have emphasized the role of English as a lingua franca. Other studies have paid attention to the interaction between English and local languages in workplaces where global orientations and local languages co-occur. The present study focuses on internationally oriented workplaces in the bilingual Basque Autonomous Community (BAC). The study aims to analyze the use of the minority language Basque in the workplace and the challenges it faces in an emerging multilingual global context. The promotion and use of the minority language in internationally oriented workplaces is related to language policies of the regional government, the role of ‘new speakers’ of Basque, and the possible tensions between the efforts to revitalize Basque and the use of English as a global language, mediated by the position of Spanish as a strong international language. Our conclusion is that there is a need to establish new policies that are truly multilingual as well as to raise awareness in companies about the importance of adequate language management practices.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined data from the media, including soap operas, poetry, postcards and songs, to explore the metalinguistic discourse of Sa'idis and non-Sa'idis in the media.
Abstract: Abstract ‘Saʿidi dialect’ is a general phrase used by Egyptians to refer to a group of dialects spoken in an area that stretches from the south of Cairo to the border of the Sudan. Of all the dialects found throughout Egypt and the Arab world, Saʿidi Arabic is one of the most ridiculed, stigmatised and stereotyped in the media. Salient phonological and semantic features of Saʿidi are associated with undesirable attributes such as ignorance, stupidity and a lack of sophistication. These negative indexes are often emphasised by the media. However, some Saʿidi intellectuals and public figures employ these very features to perform their identity, thus creating a positive stance and highlighting the favourable traits of Saʿidis. This article examines data from the media, including soap operas, poetry – both written and performed – postcards and songs. It utilises the concepts of indexicality and stance-taking to explore the metalinguistic discourse of Saʿidis and non-Saʿidis in the media. In addition, the article examines indexes of Saʿidi features that are considered second order indexes, but that are used by performers who employ a Saʿidi dialect to create a stance that is remarkably distinct from the rest of Egypt.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the case of Gaztea, a youth webradio station within the Basque public EITB group as discussed by the authors, Vernaculars are increasingly used in media.
Abstract: Abstract Vernaculars are increasingly used in media. They are considered to be stylistic resources to attract audiences and to construct media identities. That increase seems to be particularly significant in the case of youth media, which is also the case of Gaztea, a youth webradio station within the Basque public EITB group that we analyse in this work. Gaztea was created in the 90’s and, at that time, its whole production was in Standard Basque. In fact, promoting the newly created Standard Basque was considered to be Gaztea’s principal public service remit. Nowadays, however, the hegemony of that standard in Gaztea has been challenged by a more heteroglossic model in which vernacular speech is strategically used to empathize with the young Basque audience and to construct media identities. At the same time, though, the dominance of Standard Basque persists in Gaztea’s general stylistic design and practice: Vernaculars are excluded from writing, as well as from informative genres and serious and leading voices. Those are some of the conclusions of the research we have carried out on the distribution of vernaculars and Standard Basque across modes, genres and voices in Gaztea, and also from the information we have drawn from interviews with the managers of the media in question. Results from both data sources are important to understand the current ideological views Gaztea shares with young Basque people, as well as how Gaztea positions itself as a stylizer in the language ideological world of Basque youth.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a photo-studio brand named Naive Blue (天真蓝) is used as a case study to contribute to the understanding of translingual practices as stylistic strategies for commercial purposes in the era of globalization.
Abstract: Abstract Taking a photo-studio brand named Naive Blue (天真蓝) as a case study, this article seeks to contribute to the understanding of translingual practices as stylistic strategies for commercial purposes in the era of globalization. Sociolinguistic analysis of the brand logo, shop signs and social media promotional practices shows that translingual practices have been mobilized as generative and interactive strategies of consumer design. First, translingual strategies help construct a discursive world not available in monolingual uses of either English or Chinese and position the brand’s target consumers as self-assertive, individualistic, and sharing a taste of distinction. Second, translingual strategies are embodied and metalinguistically conscious practices (expected to be) shared by both the brand’s social-media content manager and his interactants and followers in general. The findings also suggest that translingual practices are part of an emergent register indexing an emergent social class that is tentatively labeled ‘young urban elites’ in contemporary China.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated encounters between the two overall language resources (standard vs. non-standard and regional varieties) in two linguistic minority communities in Denmark, focusing on Turkish and Farsi mother tongue classes.
Abstract: Abstract This article investigates encounters between the two overall language resources – standard vs. non-standard and regional varieties – in two linguistic minority communities in Denmark. Concentrating on Turkish and Farsi mother tongue classes, the study departs from two interviews with the parents of mother tongue students. Additional ethnographic evidence from the respective mother tongue classes show when and how the two overall varieties of the respective languages are reacted to and valorized among the study participants. Two main issues are explored in this context: first, language ideological paradigms of dominance – anonymity and authenticity – and, second, the extension and expansion of language users’ ideologies regarding registers of language. The article concludes that during the encounters and discussions concerning ideological views supporting either of the overall language resources, a form for authority exists and becomes oriented to in line with the history of language policy of the countries of origin.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the purposes of code-switching in Ahdaf Soueif's The Map of Love (1999) and Leila Aboulela's The Translator (2005) while re-evaluating its assumed direct link to asserting the author's primary identity.
Abstract: Abstract The turn of the twenty-first century has witnessed a growing preoccupation with multilingual texts across the world. Literary code-switching is becoming significantly valuable as it allows readers access to the trans-lingual and transcultural experiences of bilinguals in monolingual majority societies. More importantly, as the recent surge in the body of contact literature in general, and Anglo-Arab fiction in particular, has witnessed a major shift in its purpose, in this paper I argue that it is high time researchers made a similar shift in scholarly investigations of literary code-switching. The new texts are becoming less concerned with contesting the colonizer. Instead, contact literature is becoming increasingly focused on cross-cultural negotiations. Therefore, I attempt to explore the purposes of code-switching in Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) and Leila Aboulela’s The Translator (2005), while re-evaluating its assumed direct link to asserting the author’s primary identity – a purpose that has been the focus of scholarly work tackling literary code-switching for decades. Two other main purposes are highlighted in this paper, namely: (i) changing attitudes towards multilingualism; and (ii) adding authenticity to the experiences delineated in a foreign language.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the plain language guide published by the Department of Justice of Hong Kong in 2012 was used to help the current legislation to comply with the guidelines, using data from seven recently-enacted ordinances.
Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes law drafting techniques, especially in Chinese, that aim to enhance the fluency and readability of Hong Kong bilingual legislation. The study is based on the plain language guide published by the Department of Justice of Hong Kong in 2012, with the goal of helping the current legislation to comply with the guidelines. Using data from seven recently-enacted ordinances, the analysis illustrates drafting techniques for their English and Chinese versions in accordance with the plain language guide published by the Department of Justice. This process is accomplished by suggesting revisions for relevant Chinese sections of legislation and their corresponding English sections according to contrasting aspects of English and Chinese grammars. The discussion will also evaluate the plain language drafting and the overall theoretical and philosophical trend of law drafting in Hong Kong, in light of the “Seven Standards of Textuality” proposed by de Beaugrande and Dressler. This is believed to be the first undertaking to study plain legal language against its official guidelines in the Hong Kong context.