About: Mutation Research is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): DNA damage & DNA repair. It has an ISSN identifier of 1383-5718. Over the lifetime, 11487 publication(s) have been published receiving 475436 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
Abstract: We previously reported that intronic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in MITF (c.938-325G>A, rs7623610) and CREB1 (c.303+373G>A, rs10932201) genes were associated with risk, aggressiveness, and prognosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM). In this study, we investigated the influence of the above SNVs in splicing patterns and efficiency. We constructed minigenes with wild type and variant alleles from MITF and CREB1 to assess the effect of the SNVs on splicing. The minigenes were transfected in the human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28). RT-PCR and DNA sequencing investigated the constructs' splicing patterns. Minigenes constructs' splicing efficiency and HNRNPA1 and SF1 splicing genes' expression were investigated by qPCR. We found that MITF and CREB1 SNVs did not alter the splicing pattern, but they influenced the splicing efficiency. MITF-A (p= 0.03) and CREB1-A (p= 0.005) variant minigenes yielded an increase of mRNA generated from the constructions. Additionally, lower mRNA levels of HNRNPA1 and SF1 were seen in the variant minigenes MITF-A (p= 0.04) and CREB1-A (p= 0.005). We described for the first time the potential importance of MITF rs7623610 and CREB1 rs10932201 SNVs in splicing efficiency and its relationship with CM.
Abstract: We previously found that an l -glutamine analog l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide has high mutagenic activity through the high-throughput laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli. In this study, mutagenicity and mutational property of l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide were examined by the Ames test and mutation accumulation experiments using E. coli. The Ames test revealed that l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide showed higher mutagenic activity without metabolic activation than known mutagens 2-aminoanthracene, and cobalt(II) acetate tetrahydrate. This result indicates that l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide does not require metabolic activation for mutagenic activity in E. coli. Mutation accumulation experiments and whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed the number and spectrum of the accumulated mutations with or without l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide. In the presence of l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide, MDS42 strain accumulated 392.3 ± 116.2 point mutations during 30 passages corresponding to 777 generations, while MDS42 strain accumulated 1.5 ± 2.5 point mutations without l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide during 50 passages corresponding to 1341 generations. The mutational spectrum of l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide was G/C to A/T transition (82.2 ± 4.3 %) and A/T to G/C transition (17.4 ± 4.3 %). These results indicated that l -glutamic acid γ-hydrazide has a strong mutagenic activity.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the frequency of deamination mutations for 5 major tumor suppressors genes are very similar in 3 different tissues that undergo a wide range of stem cell divisions, which may reflect the generation of more solvent accessible single-stranded DNA regions during polymerization that are kinetically more prone to deamination.
Abstract: Understanding the origins of mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes associated with cancers in different tissues is critical to the development of potential prevention strategies. Analysis of >10,000 nonsense mutations in 63 tumor suppressor genes based on the ratio of the number of nonsense mutations per codon type is reported for each gene. The ratio for C•G→T•A nonsense mutations at Arg CGA codons to the number of CGA codons in all cancers is 23 (3088 total nonsense mutations for 134 CGA codons in the 63 suppressor genes). The ratio for this codon, which is attributed to hydrolytic deamination of 5-methylcytosine at CpG sites based on the sequence context, is 6-fold higher than the next highest ratio that involves a C•G→T•A transition at Trp TGG codons. C•G→A•T transversions at Glu, Ser, Tyr, Gly and Cys codons account for 25 % of the total nonsense mutations but the mutation per codon ratio for these codons is 1.0. Analysis of the bases 5' of the mutated CGA codons in the 63 tumor suppressor genes in all cancers shows a preference of 5'-G > C ∼ T ∼ A, which is not indicative of a role for enzymatic deamination by deaminases. Overall C•G→T•A mutations account for 61 % of all of the nonsense mutations in the collection of tumor suppressor genes. It is demonstrated that the ratio of C•G→T•A deamination-associated nonsense mutations at CGA codons (hydrolytic deamination) to the number of frame shift insertion/deletion mutations (i.e., replication based) for 5 major tumor suppressors genes are very similar in 3 different tissues that undergo a wide range of stem cell divisions. Therefore, the frequency of deamination mutations parallels the number of stem cell replications. This may reflect the generation of more solvent accessible single-stranded DNA regions during polymerization that are kinetically more prone to deamination.
Abstract: Although UV-induced mutagenesis has been studied extensively, the precise mechanisms that convert UV-induced DNA damage into mutations remain elusive. One well-studied mechanism involves DNA polymerase (Pol) η and ζ, which produces C > T transitions during translesion synthesis (TLS) across pyrimidine dimers. We previously proposed another biochemical mechanism that involves multiple UV-irradiations with incubation in the dark in between. The incubation facilitates spontaneous deamination of cytosine in a pyrimidine dimer, and the subsequent UV irradiation induces photolyase-independent (direct) photoreversal that converts cytosine into monomeric uracil residue. In this paper, we first demonstrate that natural sunlight can induce both mutational processes in vitro. The direct photoreversal was also reproduced by monochromatic UVB at 300 nm. We also demonstrate that post-irradiation incubation in the dark is required for both mutational processes, suggesting that cytosine deamination is required for both the Pol η/ζ-dependent and the photoreversal-dependent mechanisms. Another Y-family polymerase Pol ι also mediated a mutagenic TLS on UV-damaged templates when combined with Pol ζ. The Pol ι-dependent mutations were largely independent of post-irradiation incubation, indicating that cytosine deamination was not essential for this mutational process. Sunlight-exposure also induced C > A transversions which were likely caused by oxidation of guanine residues. Finally, we constructed in vitro mutation spectra in a comparable format to cancer mutation signatures. While both Pol η-dependent and photoreversal-dependent spectra showed high similarities to a cancer signature (SBS7a), Pol ι-dependent mutation spectrum has distinct T > A/C substitutions, which are found in another cancer signature (SBS7d). The Pol ι-dependent T > A/C substitutions were resistant to T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase-treatment, suggesting that this mutational process is independent of cis-syn pyrimidine dimers. An updated model about multiple mechanisms of UV-induced mutagenesis is discussed.
Abstract: Exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight creates DNA lesions, which if left unrepaired can induce mutations and contribute to skin cancer. The two most common UV-induced DNA lesions are the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), both of which can initiate mutations. Interestingly, mutation frequency across the genomes of many cancers is heterogenous with significant increases in heterochromatin. Corresponding increases in UV lesion susceptibility and decreases in repair are observed in heterochromatin versus euchromatin. However, the individual contributions of CPDs and 6-4PPs to mutagenesis have not been systematically examined in specific genomic and epigenomic contexts. In this study, we compared genome-wide maps of 6-4PP and CPD lesion abundances in primary cells and conducted comprehensive analyses to determine the genetic and epigenetic features associated with susceptibility. Overall, we found a high degree of similarity between 6-4PP and CPD formation, with an enrichment of both in heterochromatin regions. However, when examining the relative levels of the two UV lesions, we found that bivalent and Polycomb-repressed chromatin states were uniquely more susceptible to 6-4PPs. Interestingly, when comparing UV susceptibility and repair with melanoma mutation frequency in these regions, disparate patterns were observed in that susceptibility was not always inversely associated with repair and mutation frequency. Functional enrichment analysis hint at mechanisms of negative selection for these regions that are essential for cell viability, immune function and induce cell death when mutated. Ultimately, these results reveal both the similarities and differences between UV-induced lesions that contribute to melanoma.