Abstract: OBJECTIVE To stude the association of 5-HT(2A) receptor polymorphism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. METHODS Blood samples were taken from 323 6 approximately 17.5-year-old children with ADHD disgnosed based on the DSM-IV criteria, 182 healthy 18 approximately 49-year-old controls, and 195 pairs of parents of affected children, all of Han nationality. DNA was extracted. PCR was performed to examine the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor T102C polymorphism. Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to test the association of alleles of 5-HT(2A) T102C polymorphic sites and AFDHD. RESULTS The frequency of T102T in patients with ADHD combined subtype was lower than that in the controls (22.35 vs 33.5%, OR = 0.569, P = 0.028, 95% CI 0.344 - 0.943), and the frequency of T102C in patients with ADHD combined subtype was higher than that in the controls (64.0% vs 47.3%, OR = 1.987, P = 0.003, 95% CI 1.264 approximately 3.124). TDT showed biased transmission of the alleles of T102C polymorphism among families of girl patients with ADHD combined subtype (P = 0.031). CONCLUSION For the ADHD combined subtype, the T102T genotype is a protective factor and the T102C genotype is a risk factor. For the girl with ADHD combined subtype, the allele C102 is a disease-predisposing gene.