About: Nature Communications is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Biology. It has an ISSN identifier of 2041-1723. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 41388 publications have been published receiving 2561885 citations. The journal is also known as: Nat Commun & Nature communications.
TL;DR: The authors show the double-slit interference effect in the strong-field ionization of neon dimers by employing COLTRIMS method to record the momentum distribution of the photoelectrons in the molecular frame.
Abstract: Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.
TL;DR: In situ click chemistry is used to develop COX-2 specific inhibitors with high in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, significantly higher than that of widely used selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.
Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 isozyme is a promising anti-inflammatory drug target, and overexpression of this enzyme is also associated with several cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. The amino-acid sequence and structural similarity between inducible cyclooxygenase-2 and housekeeping cyclooxygenase-1 isoforms present a significant challenge to design selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Herein, we describe the use of the cyclooxygenase-2 active site as a reaction vessel for the in situ generation of its own highly specific inhibitors. Multi-component competitive-binding studies confirmed that the cyclooxygenase-2 isozyme can judiciously select most appropriate chemical building blocks from a pool of chemicals to build its own highly potent inhibitor. Herein, with the use of kinetic target-guided synthesis, also termed as in situ click chemistry, we describe the discovery of two highly potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 isozyme inhibitors. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of these two novel small molecules is significantly higher than that of widely used selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Traditional inflammation and pain relief drugs target both cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2), causing severe side effects. Here, the authors use in situ click chemistry to develop COX-2 specific inhibitors with high in vivo anti-inflammatory activity.
TL;DR: Experimental evidence is presented that the threshold pressure of ~120 GPa induces in molecular ammonia the process of autoionization to yet experimentally unknown ionic compound--ammonium amide, opening new possibilities for studying molecular interactions in hydrogen-bonded systems.
Abstract: Ionization of highly compressed ammonia has previously been predicted by computation. Here, the authors provide experimental evidence for this autoionization process at high pressures, showing the transformation of molecular ammonia into ammonium amide.
TL;DR: Physical structure is known to contribute to the appearance of bird plumage through structural color and specular reflection, but a third mechanism, structural absorption, leads to low reflectance and super black color in birds of paradise feathers.
Abstract: Many studies have shown how pigments and internal nanostructures generate color in nature. External surface structures can also influence appearance, such as by causing multiple scattering of light (structural absorption) to produce a velvety, super black appearance. Here we show that feathers from five species of birds of paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) structurally absorb incident light to produce extremely low-reflectance, super black plumages. Directional reflectance of these feathers (0.05-0.31%) approaches that of man-made ultra-absorbent materials. SEM, nano-CT, and ray-tracing simulations show that super black feathers have titled arrays of highly modified barbules, which cause more multiple scattering, resulting in more structural absorption, than normal black feathers. Super black feathers have an extreme directional reflectance bias and appear darkest when viewed from the distal direction. We hypothesize that structurally absorbing, super black plumage evolved through sensory bias to enhance the perceived brilliance of adjacent color patches during courtship display.
TL;DR: A detailed theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is presented to predict its electrical and optical properties, finding that the mobilities are hole-dominated, rather high and highly anisotropic.
Abstract: Two-dimensional crystals are emerging materials for nanoelectronics. Development of the field requires candidate systems with both a high carrier mobility and, in contrast to graphene, a sufficiently large electronic bandgap. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) to predict its electrical and optical properties. This system has a direct bandgap, tunable from 1.51 eV for a monolayer to 0.59 eV for a five-layer sample. We predict that the mobilities are hole-dominated, rather high and highly anisotropic. The monolayer is exceptional in having an extremely high hole mobility (of order 10,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and anomalous elastic properties which reverse the anisotropy. Light absorption spectra indicate linear dichroism between perpendicular in-plane directions, which allows optical determination of the crystalline orientation and optical activation of the anisotropic transport properties. These results make few-layer BP a promising candidate for future electronics.
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