Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
About: Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Cancer & Breast cancer. It has an ISSN identifier of 1759-4774. Over the lifetime, 3226 publication(s) have been published receiving 140514 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Nature reviews. Clinical oncology.
14 Sep 2010-Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
Abstract: Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of physiological barriers presented by the abnormal tumor vasculature and interstitial matrix. These barriers are likely to be responsible for the modest survival benefit offered by many FDA-approved nanotherapeutics and must be overcome for the promise of nanomedicine in patients to be realized. Here, we review these barriers to the delivery of cancer therapeutics and summarize strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers. Finally, we discuss design considerations for optimizing the delivery of nanoparticles to tumors.
Topics: Interstitial matrix (54%), Nanomedicine (51%), Enhanced permeability and retention effect (51%)
Alberto Mantovani1, Federica Marchesi2, Federica Marchesi1, Alberto Malesci2 +3 more•Institutions (2)
24 Jan 2017-Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
Abstract: Macrophages are crucial drivers of tumour-promoting inflammation. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to tumour progression at different levels: by promoting genetic instability, nurturing cancer stem cells, supporting metastasis, and taming protective adaptive immunity. TAMs can exert a dual, yin-yang influence on the effectiveness of cytoreductive therapies (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), either antagonizing the antitumour activity of these treatments by orchestrating a tumour-promoting, tissue-repair response or, instead, enhancing the overall antineoplastic effect. TAMs express molecular triggers of checkpoint proteins that regulate T-cell activation, and are targets of certain checkpoint-blockade immunotherapies. Other macrophage-centred approaches to anticancer therapy are under investigation, and include: inhibition of macrophage recruitment to, and/or survival in, tumours; functional re-education of TAMs to an antitumour, 'M1-like' mode; and tumour-targeting monoclonal antibodies that elicit macrophage-mediated extracellular killing, or phagocytosis and intracellular destruction of cancer cells. The evidence supporting these strategies is reviewed herein. We surmise that TAMs can provide tools to tailor the use of cytoreductive therapies and immunotherapy in a personalized medicine approach, and that TAM-focused therapeutic strategies have the potential to complement and synergize with both chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
Philippe Lambin1, Ralph T.H. Leijenaar1, Timo M. Deist1, Jurgen Peerlings1 +17 more•Institutions (2)
04 Oct 2017-Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
Abstract: Radiomics, the high-throughput mining of quantitative image features from standard-of-care medical imaging that enables data to be extracted and applied within clinical-decision support systems to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive accuracy, is gaining importance in cancer research. Radiomic analysis exploits sophisticated image analysis tools and the rapid development and validation of medical imaging data that uses image-based signatures for precision diagnosis and treatment, providing a powerful tool in modern medicine. Herein, we describe the process of radiomics, its pitfalls, challenges, opportunities, and its capacity to improve clinical decision making, emphasizing the utility for patients with cancer. Currently, the field of radiomics lacks standardized evaluation of both the scientific integrity and the clinical relevance of the numerous published radiomics investigations resulting from the rapid growth of this area. Rigorous evaluation criteria and reporting guidelines need to be established in order for radiomics to mature as a discipline. Herein, we provide guidance for investigations to meet this urgent need in the field of radiomics.
Topics: Modern medicine (51%)
01 Aug 2013-Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
Abstract: Cancer is associated with mutated genes, and analysis of tumour-linked genetic alterations is increasingly used for diagnostic, prognostic and treatment purposes. The genetic profile of solid tumours is currently obtained from surgical or biopsy specimens; however, the latter procedure cannot always be performed routinely owing to its invasive nature. Information acquired from a single biopsy provides a spatially and temporally limited snap-shot of a tumour and might fail to reflect its heterogeneity. Tumour cells release circulating free DNA (cfDNA) into the blood, but the majority of circulating DNA is often not of cancerous origin, and detection of cancer-associated alleles in the blood has long been impossible to achieve. Technological advances have overcome these restrictions, making it possible to identify both genetic and epigenetic aberrations. A liquid biopsy, or blood sample, can provide the genetic landscape of all cancerous lesions (primary and metastases) as well as offering the opportunity to systematically track genomic evolution. This Review will explore how tumour-associated mutations detectable in the blood can be used in the clinic after diagnosis, including the assessment of prognosis, early detection of disease recurrence, and as surrogates for traditional biopsies with the purpose of predicting response to treatments and the development of acquired resistance.
Giampaolo Bianchini1, Justin M. Balko2, Ingrid A. Mayer2, Melinda E. Sanders2 +1 more•Institutions (2)
01 Nov 2016-Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
Abstract: Chemotherapy is the primary established systemic treatment for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in both the early and advanced-stages of the disease. The lack of targeted therapies and the poor prognosis of patients with TNBC have fostered a major effort to discover actionable molecular targets to treat patients with these tumours. Massively parallel sequencing and other 'omics' technologies have revealed an unexpected level of heterogeneity of TNBCs and have led to the identification of potentially actionable molecular features in some TNBCs, such as germline BRCA1/2 mutations or 'BRCAness', the presence of the androgen receptor, and several rare genomic alterations. Whether these alterations are molecular 'drivers', however, has not been clearly established. A subgroup of TNBCs shows a high degree of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes that also correlates with a lower risk of disease relapse and a higher likelihood of benefit from chemotherapy. Proof-of-principle studies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors in advanced-stage TNBC have yielded promising results, indicating the potential benefit of immunotherapy for patients with TNBC. In this Review, we discuss the most relevant molecular findings in TNBC from the past decade and the most promising therapeutic opportunities derived from these data.
Topics: Triple-negative breast cancer (52%)