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JournalISSN: 1740-1526

Nature Reviews Microbiology

About: Nature Reviews Microbiology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Microbiome & Genome. It has an ISSN identifier of 1740-1526. Over the lifetime, 3385 publication(s) have been published receiving 437483 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Nature Reviews. Microbiology. more

Topics: Microbiome, Genome, Viral pathogenesis more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRMICRO2415
Hans-Curt Flemming1, Jost Wingender1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that form their immediate environment. EPS are mainly polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids; they provide the mechanical stability of biofilms, mediate their adhesion to surfaces and form a cohesive, three-dimensional polymer network that interconnects and transiently immobilizes biofilm cells. In addition, the biofilm matrix acts as an external digestive system by keeping extracellular enzymes close to the cells, enabling them to metabolize dissolved, colloidal and solid biopolymers. Here we describe the functions, properties and constituents of the EPS matrix that make biofilms the most successful forms of life on earth. more

5,618 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRMICRO821
Abstract: Biofilms--matrix-enclosed microbial accretions that adhere to biological or non-biological surfaces--represent a significant and incompletely understood mode of growth for bacteria. Biofilm formation appears early in the fossil record (approximately 3.25 billion years ago) and is common throughout a diverse range of organisms in both the Archaea and Bacteria lineages, including the 'living fossils' in the most deeply dividing branches of the phylogenetic tree. It is evident that biofilm formation is an ancient and integral component of the prokaryotic life cycle, and is a key factor for survival in diverse environments. Recent advances show that biofilms are structurally complex, dynamic systems with attributes of both primordial multicellular organisms and multifaceted ecosystems. Biofilm formation represents a protected mode of growth that allows cells to survive in hostile environments and also disperse to colonize new niches. The implications of these survival and propagative mechanisms in the context of both the natural environment and infectious diseases are discussed in this review. more

5,415 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRMICRO1098
Kim A. Brogden1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides are an abundant and diverse group of molecules that are produced by many tissues and cell types in a variety of invertebrate, plant and animal species. Their amino acid composition, amphipathicity, cationic charge and size allow them to attach to and insert into membrane bilayers to form pores by 'barrel-stave', 'carpet' or 'toroidal-pore' mechanisms. Although these models are helpful for defining mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity, their relevance to how peptides damage and kill microorganisms still need to be clarified. Recently, there has been speculation that transmembrane pore formation is not the only mechanism of microbial killing. In fact several observations suggest that translocated peptides can alter cytoplasmic membrane septum formation, inhibit cell-wall synthesis, inhibit nucleic-acid synthesis, inhibit protein synthesis or inhibit enzymatic activity. In this review the different models of antimicrobial-peptide-induced pore formation and cell killing are presented. more

Topics: Antimicrobial peptides (61%), Cell killing (59%), Protegrin (57%) more

4,574 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRMICRO818
Abstract: Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly, pathogen. Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extraintestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes. more

3,958 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRMICRO797
Gary E. Harman1, Charles R. Howell2, Ada Viterbo3, Ilan Chet3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Trichoderma spp. are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. Recent discoveries show that they are opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts, as well as being parasites of other fungi. At least some strains establish robust and long-lasting colonizations of root surfaces and penetrate into the epidermis and a few cells below this level. They produce or release a variety of compounds that induce localized or systemic resistance responses, and this explains their lack of pathogenicity to plants. These root-microorganism associations cause substantial changes to the plant proteome and metabolism. Plants are protected from numerous classes of plant pathogen by responses that are similar to systemic acquired resistance and rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma spp. also frequently enhances root growth and development, crop productivity, resistance to abiotic stresses and the uptake and use of nutrients. more

Topics: Trichoderma (60%), Systemic acquired resistance (53%), Plant disease resistance (52%) more

2,875 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Andrea Du Toit

235 papers, 400 citations

Sheilagh Molloy

180 papers, 218 citations

Ursula Hofer

156 papers, 390 citations

Ashley York

156 papers, 235 citations

Christina Tobin Kåhrström

121 papers, 194 citations

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