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Showing papers in "Nature in 1923"


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as mentioned in this paper is a remarkable and strikingly original work which is published in German and English in parallel pages and it is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation.
Abstract: 13 EADERS of Mr. Bertrand Russell's philosophical £v works know that one of his pupils before the outbreak of the war, an Austrian, Mr. Ludwig Wittgenstein, caused him to change his views in some important particulars. Curiosity can now be satisfied. The “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “which Mr. Ogden has included in his new library of philosophy is a remarkable and strikingly original work. It is published in German and English in parallel pages. It is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation. Also we should have liked to have the Tractatus without Mr. Russell's Introduction, not, we hasten to add, on account of any fault or shortcoming in that introduction, which is highly appreciative and in part a defence of himself, in part explanatory of the author, but for the reason that good wine needs no bush and that Mr. Russell's bush has the unfortunate effect of dulling the palate instead of whetting the appetite. In his penultimate sentence Mr. Russell says; “To have constructed a theory of logic which is not at any point obviously wrong is to have achieved a work of extraordinary difficulty and importance.” We agree, but how uninspiring when compared with Mr. Wittgenstein's own statement of aim: “What can be said at all can be said clearly, and whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. By Ludwig Wittgenstein. (International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method.) Pp. 189. (London: Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd.; New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., Inc., 1922.) 10s. 6d. net.

1,130 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that a fixed observer will constantly see the internal periodical phenomenon in phase with a wave the frequency of which is determined by the quantum relation using the whole energy of the moving body.
Abstract: THE quantum relation, energy = h × frequency, leads one to associate a periodical phenomenon with any isolated portion of matter or energy. An observer bound to the portion of matter will associate with it a frequency determined by its internal energy, namely, by its “mass at rest.” An observer for whom a portion of matter is in steady motion with velocity c, will see this frequency lower in consequence of the Lorentz-Einstein time transformation. I have been able to show (Comptes rendus, September 10 and 24, of the Paris Academy of Sciences) that the fixed observer will constantly see the internal periodical phenomenon in phase with a wave the frequency of which is determined by the quantum relation using the whole energy of the moving body—provided it is assumed that the wave spreads with the velocity c/. This wave, the velocity of which is greater than c, cannot carry energy. In much the same way that relativity fundamentally altered our large-scale view of the Universe, the emergence of quantum mechanics cast a very different light on our understanding of the microscopic world. Here, Louis de Broglie offers some thoughts on the nature of matter, waves and quanta which, by the following year (1924), would lead to his prediction that matter should exhibit wave-like properties.

302 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Aug 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The physiology of the capillaries has been comparatively neglected since the question of lymph production and absorption was brought into prominence by the researches of Heidenhain, but after a few years, interest in the matter died down, and physiologists failed to appreciate or to follow up the many other problems concerning the capillary walls.
Abstract: EVERY cell of the body is brought into material relationship with all other cells in virtue of the existence o£ a common medium, the blood, which is maintained in constant circulation throughout the body. Substances absorbed into the blood from the exterior, either through the external or internal surfaces of the body, are thus brought round and presented to every cell, to be taken up or rejected according to the needs of the latter. In the same way the products of the chemical changes occurring in any cell are distributed to all other cells, so that the blood represents the internal environment integrating the metabolic activities of all parts of the body. The interchange between blood and tissues takes place only in the capillaries and smaller veins, so that we may say that the whole vascular system-heart, arteries, and veins-exists to ensure an adequate passage of blood through the capillaries. It is therefore rather surprising that the physiology of the capillaries has been comparatively neglected until the last few years. There have been isolated observations with regard to their structure and contractility and the properties of their walls. Some twenty-five years ago, when the question of lymph production and absorption was brought into prominence by the researches of Heidenhain, the functions of the cells forming the capillary walls were hotly debated, but after a few years, interest in the matter died down, and physiologists failed to appreciate or to follow up the many other problems concerning the capillaries which were implicit in the problems of lymph production. The Anatomy and Physiology of Capillaries. By Prof. August Krogh. (Silliman Memorial Lectures.) Pp. xvii + 276. (New Haven: Yale University Press; London: Oxford University Press, 1922.) 13s: 6d. net.

264 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jan 1923-Nature
TL;DR: I?
Abstract: I? an article in NATURE ten years ago (August 22, A 1912, p. 633) I gave a review of the position at that time of the question of the breeding grounds of the freshwater eel (Anguilla vulgaris). We had then been working for seven or eight years upon the question, and it was our intention to pursue the work further by means of investigations extending across the Atlantic.

133 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a theory for the relationship between the viscosity of a liquid and of its corresponding vapour, which is supported by the experimental data and appears to have claims to serious consideration.
Abstract: As is well known, the viscosity of gases and its variation with temperature has received a satisfactory explanation on the basis of molecular theory. Little progress has, however, been made towards explaining the phenomena of the viscosity of condensed media—that is, of liquids and solids from a molecular point of view. What is evidently required is a working hypothesis which will indicate why, when a substance passes from the state of vapour to that of liquid, its absolute viscosity is greatly increased but diminishes with rising temperature, while that of the vapour increases in the same circumstances. I propose in this note to put forward briefly the outline of a theory which appears to have claims to serious consideration, as it indicates a quantitative relation between the viscosity of a liquid and of the corresponding vapour which is supported by the experimental data.

127 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1923-Nature
TL;DR: Investigating the cytology of a number of diœcious plants with the intention of throwing light on the matter of sex chromosomes in plants found that, in both sexes, there are twelve pairs of chromosomes present in the somatic cells.
Abstract: I HAVE recently been investigating the cytology of a number of dicious plants with the intention, if possible, of throwing light on the matter of sex chromosomes in plants. Incidentally, I took up the genus Lychnis, one species of which, Melandryum rubrum, Garcke (L. dioica, L.), has been examined previously by Strasburger. In detailing his observations he states that, in both sexes, there are twelve pairs of chromosomes present in the somatic cells. In the heterotype division he found one pair of bivalents much larger than the others, but the individual members of this pair were of equal size; thus no signs of the disparity indicating the possibility of two types of microspore were revealed.

92 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jan 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The Age and Area: A Study in Geographical Distribution and Origin of Species as mentioned in this paper is a book about the evolution theory of the human species, which is based on the age and area hypothesis.
Abstract: TO determine the value of Dr. Willis's book is not easy. The author delivers his message with enthusiasm and emphasis. “Age and Area,” he reiterates, provides a penetrating and wholly new light on evolution. His supporters, four of whom contribute chapters to the book, endorse this opinion and tell us it is all right. Table after table exhibits special phenomena on which Dr. Willis relies. These tabulations seem to have been scrupulously made, and they certainly demonstrate some remarkable and novel results. The book is written with perfect sincerity and a conviction almost naive. Whatever its worth may prove to be, it is an honest attempt. So imposing an array must produce an effect in the mind even of the critical. But there are disquieting features. Repetition of the bald assurance that Age and Area is the true faith should be unnecessary. A judicious advocate would leave that conclusion to flow more quietly from the evidence. When, for example, we read, “As one of our leading ecologists says in a letter to me, and underlines, ‘this will be strongly in favour of your Age and Area hypothesis,’ “we remember seeing testimonials like that elsewhere and in more mundane application. But though the reader's scepticism is thus instantly aroused, the matter is worth careful attention, for to have hit on a new method of investigating even a part of the theory of evolution is no common achievement, and that the author has done this cannot in fairness be denied. Age and Area: A Study in Geographical Distribution and Origin of Species. By Dr. J. C. Willis. With chapters by Hugo de Vries, H. B. Guppy, Mrs. E. M. Reid, and Dr. James Small. Pp. x + 259. (Cambridge University Press, 1922.) 14s. net.

87 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1923-Nature
TL;DR: An erratum slip is printed and can be obtained by purchasers of the above series by sending a stamped and addressed envelope to Mr. C. F. Clay, Cambridge University Press, Fetter Lane, E.G.C.
Abstract: I REGRET that certain errata have been found in No. III. of the above Tracts. As they might cause confusion to any one computing from one of the formulae affected, I have had an erratum slip printed, which can be obtained by purchasers of the above series by sending a stamped and addressed envelope either to Mr. C. F. Clay, Cambridge University Press, Fetter Lane, E.G.4, or to The Secretary, Biometric Laboratory, University College, Gower St., W.C.1.

69 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, it has been shown that the most simple and conclusive characteristic of a Chemical element is given by its X-ray spectrum, and that Moseley's laws allow us to calculate very accurately the wave-lengths of the Xray spectral lines for any element in the periodic table, if those of the elements in its neighbourhood are known.
Abstract: SINCE Moseley's discovery of the fundamental laws of the X-ray emission, it has become quite clear that the most simple and conclusive characteristic of a Chemical element is given by its X-ray spectrum. In addition, Moseley's laws allow us to calculate very accurately the wave-lengths of the X-ray spectral lines for any element in the periodic table, if those of the elements in its neighbourhood are known. Taking into account that the presence of a very small proportion of a definite element in any chemical substance suffices to give a good X-ray spectrum of this element, it is quite evident that for the eventual discovery of any unknown element X-ray spectroscopy, especially as it has been developed by Siegbahn, represents the most effective method.

56 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In the human body, there are three kinds of muscles: the voluntary muscle of the trunk and limbs, governed by the conscious will of the individual; the involuntary muscle of bloodvessels, of the alimentary and excretory, the so-called vegetative, system; and the cardiac or heart muscle, the muscle which pumps the blood round the body.
Abstract: Introduction.—Muscular exercise is a subject in which most people are interested. It is fortunate therefore that, in this direction, physiology has made greater progress into the intimate working of the body than perhaps in any other. The means by which bodily movements are carried out is muscle. Muscle is the red meat. There are three kinds of muscles: the voluntary muscle of the trunk and limbs, governed- or at any rate governable-by the conscious will of the individual; the involuntary muscle of the bloodvessels, of the alimentary and excretory, the so-called vegetative, system; and the cardiac or heart muscle, the muscle which pumps the blood round the body.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The present state of atomic theory is characterised by the fact that we not only believe the existence of atoms to be proved beyond a doubt, but also we even believe that we have an intimate knowledge of the constituents of the individual atoms as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: THE GENERAL PICTURE OF THE ATOM. THE present state of atomic theory is characterised by the fact that we not only believe the existence of atoms to be proved beyond a doubt, butalso we even believe that we have an intimate knowledge of the constituents of the individual atoms. I cannot on this occasion give a survey ofthe scientific developments that have led to this result; I will only recall the discovery of the electron towards the close of the last century, which furnished the direct verification and led to a conclusive formulation of the conception of the atomic nature of electricity which had evolved since the discovery by Faraday of the fundamental laws of electrolysis and Berzelius's electrochemical theory, and had its greatest triumph in the electrolytic dissociation theory of Arrhenius. This discovery of the electron and elucidation of its properties was the result of the work of a large number of investigators, among whom Lenard and J. J. Thomson may be particularly mentioned. The latter especially has made very important contributions to our subject by his ingenious attempts to develop ideas about atomic constitution on the basis of the electron theory. The present state of our knowledge of the elements of atomic structure was reached, however, by the discovery of the atomic nucleus, which we owe to Rutherford, whose work on the radioactive substances discovered towards the close of the last century has much enriched physical and chemical science.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Sep 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The theory of the connexion between gravitation and electromagnetism outlined below is founded on Eddington's idea, published during recent years, of basing "field physics" mathematically on the theory of affine relation as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: THE theory of the connexion between gravitation and electromagnetism outlined below is founded on Eddington's idea, published during recent years, of basing “field physics” mathematically on the theory of the affine relation. We shall first briefly consider the entire development of ideas associated with the names Levi-Civita, Weyl, and Eddington.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The Destructive Distillation of Wood as discussed by the authors is an English text-book on wood distillation with a focus on the use of wood waste in paper production and fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol.
Abstract: ONE hundred and fifty million tons of “wood waste” are produced annually, most of which, it is claimed, finds no useful application. Possible methods for the utilisation of this material are its destructive distillation to give valuable products, its employment directly as a fuel, its use in paper production, or its fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol. The first application, and wood distillation generally, although forming the subject of an ancient industry, has not hitherto been taken as the sole title of an English text-book. On account of the important economic problem involved the author has much to justify his r effort, and from many points of view his book is a success. The descriptions of plant and processes for wood distillation and of stills and evaporators employed in the recovery of the distillation products are lucid, and while technical details have been considered, exactness in statement has been maintained. The Destructive Distillation of Wood. By H. M. Bunbury. Pp. xx + 320. (London: Benn Bros., Ltd., 1923.) 35s. net.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1923-Nature
TL;DR: This paper pointed out that a series of papers dealing with these insects has already been published by Dr. R. Tillyard (Queensland Geol. Survey, Pub. 253, 1916; and “Mesozoic Insects of Queensland,” Nos. 1 to 9, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1917 to 1922).
Abstract: LEST the reference in NATURE of July 7, p. 20, to Queensland Geological Survey Publication, No. 273, may lead readers to think that the account of the Coleoptera is the first published work on the insects from the six-inch seam containing insect remains at Ipswich, I would point out that a series of papers dealing with these insects has already been published by Dr. R. J. Tillyard (Queensland Geol. Survey, Pub. 253, 1916; and “Mesozoic Insects of Queensland,” Nos. 1 to 9, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1917 to 1922).

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the scope, importance, and value of Freud's contribution to anthropology is discussed, without enthusiasm or prejudice, without regard to psycho-analysis or its critics.
Abstract: THE infection by psycho-analysis of the neighbouring fields of science—notably that of anthropology, folklore, and sociology—has been a very rapid and somewhat inflammatory process. The votaries of Freud, or some among them, have displayed in their missionary zeal an amount of dogmatism and of aggressiveness not calculated to allay the prejudice and suspicion which usually greet every new extension of their theories. Some of their critics, on the other hand, go so far as to dismiss all anthropological contributions of Freud and his school as “utterly preposterous” and “obviously futile,” as “an intrigue with Ethnology which threatens disaster to both parties,” as “a striking demonstration of reductio ad absurdum” (Prof. Elliot Smith in Rivers's “Psychology and Politics,” pp. 141–145). This is a harsh judgment and it carries much weight, coming from one by no means hostile to psycho-analysis and thoroughly well acquainted with anthropological problems, especially those discussed by Freud and his school. This seems the right moment to consider impartially, without enthusiasm or prejudice, the scope, importance, and value of Freud's contribution to anthropology.

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Nov 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In education, as in all the great fields of practice, there are, and must constantly arise, problems that can be solved only by patient application of the methods of science, but however far the scope of educational science may extend, the critical educational issues will always lie beyond it as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: IN education, as in all the great fields of practice, there are, and must constantly arise, problems that can be solved only by patient application of the methods of science, but however far the scope of educational science may extend, the critical educational issues will always lie beyond it. For in its origin education is a biological process which does not wait for deliberation to call it into existence or for science to guide it, but has the inevitability of behaviour rooted in instinct.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1923-Nature
TL;DR: This article showed that Shishak I, the conqueror of Jerusalem, must have reigned about 930 B.C., which is not so different from the old traditional biblical date of 975 B.
Abstract: WHEN one is. told that Tutankhamen, the Egyptian king, the discovery of whose tomb, followed by the tragedy of Lord Carnarvon's death, has aroused such widespread interest in ancient Egypt, reigned roughly between the years 1360 and 1350 B.C., it is naturally asked by many how this is known with such certainty? The Egyptians had no regular era. They merely spoke of such-and-such a year of King X. The Assyrian, however, possessed a continuous era, of which each year was noted by the name of an oeponymous official. The definite fixing of this Assyrian oera has been due to the help of astronomy. In a ocertain eponymy of the eighth century B.C., an eclipse oof the sun is recorded as having taken place in the month Si van (May-June). This has been reckoned astronomically to have taken place in 763 B.C. All other evidence of the kind fits in with and confirms this: the eponym-dates are certain to the actual year so far back as 893 B.C., when the later Assyrian series began, and are also now certain to within a few years at a much earlier period. So far back as the ninth century, at least, then, we can fix Egyptian dates with the aid of Assyrian synchronisms, and we find that Shishak I., the conqueror of Jerusalem, must have reigned about 930 B.C., which is not so different from the old traditional biblical date of 975 B.C.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The article consists of a review of Dr. Mortensen's work entitled “Studies of the Development and Larval Forms of Echinoderms,” and in the course of the article Dr. Bather quotes with apparent approval some remarks of Dr Mortensen to which I desire to take the strongest exception.
Abstract: IN NATURE of December 8 there appears an article by my friend Dr. F. A. Bather entitled “Echinoderm Larvae and their Bearing on Classification.” The article consists of a review of Dr. Mortensen's work entitled “Studies of the Development and Larval Forms of Echinoderms,” and in the course of the article Dr. Bather quotes with apparent approval some remarks of Dr. Mortensen to which I desire to take the strongest exception.

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Oct 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The controversy over the Piltdown remains and the coming of the War shortly afterwards, were the two events which conspired to distract the attention of the scientific world from the significant discovery which was made in South Africa in 1913, when a farmer unearthed some fragments of a human skull at Boskop near Potchefstroom in the Transvaal as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: THE controversy raging over the Piltdown remains, and the coming of the War shortly afterwards, were the two events which conspired to distract the attention of the scientific world from the significant discovery which was made in South Africa in 1913,when a farmer unearthed some fragments of a human skull at Boskop near Potchefstroom in the Transvaal. Last year, the discovery of a more primitive human race in Homo rhodesiensis has served to redirect attention to the part which Africa still has to play in elucidating the wider questions of human origins and human migrations.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1923-Nature
TL;DR: It has often been stated that civilisation in Egypt spread from the south, and considerable stress has been laid upon the fact that many pre-dynastic and early dynastic remains have been found in the region between Edfu and Thinis as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: IT has often been stated that civilisation in Egypt spread from the south, and considerable stress has been laid upon the fact that many pre-dynastic and early dynastic remains have been found in. Upper Egypt in the region between Edfu and Thinis, especially at Hierakonpolis and Naqada, and north of Naqada, in the neighbourhood of Abydos. Opposite Edfu is 'a desert route leading to the Red Sea; at Kuft, opposite Naqada, is the beginning of the road leading to Koser, the port on the Red Sea. It has been thought that the people who brought culture to Egypt reached the Nile Valley by one or by both these routes from a “God's Land” situated somewhere down the Red Sea coast. But throughout the whole history of Egypt, culture has always come from the north, and spread southwards.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that lichens accelerate the chemical change of the glass and lead, and exert a mechanical action on the altered glass, and that the effect of lichens on a glass can be seen as a sign of the presence of life.
Abstract: THE article referred to by Mr. Noel Heaton describes the results of “ one of several possible lines of research ”; it shows that lichens accelerate the chemical change of the glass and lead, and exert a mechanical action on the altered glass.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1923-Nature
TL;DR: One of the most important consequences of the chemistry of the products of radioactive change has been the discovery of isotopes and the interpretation, in consequence, of the Periodic Law in terms of modern views of atomic structure.
Abstract: ONE of the most important consequences of the study of the chemistry of the products of radioactive change has been the discovery of isotopesand the interpretation, in consequence, of the Periodic Law in terms of modern views of atomic structure. It is one of the few fields in the vast borderland between physics and chemistry, overrun of recent years by an advancing swarm of mathematicians and physicists, armed with all sortsof new-fangled weapons, in which the invaders have found the chemist already in possession. The broad highways they have hewn thereto are already dusty with the feet of pilgrims and are being watered by the tears of candidates for “Honours.” But the somewhat intricate bye-ways through which the chemist first found his way into this virgin territory, and the views on the road before it was in sight, may still preserve something of their pristine interest.

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Oct 1923-Nature
TL;DR: It was a very useful work of the Dutch Zoological Society (Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging), and specially of Dr. Redeke, the director of the Zoological Station in Den Helder, to bring together all that is known from the Zuiderzee in this monograph.
Abstract: WITH the draining of the Zuiderzee one of the largest brackish-water basins of Europe, and a very peculiar one, will disappear. In the Baltic Sea, the largest of all, tidal movements are of very little importance: in the French and English river-estuaries, tides are the predominating factor, while in the Zuiderzee only a few small areas are struck by regular tidal currents, and the greater part of the southern basin is only shaken up from its lake-dreaminess by north-western gales. Therefore it was a very useful work of the Dutch Zoological Society (Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging), and specially of Dr. H. C. Redeke, the director of the Zoological Station in Den Helder, to bring together all that is known from the Zuiderzee in this monograph, issued on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the Society. Flora en Fauna der Zuiderzee. Monografie van een Brakwatergebied onder redactie van Dr. H. C. Redeke. en met medewerking van Tera van Benthem Jutting, H. Engel, H. C. Funke, Dr. A. C. J. van Goor, J. A. W. Groenewegen, Dr. B. Havinga, J. Hofker, Dr. R. Horst, Prof. Dr. P. N. van Kampen, Geertje de Lint, Dr. J. G. de Man, Prof. H. F. Nierstrasz, Dr. A. C. Oudemans, Prof. Dr. C. Ph. Sluiter, Dr. J. F. Steenhuis, Dr. J. J. Tesch, Dr. Adriana Vorstman, Nel de Vos, Prof. Dr. Max Weber en Dr. N. L. Wibaut-Isebree-Moens. Uitge-geven door de Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging ter Gelegenheid van Haar Vyftigjarig Bestaan. Pp. 460. (Helder: C. de Boer, Jun., 1922.) 10 guilders; for members of the Nederl. Dierk. Vereen., f. 2.50.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1923-Nature
TL;DR: Among the items illustrating the importance of research in aiding the well-being of communities and nations are discussed the conditions under which the discovery of the agency of malaria conveyance was made, as a result of the laborious experimental efforts of the author as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: IN Sir Ronald Ross's “Memoirs” information is to be found which will interest the conventional “wide circle of readers,” in that the subjects treated must appeal to the Imperialist, the political economist, the sanitarian of the tropics, and the cosmopolitan science research worker; nor will those who respond to the “call of the East” fail to find interest in details of scenery and travels in India and Burma. Among the items illustrating the importance of research in aiding the well-being of communities and nations are discussed the conditions under which the discovery of the agency of malaria conveyance was made, as a result of the laborious experimental efforts of the author. In the section dealing with this subject will be found a tale devoid of technicalities of relentless search for a scientific truth, with its recurring disappointments, baffled schemes, renewed hopes, and ultimate victory, which, in entrancing interest, may compete with Sherlock Holmes's efforts at his best. Memoirs: With a Full Account of the Great Malaria Problem and its Solution. By Ronald Ross. Pp. xi + 547 + 11 plates. (London: John Murray, 1923.) 24s. net.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1923-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the discovery of a new element with atomic number 72, for which the name hafnium was proposed, has been investigated, and it is shown that this element is a homologue of zirconium in accordance with theoretical expectations.
Abstract: IN a former letter to NATURE (January 20, p. 79) we announced the discovery of a new element with atomic number 72, for which the name hafnium was proposed. Evidence was given that this element is a homologue of zirconium in accordance with theoretical expectations (Bohr, “Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution,” p. 114, Camb. Univ. Press, 1922). Continued experiments enable us to complete the statements in the former letter. By the addition of a known quantity of tantalum (73) to our samples, and by a comparison of the intensity of the Ta-lines with the Hf-lines, a closer estimate of the amount of hafnium present has been obtained. We have investigated a great number of zirconium minerals from different parts of the world. They all contained between 5–10 per cent. of hafnium. In samples of commercial zirconium oxide investigated, we have found the new element, amounting in one case to as much as 5 per cent. Starting from the latter substance, by means of a chemical method which is also adapted to separate zirconium from the other tetravalent elements, we have been able to obtain several grams of a preparation in which the presence of about 50 per cent. of hafnium could be established. Conversely, we have succeeded in preparing zirconium in which no hafnium lines could be observed. Further particulars about the method of preparation and provisional determination of the atomic weight will be published shortly in the communications of the Copenhagen Academy.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The work of Lindemann and Dobson on the theory of meteors, with the remarkable conclusion that the temperature of the atmosphere at heights such as 80 kilometres is about the same as that near the earth's surface, will be far-reaching in its influence as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: THE work of Lindemann and Dobson on the theory of meteors,1 with the remarkable conclusion that the temperature of the atmosphere at heights such as 80 kilometres is about the same as that near the earth's surface, will be far-reaching in its influence. May I be allowed to point out that one of the phenomena for which an explanation will probably be provided is the occurrence of zones of audibility and zones of silence, surrounding the scenes of great explosions.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1923-Nature
TL;DR: An object-lesson in the way in which a single problem, at the outset not apparently more important than a thousand others, may, if pursued to its limit, be made to yield results of the deepest importance and the widest application.
Abstract: PROF. GOLDSCHMIDT gives us an object-lesson in the way in which a single problem, at the outset not apparently more important than a thousand others, may, if pursued to its limit, be made to yield results of the deepest importance and the widest application. The Mechanism and Physiology of Sex Determination. By Richard Goldschmidt. Translated by Prof. William J. Dakin. Pp. ix + 259. (London: Methuen and Co., Ltd., 1923.) 21s. net.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1923-Nature
TL;DR: It was found that in the young cockles, i.e. up to about 16 mms.
Abstract: IN NATURE of February 3, p. 146, I referred to experiments on determining the rate of growth of a fixed population of marked cockles (Cardium edule). In this experiment the box which was fixed in the bed of the River Yealm and contained the cockles was visited monthly, and sometimes at intervals of only a fortnight, for the purpose of measuring the increment in growth since the previous visit. This method of work resulted in an interesting observation on the formation of rings on the shells of the growing cockles. It was found that in the young cockles, i.e. up to about 16 mms. in length, dark rings were formed monthly or fortnightly in a majority of cases, on the shells at the size they were when last measured, but that no similar formation of rings could be detected in the larger and generally older shells. On the other hand, both small and large cockles showed distinct rings after the winter period.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1923-Nature
TL;DR: Friese as discussed by the authors gave a general account of the life and habits of European bees within a compass of about 450 pages, of which 112 pp. are comprised in this first instalment.
Abstract: THE name of Dr. H. Friese is well known to students of the Hymenoptera, and his published writings on bees render him competent for a work of this description. His aim is to givea general account of the life and habits of European bees within a compass of about 450 pages, of which 112 pp. are comprised in this first instalment. In some ways the work is scarcely abreast of the times, and it is a matter of surprise to find in the introduction the old Linnean classification of insects still adhered to, with the dragonflies included among the Orthoptera. Bees are regarded as constituting a single family, and the other major groups of Hymenoptera are relegated to a similar status. Furthermore, no outline of the classification of the Apidse is presented to the reader, which is a distinct drawback. The section devoted to the general characters of bees might well have been longer-it is too brief and elementary to be of much value to the serious student. We note only the barest reference to the salivary glands, respiration system and other organs, although several pages are devoted to an account of the body-hairs, nearly fifty different kinds being illustrated. The author's main aim, however, is bionomics, and it is evident that the remainder of the book, when completed, will provide a trustworthy, well-illustrated dissertation on the habits and life-economy of the insects with which it deals. The seven coloured plates which accompany the present part are composed of original figures. Those which portray the various types of nest structure are among the most attractive illustrations of their kind which we have seen. Die europaischen Bienen (Apid). Das Leben und Wirken unserer Blumenwespen. Bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. H. Friese. 1 Lieferung. Pp. 112 + 7 Tafeln. (Berlin und Leipzig: W. de Gruyter und Co., 1922.) 10s.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The inheritance of certain breeding- and colour-adaptations with amphibia and reptiles is examined under the spell of Weismannism and Mendelism, which both agree that somatic characters are not inherited.
Abstract: ALMOST a quarter of a century has passed since I commenced to examine the inheritance of certain breeding- and colour-adaptations which I had obtained with amphibia and reptiles. I did. not expect, in relatively so short a time, to obtain positive results, and, moreover, I was then well under the spell of Weismannism and Mendelism, which both agree that somatic characters are not inherited.