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Showing papers in "Nature in 1982"


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jun 1982-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported that, in addition to a spatial discrimination impairment, total hippocampal lesions also cause a profound and lasting placenavigational impairment that can be dissociated from correlated motor, motivational and reinforcement aspects of the procedure.
Abstract: Electrophysiological studies have shown that single cells in the hippocampus respond during spatial learning and exploration1–4, some firing only when animals enter specific and restricted areas of a familiar environment. Deficits in spatial learning and memory are found after lesions of the hippocampus and its extrinsic fibre connections5,6 following damage to the medial septal nucleus which successfully disrupts the hippocampal theta rhythm7, and in senescent rats which also show a correlated reduction in synaptic enhancement on the perforant path input to the hippocampus8. We now report, using a novel behavioural procedure requiring search for a hidden goal, that, in addition to a spatial discrimination impairment, total hippocampal lesions also cause a profound and lasting placenavigational impairment that can be dissociated from correlated motor, motivational and reinforcement aspects of the procedure.

6,143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jun 1982-Nature
TL;DR: The early Proterozoic Huronian Supergroup of the north shore of Lake Huron (Fig. 1) is a thick succession of sedimentary and volcanic rocks deposited between about 2,500 and 2,100 Myr ago as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The early Proterozoic Huronian Supergroup of the north shore of Lake Huron (Fig. 1) is a thick (up to 12,000 m) succession of sedimentary and volcanic rocks deposited between about 2,500 and 2,100 Myr ago1. Here we present a palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Huronian based on approximately 200 major elements analyses of lutites. Most of these are new analyses from the Gowganda and Serpent Formations (Fig. 2). The remainder are from published sources cited in Fig. 4. The composition of lutites from the Huronian Supergroup records an early period of intense, probably tropical, weathering followed by climatic deterioration that culminated in widespread deposition of glaciogenic sediments of the Gowganda Formation. Climatic amelioration followed during deposition of the succeeding Huronian formations. The Huronian succession can be interpreted using a uniformitarian approach in that present day seafloor spreading rates and latitude-related climatic variations are compatible with available geochronological and palaeomagnetic data.

4,822 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Oct 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the linearity of quantum mechanics has been shown to prevent the replication of a photon of definite polarization in the presence of an excited atom, and the authors show that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.
Abstract: If a photon of definite polarization encounters an excited atom, there is typically some nonvanishing probability that the atom will emit a second photon by stimulated emission. Such a photon is guaranteed to have the same polarization as the original photon. But is it possible by this or any other process to amplify a quantum state, that is, to produce several copies of a quantum system (the polarized photon in the present case) each having the same state as the original? If it were, the amplifying process could be used to ascertain the exact state of a quantum system: in the case of a photon, one could determine its polarization by first producing a beam of identically polarized copies and then measuring the Stokes parameters1. We show here that the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids such replication and that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.

4,544 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 1982-Nature
TL;DR: It is found that the peptide isolated from brain extracts of a peptide amide that was thought to be PYY is a previously uncharacterized peptide, which is designated neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is structurally and biologically similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) while PYY shows similarities to pancreatic polypeptides (PP).
Abstract: The C-terminal α-amide structure is a characteristic feature of many biologically active peptides1,2 Using a novel chemical method for the detection of peptide amides3, we have isolated two naturally occurring peptides, peptide HI (PHI) and peptide YY (PYY), from extracts of porcine intestine and have shown that these peptide amides represent previously unknown biologically active peptides4 PHI is structurally and biologically similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)5 while PYY shows similarities to pancreatic polypeptide (PP)6 Preliminary studies indicated that PHI and PYY may both be present in brain as well as in intestine4 We report here the isolation from brain extracts of a peptide amide that was thought to be PYY However, we found that the peptide, while having distinct structural and biological similarities to both PYY and PP, is a previously uncharacterized peptide, which we designate neuropeptide Y (NPY)

2,264 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jul 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, an analysis of 2,700 soil profiles, organized on a climate basis using the Holdridge life-zone classification system, indicates relationships between soil carbon density and climate, a major soil forming factor.
Abstract: Soil organic carbon in active exchange with the atmosphere constitutes approximately two-thirds of the carbon in terrestrial ecosystems1,2. The relatively large size and long residence time of this pool (of the order of 1,200 yr) make it a potentially important sink for carbon released to the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion; however, in many cases, human disturbance has caused a decrease in soil carbon storage3,4. Various recent estimates place the global total of soil carbon between 700 (ref. 2) and 2,946 × 1015 g (ref. 5) with several intermediate estimates: 1,080 (ref. 1), 1,392 (ref. 6), 1,456 (ref. 3), and 2,070 × 1015g (ref. 7). Schlesinger's3 estimate seems to be based on the most extensive data base (∼200 observations, some of which are mean values derived from large studies in particular areas) and is widely cited in carbon cycle studies. In addition to estimating the world soil carbon pool, it is important to establish the relationships between the geographical distribution of soil carbon and climate, vegetation, human development and other factors as a basis for assessing the influence of changes in any of these factors on the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of 2,700 soil profiles, organized on a climate basis using the Holdridge life-zone classification system8, indicates relationships between soil carbon density and climate, a major soil forming factor. Soil carbon density generally increases with increasing precipitation, and there is an increase in soil carbon with decreasing temperature for any particular level of precipitation. When the potential evapotranspiration equals annual precipitation, soil carbon density9 is ∼10 kg m−2, exceptions to this being warm temperate and subtropical soils. Based on recent estimates of the areal extent of major ecosystem complexes9,10 which correspond well with climatic life zones, the global soil organic carbon pool is estimated to be ∼1,395 × 1015g.

2,122 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Jul 1982-Nature
TL;DR: A model in which developmental regulation of RNA processing is used to increase the diversity of neuroendocrine gene expression is proposed.
Abstract: Alternative processing of RNA transcripts from the calcitonin gene results in the production of distinct mRNAs encoding the hormone calcitonin or a predicted product referred to as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The calcitonin mRNA predominates in the thyroid while the CGRP-specific mRNA appears to predominate in the hypothalamus. These observations lead us to propose a model in which developmental regulation of RNA processing is used to increase the diversity of neuroendocrine gene expression.

2,030 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Sep 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative survey of aerobic and anaerobic mineralization in the sea bed based on direct rate measurements of the two processes is presented, and the results demonstrate a surprisingly high contribution from the sulphate-reducers.
Abstract: The bacterial reduction of sulphate to sulphide at the sea bed is a key process in the oceanic sulphur cycle, and is responsible for the oxidation of organic matter which becomes buried below the oxic and sub-oxic zones of the sea bed. The oxic surface layer of the sea bed varies in thickness from a few millimetres in sheltered coastal areas to ⩾1 m in pelagic sediments1,2. Below this layer, organic matter is mineralized mainly by fermenting, denitrifying, sulphate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Sulphate reduction is the predominant terminal step in the mineralization processes of sulphate-rich shelf sediments where the sulphate reducers inhibit the methanogens by competing with them for common substrates3–5. Sulphate reduction may therefore have a quantitatively important role in the overall oxidation of organic matter in the sea bed. Recently, concurrent measurements of oxygen uptake and sulphate reduction in a coastal sediment6 have demonstrated the importance of the sulphate-reducing bacteria in the mineralization of organic carbon. I present here the first comparative survey of aerobic and anaerobic mineralization in the sea bed based on direct rate measurements of the two processes. The results demonstrate a surprisingly high contribution from the sulphate-reducers. In coastal sediments, this specialized group of bacteria oxidized as much organic matter to CO2 as did all the aerobic organisms. Their relative contribution decreased three fold over the continental shelf from the shore to a depth of 200 m.

1,649 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
09 Sep 1982-Nature
TL;DR: There are circumstances in which the unusual concerted pattern of fixation permits the establishment of biological novelty and species discontinuities in a manner not predicted by the classical genetics of natural selection and genetic drift.
Abstract: It is generally accepted that mutations may become fixed in a population by natural selection and genetic drift. In the case of many families of genes and noncoding sequences, however, fixation of mutations within a population may proceed as a consequence of molecular mechanisms of turnover within the genome. These mechanisms can be both random and directional in activity. There are circumstances in which the unusual concerted pattern of fixation permits the establishment of biological novelty and species discontinuities in a manner not predicted by the classical genetics of natural selection and genetic drift.

1,503 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Dec 1982-Nature
TL;DR: Positive hybridization is found when the 22q−(the Philadelphia chromosome), and not the 9q+ derivative of the translocation, is present in the cell hybrids, and this finding is a direct demonstration of a reciprocal exchange between the two chromosomes and suggests a role for the c-abl gene in the generation of CML.
Abstract: The transforming genes of oncogenic retroviruses are homologous to a group of evolutionary conserved cellular onc genes. The human cellular homologue (c-abl) of the transforming sequence of Abelson murine leukaemia virus (A-MuL V) was recently shown to be located on chromosome 9. The long arm of this chromosome is involved in a specific translocation with chromosome 22, the Philadelphia translocation (Ph1), t(9; 22) (q34, q11), which occurs in patients with chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML)3-5. Here we investigate whether the c-abl gene is included in this translocation. Using c-abl and v-abl hybridization probes on blots of somatic cell hybrids, positive hybridization is found when the 22q- (the Philadelphia chromosome), and not the 9q+ derivative of the translocation, is present in the cell hybrids. From this we conclude that in CML, c-abl sequences are translocated from chromosome 9 to chromosome 22q-. This finding is a direct demonstration of a reciprocal exchange between the two chromosomes and suggests a role for the c-abl gene in the generation of CML.

1,329 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Sep 1982-Nature
TL;DR: An electronic nose constructed using semiconductor transducers and incorporating design features suggested by the proposal can reproducibly discriminate between a wide variety of odours, and its properties show that discrimination in an olfactory system could be achieved without the use of highly specific receptors.
Abstract: Olfaction exhibits both high sensitivity for odours and high discrimination between them. We suggest that to make fine discriminations between complex odorant mixtures containing varying ratios of odorants without the necessity for highly specialized peripheral receptors, the olfactory systems makes use of feature detection using broadly tuned receptor cells organized in a convergent neurone pathway. As a test of this hypothesis we have constructed an electronic nose using semiconductor transducers and incorporating design features suggested by our proposal. We report here that this device can reproducibly discriminate between a wide variety of odours, and its properties show that discrimination in an olfactory system could be achieved without the use of highly specific receptors.

1,309 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Dec 1982-Nature
TL;DR: A DNA fragment containing the promoter of the mouse metallothionein-I gene fused to the structural gene of rat growth hormone was microinjected into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse eggs, and seven mice developed that carried the fusion gene and six of these grew significantly larger than their littermates.
Abstract: A DNA fragment containing the promoter of the mouse metallothionein-I gene fused to the structural gene of rat growth hormone was microinjected into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse eggs. Of 21 mice that developed from these eggs, seven carried the fusion gene and six of these grew significantly larger than their littermates. Several of these transgenic mice had extraordinarily high levels of the fusion mRNA in their liver and growth hormone in their serum. This approach has implications for studying the biological effects of growth hormone, as a way to accelerate animal growth, as a model for gigantism, as a means of correcting genetic disease, and as a method of farming valuable gene products.

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Nov 1982-Nature
TL;DR: Experiments are presented that localize the genetic lesion that led to activation of the oncogene that affects the structure of theOncogene-encoded protein.
Abstract: The oncogene of the human EJ bladder carcinoma cell lines arose via alteration of a cellular proto-oncogene. Experiments are presented that localize the genetic lesion that led to activation of the oncogene. The lesion has no affect on levels of expression of the oncogene. Instead, it affects the structure of the oncogene-encoded protein.

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Nov 1982-Nature
TL;DR: A single amino acid substitution appears to be sufficient to confer transforming properties on the gene product of the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene.
Abstract: The genetic change that leads to the activation of the oncogene in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells is shown to be a single point mutation of guanosine into thymidine. This substitution results in the incorporation of valine instead of glycine as the twelfth amino acid residue of the T24 oncogene-encoded p21 protein. Thus, a single amino acid substitution appears to be sufficient to confer transforming properties on the gene product of the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the depth distributions of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb in the oceanic water column are used to evaluate the marine geochemical cycle of the rare earth elements and their application as water-mass tracers.
Abstract: The depth distributions of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb in the oceanic water column are used to evaluate the marine geochemical cycle of the rare earth elements and their application as water-mass tracers.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Dec 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a new class of radio pulsars with short periods, long apparent ages, and pulsed optical, X-ray, and gamma ray fluxes significantly below those expected for canonical pulsars had been reported.
Abstract: A new class of spun-up radio pulsars with short periods, long apparent ages, and pulsed optical, X-ray, and gamma ray fluxes significantly below those expected for canonical pulsars with similar periods is reported. Scenarios for the formation of such a pulsar, in which a neutron star accretes from a Keplerian accretion disk initially fed by a companion, are discussed. Because of their long spin-down lifetimes, such pulsars would probably be observable if their birth rate exceeded even 10 to the -4th that of the canonical ones. It is proposed that the recently discovered millisecond pulsar 4C21.53 belongs to this class, together with the binaries PSRs 1913+16, 0820+02, and 0655+64, as well as possibly several isolated pulsars such as PSRs 1952+29 and 1804-08.

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 1982-Nature
TL;DR: A synthetic replicate of this peptide, termed human pancreatic tumour GRF [hpGRF(1–40)]-OH, co-elutes on HPLC with the native peptide and is highly potent in stimulating GH secretion in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract: The neuroregulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion is mediated in part by a stimulatory, GH-releasing factor (GRF) and an inhibitory peptide, somatostatin1, both of which reach the adenohypophysis by the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system2. Somatostatin has been shown to be a tetradecapeptide3,4, a large form of which was later also sequenced5. The existence of a GRF is supported by physiological evidence6–9 and by reports of GH-releasing activity in hypothalamic extracts10–17. Although several agents with GH-releasing activity have been identified14–16, none is of high potency and fulfils the criteria expected of a physiological GRF18,19. GH-releasing activity observed in extracts of carcinoid and pancreatic islet tumours removed from patients with GH hypersecretion, acromegaly and pituitary adenoma or hyperplasia has been partially characterized20–23. We report here the sequence of a 40 residue GH-releasing peptide purified from a pancreatic islet tumour described earlier by Thorner et al.23. A synthetic replicate of this peptide, termed human pancreatic tumour GRF [hpGRF(1–40)]-OH, co-elutes on HPLC with the native peptide and is highly potent in stimulating GH secretion in vitro and in vivo. A close structural homology with the peptides of the glucagon–secretin family, and more particularly with PHI24, is recognized. Structure–activity studies show that hpGRF(1–29)-NH2 has full intrinsic activity and potency in vitro.

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Dec 1982-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported here that coherence depends on the relative contrasts, spatial frequencies and directions of motion of the gratings, and these effects may reveal the previously unstudied properties of a higher order stage of motion analysis.
Abstract: When a moving grating is viewed through an aperture, only motion orthogonal to its bars is visible, as motion parallel to the bars causes no change in the stimulus. Because there is a family of physical motions of various directions and speeds that appear identical, the motion of the grating is ambiguous. In contrast, when two crossed moving gratings are superimposed, the resulting plaid pattern usually moves unambiguously and predictably. In certain cases, however, two gratings do not combine into a single coherent percept, but appear to slide across one another. We have studied the conditions under which coherence does and does not occur, and we report here that it depends on the relative contrasts, spatial frequencies and directions of motion of the gratings. These effects may reveal the previously unstudied properties of a higher order stage of motion analysis.

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 1982-Nature
TL;DR: There is an integrated network of regulatory pathways, mediated by phosphorylation–dephosphorylation, that allows diverse cellular events to be coordinated by neural and hormonal stimuli, and the evidence that supports this concept is reviewed.
Abstract: Protein phosphorylation is now recognized to be the major general mechanism by which intracellular events in mammalian tissues are controlled by external physiological stimuli However, only recently has the idea that different cellular functions are controlled by common protein kinases and protein phosphatases started to gain widespread acceptance Thus there is an integrated network of regulatory pathways, mediated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, that allows diverse cellular events to be coordinated by neural and hormonal stimuli The evidence that supports this concept is reviewed, with emphasis on the role of protein phosphorylation in enzyme regulation

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Nov 1982-Nature
TL;DR: From measurements of the total force as a function of distance between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed in aqueous electrolyte solutions, it is found that the hydphobic interaction has the same range as, but is about an order of magnitude stronger than, the van der Waals-dispersion force.
Abstract: The attractive interaction between organic nonpolar molecules, such as hydrocarbons, in water is unusually strong. This ‘hydrophobic interaction’1 is responsible for the very low solubility of hydrophobic molecules in water, and has a central role in micelle formation, biological membrane structure, and in determining the conformations of proteins2,3. It was once believed that because the interaction is so strong there is a ‘hydrophobic bond’ associated with it2,4; but it is now recognized that the interaction involves the configurational rearrangement of water molecules as two hydrophobic species come together5–9 and is therefore of longer range than a typical covalent bond. However, there has been no experimental information available concerning the distance dependence and effective range of this interaction. From measurements of the total force as a function of distance between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed in aqueous electrolyte solutions we have determined accurately the attractive component due to the hydrophobic interaction and found that the hydrophobic interaction has the same range as, but is about an order of magnitude stronger than, the van der Waals-dispersion force; and that in the range 0–10 nm it decays exponentially with distance with a decay length of ∼1 nm. The results can be roughly extrapolated to molecular interactions and show that the interaction free energy of two hydrophobic solute molecules of radius R (nm) in water at 21 °C is approximately given by ΔGH = −40R kJ mol−1, which is in agreement with previous estimates. However, the hydrophobic interaction is not due to a ‘hydrophobic bond’, and its long-range nature has obvious implications for the mechanism and rates of folding as well as the equilibrium conformations of proteins and other macromolecules.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Sep 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the authors defined the mean helical hydrophobic moment, which is defined as the sum of the hydrophobicity of the side chains of a helix of N residues, and reported that trans-membrane helices, which seek surfaces between aqueous and non-polar phases, cluster in different regions of such a plot.
Abstract: The spatial distribution of the hydrophobic side chains in globular proteins is of considerable interest. It was recognized previously1 that most of the α-helices of myoglobin and haemoglobin are amphiphilic; that is, one surface of each helix projects mainly hydrophilic side chains, while the opposite surface projects mainly hydrophobic side chains. To quantify the amphiphilicity of a helix, here we define the mean helical hydrophobic moment, 〈μH〉 = |ΣNi=1 H⇀i/N, to be the mean vector sum of the hydrophobicities H⇀i of the side chains of a helix of N residues. The length of a vector H⇀i is the signed numerical hydrophobicity associated with the type of side chain, and its direction is determined by the orientation of the side chain about the helix axis. A large value of 〈μH〉 means that the helix is amphiphilic perpendicular to its axis. We have classified α-helices by plotting their mean helical moment versus the mean hydrophobicity of their residues, and report that trans-membrane helices, helices from globular proteins and helices which are believed to seek surfaces between aqueous and non-polar phases, cluster in different regions of such a plot. We suggest that this classification may be useful in identifying helical regions of proteins which bind to the surface of biological membranes. The concept of the hydrophobia moment can be generalized also to non-helical protein structures.

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jan 1982-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown here that lectins known to stimulate T cells raise average [Ca2+]1 approximately twofold within a few minutes, and the co-carcinogen 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) seems to stimulate cell functions normally activated by Ca2+.
Abstract: One of the best models for studying the control of mammalian cell growth and proliferation is the response of lymphocytes to mitogenic agents1–4, which stimulate growth, DNA synthesis and division. How mitogens work remains obscure, although it has been hypothesized that they increase cytoplasmic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, as a trigger for the cascade of intracellular processes necessary for proliferation3–6. However, lymphocyte [Ca2+]i has not previously been measurable. A new technique7 for loading a novel Ca2+-specific indicator8 into the cytoplasm of intact small cells has now made possible the first direct measurements of [Ca2+]i in mouse thymocytes and pig node lymphocytes. We show here that lectins known to stimulate T cells raise average [Ca2+]1 approximately twofold within a few minutes. Deprivation of external Ca2+or elevation of cyclic AMP, conditions known to inhibit mitogenesis, prevented the [Ca2+]i response. Rises in [Ca2+]i were accompanied by hyper-polarization of the membrane potential, apparently due to a Ca2+-activated K+conductance. The co-carcinogen 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) seems to stimulate cell functions normally activated by Ca2+.

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Sep 1982-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported here that the new CRF is more potent than vasopressin in releasing ACTH and potentiation of CRF activity with steep dose–response characteristics was observed, suggesting that thenew CRF does not account for all the non-vasopressIn portion of the CRF complex.
Abstract: Initially the hypothalamic factor responsible for the release of corticotropin (CRF), was thought to be a simple peptide. More recent work has led to the conclusion that CRF is a multifactorial complex. In 1979 we proposed that vasopressin, much disputed as a CRF candidate, was a major constituent of the complex, interacting with a potentiating the CRF activity of the other component(s). The recent characterization of a 41 residue ovine hypothalamic peptide capable of releasing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in a dose-related manner has allowed us to compare its CRF bioactivity with that of vasopressin and simple extracts of the hypothalamus, and to investigate any interaction it may have with vasopressin and other hypothalamic factors in the release of ACTH. We report here that the new CRF is more potent than vasopressin in releasing ACTH. When given simultaneously with vasopressin a fourfold potentiation of CRF activity with steep dose-response characteristics were observed. It also potentiated vasopressin-free hypothalamic extracts, suggesting that a new CRF does not account for all the nonvasopressin portion of the CRF complex.

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jan 1982-Nature
TL;DR: The nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for preproenkephalin from bovine adrenal medulla indicates that the precursor protein contains four copies of Met-enke PHalin, a previously undetected opioid peptide.
Abstract: The nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for preproenkephalin from bovine adrenal medulla indicates that the precursor protein contains four copies of Met-enkephalin and one copy each of Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg6 -Phe7 and Met-enkephalin-Arg6 -Gly7 -Leu8, a previously undetected opioid peptide. The enkephalin and extended enkephalin sequences are each bounded by paired basic amino acid residues. Preproenkephalin may represent a multi-hormone precursor, like the corticotropin-β-lipotropin precursor.

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jun 1982-Nature
TL;DR: Examination of homologies between retroviral oncogenes and transforming sequences defined by transfection reveals that the human bladder carcinoma (EJ) oncogene is homologous to the Harvey sarcoma virus onCogene (ras).
Abstract: Examination of homologies between retroviral oncogenes and transforming sequences defined by transfection reveals that the human bladder carcinoma (EJ) oncogene is homologous to the Harvey sarcoma virus oncogene (ras). Structural analysis limits the region of homology to a 3.0-kilobase SacI fragment of the EJ oncogene. Both EJ and ras DNA probes detect similar transcripts in transfectants derived from bladder carcinoma cell lines.

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Oct 1982-Nature
TL;DR: The following is the lecture delivered by the author in Stockholm on 8 December 1981 when he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, which he shared with Roger Sperry and David H. Hubel.
Abstract: The following is the lecture delivered by the author in Stockholm on 8 December 1981 when he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, which he shared with Roger Sperry and David H. Hubel The article is published here with permission from the Nobel Foundation and will also be included in the complete volume of Les Prix Nobel en 1981 as well as in the series Nobel Lectures (in English) lished by Elsevier.

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jul 1982-Nature
TL;DR: The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus has been synthesized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using an expression vector that employs the 5′-flanking region of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I as a promoter to transcribe surface antigen coding sequences.
Abstract: The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) has been synthesized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using an expression vector that employs the 5′-flanking region of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I as a promoter to transcribe surface antigen coding sequences. The protein synthesized in yeast is assembled into particles having properties similar to the 22-nm particles secreted by human cells.

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Sep 1982-Nature
TL;DR: Production of mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Hodgkin cell line L428 was described and one hybridoma antibody was found to be specific for H and SR cells of all Hodgkin's lymphomas tested and a minute, but distinct new cell population in normal tonsils and lymph nodes.
Abstract: The origins of the neoplastic cells in Hodgkin's lymphoma1, the Hodgkin (H) and Sternberg–Reed(SR) cells, are still obscure, and these cells appear to carry no markers found on any population of normal cells2,3. However the recent establishment of permanent Hodgkin cell lines3,4 has led to the search for tumour-specific antigens and/or for membrane markers on H and SR cells which may indicate the normal equivalent cells. Here, we describe the production of mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Hodgkin cell line L428. One hybridoma antibody, Ki-1, was found to be specific for H and SR cells of all Hodgkin's lymphomas tested and a minute, but distinct new cell population in normal tonsils and lymph nodes.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, it is proposed that at the centre of each radio galaxy is a spinning black hole surrounded by a torus of gas too hot and tenuous to radiate efficiently.
Abstract: While apparently supplying tremendous power to their extended radio-emitting regions, the nuclei of most radio galaxies emit little detectable radiation. It is proposed that at the centre of each is a spinning black hole surrounded by a torus of gas too hot and tenuous to radiate efficiently. The torus anchors magnetic fields which extract rotational energy from the hole in the form of two collimated beams of relativistic particles and fields. These in turn drive the observed radio jets and hot spots. A large supply of accreting gas is thus unnecessary and radio galaxies may be interpreted as starved quasars.

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Oct 1982-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported here that males in which the tail was experimentally elongated showed higher mating success than males having normal or reduced tails: males with shortened tails held their territories as long as did other males.
Abstract: Darwin's1 hypothesis that male secondary sexual ornaments evolve through female preferences is theoretically plausible2–7, but there is little experimental field evidence that such preferences exist8–10. I have studied female choice in relation to male tail length in the long-tailed widowbird, Euplectes progne, and report here that males in which the tail was experimentally elongated showed higher mating success than males having normal or reduced tails. The possibility that intrasexual competition among males maintains the long tail was not supported: males with shortened tails held their territories as long as did other males. These results suggest that the extreme tail length in male long-tailed widowbirds is maintained by female mating preferences.

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 1982-Nature
TL;DR: Together analysis of DNA polymorphisms in the human β-globin gene cluster and in cloned β-genes has revealed the association of specific β-thalassaemia mutations and β-gene polymorphisms with particular flanking polymorphisms.
Abstract: Combined analysis of DNA polymorphisms in the human β-globin gene cluster and in cloned β-genes has revealed the association of specific β-thalassaemia mutations and β-gene polymorphisms with particular flanking polymorphisms. A systematic study of cloned genes identified several new mutations, one of which possibly affects transcription. The strategy used may be applicable to other diseases of single-copy genes.