Showing papers in "Nature in 2000"
TL;DR: A ‘silver bullet’ strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on ‘biodiversity hotspots’ where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat, is proposed.
Abstract: Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
TL;DR: Variation in gene expression patterns in a set of 65 surgical specimens of human breast tumours from 42 different individuals were characterized using complementary DNA microarrays representing 8,102 human genes, providing a distinctive molecular portrait of each tumour.
Abstract: Human breast tumours are diverse in their natural history and in their responsiveness to treatments. Variation in transcriptional programs accounts for much of the biological diversity of human cells and tumours. In each cell, signal transduction and regulatory systems transduce information from the cell's identity to its environmental status, thereby controlling the level of expression of every gene in the genome. Here we have characterized variation in gene expression patterns in a set of 65 surgical specimens of human breast tumours from 42 different individuals, using complementary DNA microarrays representing 8,102 human genes. These patterns provided a distinctive molecular portrait of each tumour. Twenty of the tumours were sampled twice, before and after a 16-week course of doxorubicin chemotherapy, and two tumours were paired with a lymph node metastasis from the same patient. Gene expression patterns in two tumour samples from the same individual were almost always more similar to each other than either was to any other sample. Sets of co-expressed genes were identified for which variation in messenger RNA levels could be related to specific features of physiological variation. The tumours could be classified into subtypes distinguished by pervasive differences in their gene expression patterns.
TL;DR: It is shown that there is diversity in gene expression among the tumours of DLBCL patients, apparently reflecting the variation in tumour proliferation rate, host response and differentiation state of the tumour.
Abstract: 12 Pathology and Microbiology, and 13 Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is clinically heterogeneous: 40% of patients respond well to current therapy and have prolonged survival, whereas the remainder succumb to the disease. We proposed that this variability in natural history reflects unrecognized molecular heterogeneity in the tumours. Using DNA microarrays, we have conducted a systematic characterization of gene expression in B-cell malignancies. Here we show that there is diversity in gene expression among the tumours of DLBCL patients, apparently reflecting the variation in tumour proliferation rate, host response and differentiation state of the tumour. We identified two molecularly distinct forms of DLBCL which had gene expression patterns indicative of different stages of B-cell differentiation. One type expressed genes characteristic of germinal centre B cells ('germinal centre B-like DLBCL'); the second type expressed genes normally induced during in vitro activation of peripheral blood B cells ('activated B-like DLBCL'). Patients with germinal centre B-like DLBCL had a significantly better overall survival than those with activated B-like DLBCL. The molecular classification of tumours on the basis of gene expression can thus identify previously undetected and clinically significant subtypes of cancer.
TL;DR: This is the first complete genome sequence of a plant and provides the foundations for more comprehensive comparison of conserved processes in all eukaryotes, identifying a wide range of plant-specific gene functions and establishing rapid systematic ways to identify genes for crop improvement.
Abstract: The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. Here we report the analysis of the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis. The sequenced regions cover 115.4 megabases of the 125-megabase genome and extend into centromeric regions. The evolution of Arabidopsis involved a whole-genome duplication, followed by subsequent gene loss and extensive local gene duplications, giving rise to a dynamic genome enriched by lateral gene transfer from a cyanobacterial-like ancestor of the plastid. The genome contains 25,498 genes encoding proteins from 11,000 families, similar to the functional diversity of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans--the other sequenced multicellular eukaryotes. Arabidopsis has many families of new proteins but also lacks several common protein families, indicating that the sets of common proteins have undergone differential expansion and contraction in the three multicellular eukaryotes. This is the first complete genome sequence of a plant and provides the foundations for more comprehensive comparison of conserved processes in all eukaryotes, identifying a wide range of plant-specific gene functions and establishing rapid systematic ways to identify genes for crop improvement.
TL;DR: Evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production of oxidants, together with the ability of organisms to respond to oxidative stress, is intricately connected to ageing and life span is reviewed.
Abstract: Living in an oxygenated environment has required the evolution of effective cellular strategies to detect and detoxify metabolites of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species. Here we review evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production of oxidants, together with the ability of organisms to respond to oxidative stress, is intricately connected to ageing and life span.
TL;DR: Pathological angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and various ischaemic and inflammatory diseases and integrated understanding is leading to the development of a number of exciting and bold approaches to treat cancer and other diseases, but owing to several unanswered questions, caution is needed.
Abstract: Pathological angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and various ischaemic and inflammatory diseases Concentrated efforts in this area of research are leading to the discovery of a growing number of pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules, some of which are already in clinical trials The complex interactions among these molecules and how they affect vascular structure and function in different environments are now beginning to be elucidated This integrated understanding is leading to the development of a number of exciting and bold approaches to treat cancer and other diseases But owing to several unanswered questions, caution is needed
TL;DR: It is proposed that distinct histone modifications, on one or more tails, act sequentially or in combination to form a ‘histone code’ that is, read by other proteins to bring about distinct downstream events.
Abstract: Histone proteins and the nucleosomes they form with DNA are the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin. A diverse array of post-translational modifications that often occur on tail domains of these proteins has been well documented. Although the function of these highly conserved modifications has remained elusive, converging biochemical and genetic evidence suggests functions in several chromatin-based processes. We propose that distinct histone modifications, on one or more tails, act sequentially or in combination to form a 'histone code' that is, read by other proteins to bring about distinct downstream events.
TL;DR: It is found that scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web, the Internet, social networks and cells, display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected even by unrealistically high failure rates.
Abstract: Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network1. Complex communication networks2 display a surprising degree of robustness: although key components regularly malfunction, local failures rarely lead to the loss of the global information-carrying ability of the network. The stability of these and other complex systems is often attributed to the redundant wiring of the functional web defined by the systems' components. Here we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems: it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web3,4,5, the Internet6, social networks7 and cells8. We find that such networks display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected even by unrealistically high failure rates. However, error tolerance comes at a high price in that these networks are extremely vulnerable to attacks (that is, to the selection and removal of a few nodes that play a vital role in maintaining the network's connectivity). Such error tolerance and attack vulnerability are generic properties of communication networks.
TL;DR: It is reported that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO), where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe, demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g-1, with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates.
Abstract: Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Although promising electrode systems have recently been proposed, their lifespans are limited by Li-alloying agglomeration or the growth of passivation layers, which prevent the fully reversible insertion of Li ions into the negative electrodes. Here we report that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO, where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe) demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g(-1), with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates. The mechanism of Li reactivity differs from the classical Li insertion/deinsertion or Li-alloying processes, and involves the formation and decomposition of Li2O, accompanying the reduction and oxidation of metal nanoparticles (in the range 1-5 nanometres) respectively. We expect that the use of transition-metal nanoparticles to enhance surface electrochemical reactivity will lead to further improvements in the performance of lithium-ion batteries.
TL;DR: The basic components of the death machinery are reviewed, how they interact to regulate apoptosis in a coordinated manner is described, and the main pathways that are used to activate cell death are discussed.
Abstract: Apoptosis - the regulated destruction of a cell - is a complicated process. The decision to die cannot be taken lightly, and the activity of many genes influence a cell's likelihood of activating its self-destruction programme. Once the decision is taken, proper execution of the apoptotic programme requires the coordinated activation and execution of multiple subprogrammes. Here I review the basic components of the death machinery, describe how they interact to regulate apoptosis in a coordinated manner, and discuss the main pathways that are used to activate cell death.
TL;DR: The p53 tumour-suppressor gene integrates numerous signals that control cell life and death, and the disruption of p53 has severe consequences when a highly connected node in the Internet breaks down.
Abstract: The p53 tumour-suppressor gene integrates numerous signals that control cell life and death. As when a highly connected node in the Internet breaks down, the disruption of p53 has severe consequences.
TL;DR: The present genetic structure of populations, species and communities has been mainly formed by Quaternary ice ages, and genetic, fossil and physical data combined can greatly help understanding of how organisms were so affected.
Abstract: Global climate has fluctuated greatly during the past three million years, leading to the recent major ice ages. An inescapable consequence for most living organisms is great changes in their distribution, which are expressed differently in boreal, temperate and tropical zones. Such range changes can be expected to have genetic consequences, and the advent of DNA technology provides most suitable markers to examine these. Several good data sets are now available, which provide tests of expectations, insights into species colonization and unexpected genetic subdivision and mixture of species. The genetic structure of human populations may be viewed in the same context. The present genetic structure of populations, species and communities has been mainly formed by Quaternary ice ages, and genetic, fossil and physical data combined can greatly help our understanding of how organisms were so affected.
TL;DR: It is shown that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9, and vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll- like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA.
Abstract: DNA from bacteria has stimulatory effects on mammalian immune cells, which depend on the presence of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the bacterial DNA. In contrast, mammalian DNA has a low frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and these are mostly methylated; therefore, mammalian DNA does not have immuno-stimulatory activity. CpG DNA induces a strong T-helper-1-like inflammatory response. Accumulating evidence has revealed the therapeutic potential of CpG DNA as adjuvants for vaccination strategies for cancer, allergy and infectious diseases. Despite its promising clinical use, the molecular mechanism by which CpG DNA activates immune cells remains unclear. Here we show that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9. TLR9-deficient (TLR9-/-) mice did not show any response to CpG DNA, including proliferation of splenocytes, inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and maturation of dendritic cells. TLR9-/- mice showed resistance to the lethal effect of CpG DNA without any elevation of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. The in vivo CpG-DNA-mediated T-helper type-1 response was also abolished in TLR9-/- mice. Thus, vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll-like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA.
TL;DR: A model is described that delineates the roles of individual hormonal and neuropeptide signalling pathways in the control of food intake and the means by which obesity can arise from inherited or acquired defects in their function.
Abstract: New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its importance to human health. Although each new signalling pathway discovered in the hypothalamus is a potential target for drug development in the treatment of obesity, the growing number of such signalling molecules indicates that food intake is controlled by a highly complex process. To better understand how energy homeostasis can be achieved, we describe a model that delineates the roles of individual hormonal and neuropeptide signalling pathways in the control of food intake and the means by which obesity can arise from inherited or acquired defects in their function.
TL;DR: Examination of large-scale yeast two-hybrid screens reveals interactions that place functionally unclassified proteins in a biological context, interactions between proteins involved in the same biological function, and interactions that link biological functions together into larger cellular processes.
Abstract: Two large-scale yeast two-hybrid screens were undertaken to identify protein-protein interactions between full-length open reading frames predicted from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequence. In one approach, we constructed a protein array of about 6,000 yeast transformants, with each transformant expressing one of the open reading frames as a fusion to an activation domain. This array was screened by a simple and automated procedure for 192 yeast proteins, with positive responses identified by their positions in the array. In a second approach, we pooled cells expressing one of about 6,000 activation domain fusions to generate a library. We used a high-throughput screening procedure to screen nearly all of the 6,000 predicted yeast proteins, expressed as Gal4 DNA-binding domain fusion proteins, against the library, and characterized positives by sequence analysis. These approaches resulted in the detection of 957 putative interactions involving 1,004 S. cerevisiae proteins. These data reveal interactions that place functionally unclassified proteins in a biological context, interactions between proteins involved in the same biological function, and interactions that link biological functions together into larger cellular processes. The results of these screens are shown here.
TL;DR: It is shown that let-7 is a heterochronic switch gene that encodes a temporally regulated 21-nucleotide RNA that is complementary to elements in the 3′ untranslated regions of the heteroch chronic genes lin-14, lin-28, Lin-41, lin -42 and daf-12, indicating that expression of these genes may be directly controlled by let- 7.
Abstract: The C. elegans heterochronic gene pathway consists of a cascade of regulatory genes that are temporally controlled to specify the timing of developmental events1. Mutations in heterochronic genes cause temporal transformations in cell fates in which stage-specific events are omitted or reiterated2. Here we show that let-7 is a heterochronic switch gene. Loss of let-7 gene activity causes reiteration of larval cell fates during the adult stage, whereas increased let-7 gene dosage causes precocious expression of adult fates during larval stages. let-7 encodes a temporally regulated 21-nucleotide RNA that is complementary to elements in the 3′ untranslated regions of the heterochronic genes lin-14, lin-28, lin-41, lin-42 and daf-12, indicating that expression of these genes may be directly controlled by let-7. A reporter gene bearing the lin-41 3′ untranslated region is temporally regulated in a let-7-dependent manner. A second regulatory RNA, lin-4, negatively regulates lin-14 and lin-28 through RNA–RNA interactions with their 3′ untranslated regions3,4. We propose that the sequential stage-specific expression of the lin-4 and let-7 regulatory RNAs triggers transitions in the complement of heterochronic regulatory proteins to coordinate developmental timing.
TL;DR: The global epidemic of obesity results from a combination of genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high-energy foods and decreased requirement for physical activity in modern society, and should be regarded as an epidemic that threatens global well being.
Abstract: Obesity is now so common within the world's population that it is beginning to replace undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant contributor to ill health. In particular, obesity is associated with diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, certain forms of cancer, and sleep-breathing disorders. Obesity is defined by a body-mass index (weight divided by square of the height) of 30 kg m(-2) or greater, but this does not take into account the morbidity and mortality associated with more modest degrees of overweight, nor the detrimental effect of intra-abdominal fat. The global epidemic of obesity results from a combination of genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high-energy foods and decreased requirement for physical activity in modern society. Obesity should no longer be regarded simply as a cosmetic problem affecting certain individuals, but an epidemic that threatens global well being.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a systematic comparative mathematical analysis of the metabolic networks of 43 organisms representing all three domains of life, and show that despite significant variation in their individual constituents and pathways, these metabolic networks have the same topological scaling properties and show striking similarities to the inherent organization of complex non-biological systems.
Abstract: In a cell or microorganism, the processes that generate mass, energy, information transfer and cell-fate specification are seamlessly integrated through a complex network of cellular constituents and reactions. However, despite the key role of these networks in sustaining cellular functions, their large-scale structure is essentially unknown. Here we present a systematic comparative mathematical analysis of the metabolic networks of 43 organisms representing all three domains of life. We show that, despite significant variation in their individual constituents and pathways, these metabolic networks have the same topological scaling properties and show striking similarities to the inherent organization of complex non-biological systems. This may indicate that metabolic organization is not only identical for all living organisms, but also complies with the design principles of robust and error-tolerant scale-free networks, and may represent a common blueprint for the large-scale organization of interactions among all cellular constituents.
TL;DR: This work used three transcriptional repressor systems that are not part of any natural biological clock to build an oscillating network, termed the repressilator, in Escherichia coli, which periodically induces the synthesis of green fluorescent protein as a readout of its state in individual cells.
Abstract: Networks of interacting biomolecules carry out many essential functions in living cells, but the 'design principles' underlying the functioning of such intracellular networks remain poorly understood, despite intensive efforts including quantitative analysis of relatively simple systems Here we present a complementary approach to this problem: the design and construction of a synthetic network to implement a particular function We used three transcriptional repressor systems that are not part of any natural biological clock to build an oscillating network, termed the repressilator, in Escherichia coli The network periodically induces the synthesis of green fluorescent protein as a readout of its state in individual cells The resulting oscillations, with typical periods of hours, are slower than the cell-division cycle, so the state of the oscillator has to be transmitted from generation to generation This artificial clock displays noisy behaviour, possibly because of stochastic fluctuations of its components Such 'rational network design may lead both to the engineering of new cellular behaviours and to an improved understanding of naturally occurring networks
TL;DR: A model of pedestrian behaviour is used to investigate the mechanisms of panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds, and an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room is found, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective ‘herding’ instinct.
Abstract: One of the most disastrous forms of collective human behaviour is the kind of crowd stampede induced by panic, often leading to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Sometimes this behaviour is triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires in crowded buildings; at other times, stampedes can arise during the rush for seats or seemingly without cause. Although engineers are finding ways to alleviate the scale of such disasters, their frequency seems to be increasing with the number and size of mass events. But systematic studies of panic behaviour and quantitative theories capable of predicting such crowd dynamics are rare. Here we use a model of pedestrian behaviour to investigate the mechanisms of (and preconditions for) panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds. Our simulations suggest practical ways to prevent dangerous crowd pressures. Moreover, we find an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective 'herding' instinct.
TL;DR: Control of the growth kinetics of the II–VI semiconductor cadmium selenide can be used to vary the shapes of the resulting particles from a nearly spherical morphology to a rod-like one, with aspect ratios as large as ten to one.
Abstract: Nanometre-size inorganic dots, tubes and wires exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties1,2 that depend sensitively on both size and shape3,4, and are of both fundamental and technological interest In contrast to the syntheses of zero-dimensional systems, existing preparations of one-dimensional systems often yield networks of tubes or rods which are difficult to separate5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 And, in the case of optically active II–VI and III–V semiconductors, the resulting rod diameters are too large to exhibit quantum confinement effects6,8,9,10 Thus, except for some metal nanocrystals13, there are no methods of preparation that yield soluble and monodisperse particles that are quantum-confined in two of their dimensions For semiconductors, a benchmark preparation is the growth of nearly spherical II–VI and III–V nanocrystals by injection of precursor molecules into a hot surfactant14,15 Here we demonstrate that control of the growth kinetics of the II–VI semiconductor cadmium selenide can be used to vary the shapes of the resulting particles from a nearly spherical morphology to a rod-like one, with aspect ratios as large as ten to one This method should be useful, not only for testing theories of quantum confinement, but also for obtaining particles with spectroscopic properties that could prove advantageous in biological labelling experiments16,17 and as chromophores in light-emitting diodes18,19
TL;DR: The construction of a genetic toggle switch is presented—a synthetic, bistable gene-regulatory network—in Escherichia coli and a simple theory is provided that predicts the conditions necessary for bistability.
Abstract: It has been proposed' that gene-regulatory circuits with virtually any desired property can be constructed from networks of simple regulatory elements. These properties, which include multistability and oscillations, have been found in specialized gene circuits such as the bacteriophage lambda switch and the Cyanobacteria circadian oscillator. However, these behaviours have not been demonstrated in networks of non-specialized regulatory components. Here we present the construction of a genetic toggle switch-a synthetic, bistable gene-regulatory network-in Escherichia coli and provide a simple theory that predicts the conditions necessary for bistability. The toggle is constructed from any two repressible promoters arranged in a mutually inhibitory network. It is flipped between stable states using transient chemical or thermal induction and exhibits a nearly ideal switching threshold. As a practical device, the toggle switch forms a synthetic, addressable cellular memory unit and has implications for biotechnology, biocomputing and gene therapy.
TL;DR: It is proposed that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome reflect an evolutionary adaptation permitting it to thrive in diverse environments and resist the effects of a variety of antimicrobial substances.
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium that is one of the top three causes of opportunistic human infections. A major factor in its prominence as a pathogen is its intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. Here we report the complete sequence of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. At 6.3 million base pairs, this is the largest bacterial genome sequenced, and the sequence provides insights into the basis of the versatility and intrinsic drug resistance of P. aeruginosa. Consistent with its larger genome size and environmental adaptability, P. aeruginosa contains the highest proportion of regulatory genes observed for a bacterial genome and a large number of genes involved in the catabolism, transport and efflux of organic compounds as well as four potential chemotaxis systems. We propose that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome reflect an evolutionary adaptation permitting it to thrive in diverse environments and resist the effects of a variety of antimicrobial substances.
TL;DR: The large ecological and societal consequences of changing biodiversity should be minimized to preserve options for future solutions to global environmental problems.
Abstract: Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems. The large ecological and societal consequences of changing biodiversity should be minimized to preserve options for future solutions to global environmental problems.
TL;DR: It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.
Abstract: The discovery of the peptide hormone ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor, yielded the surprising result that the principal site of ghrelin synthesis is the stomach and not the hypothalamus Although ghrelin is likely to regulate pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion along with GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin, GHS receptors have also been identified on hypothalamic neurons and in the brainstem Apart from potential paracrine effects, ghrelin may thus offer an endocrine link between stomach, hypothalamus and pituitary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance Here we show that peripheral daily administration of ghrelin caused weight gain by reducing fat utilization in mice and rats Intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin generated a dose-dependent increase in food intake and body weight Rat serum ghrelin concentrations were increased by fasting and were reduced by re-feeding or oral glucose administration, but not by water ingestion We propose that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary
TL;DR: Results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon–climate model are presented, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century.
Abstract: The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate. About half of the current emissions are being absorbed by the ocean and by land ecosystems, but this absorption is sensitive to climate as well as to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, creating a feedback loop. General circulation models have generally excluded the feedback between climate and the biosphere, using static vegetation distributions and CO2 concentrations from simple carbon-cycle models that do not include climate change. Here we present results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon–climate model, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century. We find that under a 'business as usual' scenario, the terrestrial biosphere acts as an overall carbon sink until about 2050, but turns into a source thereafter. By 2100, the ocean uptake rate of 5 Gt C yr-1 is balanced by the terrestrial carbon source, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are 250 p.p.m.v. higher in our fully coupled simulation than in uncoupled carbon models, resulting in a global-mean warming of 5.5 K, as compared to 4 K without the carbon-cycle feedback.
TL;DR: This work shows that hyperglycaemia increases the production of reactive oxygen species inside cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and is prevented by an inhibitor of electron transport chain complex II, by an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, by uncoupling protein-1 and by manganese superoxide dismutase.
Abstract: Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide production blocks three pathways of hyperglycaemic damage
TL;DR: New findings in newly discovered vascular growth factors demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating blood vessel growth in ischaemia, cancer and other pathological settings.
Abstract: A recent explosion in newly discovered vascular growth factors has coincided with exploitation of powerful new genetic approaches for studying vascular development. An emerging rule is that all of these factors must be used in perfect harmony to form functional vessels. These new findings also demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating blood vessel growth in ischaemia, cancer and other pathological settings.
TL;DR: Unlike eukaryotes, which evolve principally through the modification of existing genetic information, bacteria have obtained a significant proportion of their genetic diversity through the acquisition of sequences from distantly related organisms.
Abstract: Unlike eukaryotes, which evolve principally through the modification of existing genetic information, bacteria have obtained a significant proportion of their genetic diversity through the acquisition of sequences from distantly related organisms. Horizontal gene transfer produces extremely dynamic genomes in which substantial amounts of DNA are introduced into and deleted from the chromosome. These lateral transfers have effectively changed the ecological and pathogenic character of bacterial species.
TL;DR: The synthesis of a homochiral metal–organic porous material that allows the enantioselective inclusion of metal complexes in its pores and catalyses a transesterification reaction in an enantiOSElective manner is reported.
Abstract: Inorganic zeolites are used for many practical applications that exploit the microporosity intrinsic to their crystal structures. Organic analogues, which are assembled from modular organic building blocks linked through non-covalent interactions, are of interest for similar applications. These range from catalysis, separation and sensor technology to optoelectronics, with enantioselective separation and catalysis being especially important for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The modular construction of these analogues allows flexible and rational design, as both the architecture and chemical functionality of the micropores can, in principle, be precisely controlled. Porous organic solids with large voids and high framework stability have been produced, and investigations into the range of accessible pore functionalities have been initiated. For example, catalytically active organic zeolite analogues are known, as are chiral metal-organic open-framework materials. However, the latter are only available as racemic mixtures, or lack the degree of framework stability or void space that is required for practical applications. Here we report the synthesis of a homochiral metal-organic porous material that allows the enantioselective inclusion of metal complexes in its pores and catalyses a transesterification reaction in an enantioselective manner. Our synthesis strategy, which uses enantiopure metal-organic clusters as secondary building blocks, should be readily applicable to chemically modified cluster components and thus provide access to a wide range of porous organic materials suitable for enantioselective separation and catalysis.