Showing papers in "Nature in 2014"
Stephan Ripke1, Stephan Ripke2, Benjamin M. Neale2, Benjamin M. Neale1 +351 more•Institutions (102)
TL;DR: Associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses.
Abstract: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
TL;DR: Increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract: Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.
TL;DR: It is shown that pre-existing CD8+ T cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy.
Abstract: Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune resistance) Here we show that pre-existing CD8(+) T cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy We analysed samples from 46 patients with metastatic melanoma obtained before and during anti-PD-1 therapy (pembrolizumab) using quantitative immunohistochemistry, quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, and next-generation sequencing for T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) In serially sampled tumours, patients responding to treatment showed proliferation of intratumoral CD8(+) T cells that directly correlated with radiographic reduction in tumour size Pre-treatment samples obtained from responding patients showed higher numbers of CD8-, PD-1- and PD-L1-expressing cells at the invasive tumour margin and inside tumours, with close proximity between PD-1 and PD-L1, and a more clonal TCR repertoire Using multivariate analysis, we established a predictive model based on CD8 expression at the invasive margin and validated the model in an independent cohort of 15 patients Our findings indicate that tumour regression after therapeutic PD-1 blockade requires pre-existing CD8(+) T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1/PD-L1-mediated adaptive immune resistance
Adam J. Bass1, Vesteinn Thorsson2, Ilya Shmulevich2, Sheila Reynolds2 +254 more•Institutions (32)
TL;DR: A comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project is described and a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes is proposed.
Abstract: Gastric cancer was the world’s third leading cause of cancer mortality in 2012, responsible for 723,000 deaths1. The vast majority of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, which can be further subdivided into intestinal and diffuse types according to the Lauren classification2. An alternative system, proposed by the World Health Organization, divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid) and poorly cohesive carcinomas3. These classification systems have little clinical utility, making the development of robust classifiers that can guide patient therapy an urgent priority. The majority of gastric cancers are associated with infectious agents, including the bacterium Helicobacter pylori4 and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). The distribution of histological subtypes of gastric cancer and the frequencies of H. pylori and EBV associated gastric cancer vary across the globe5. A small minority of gastric cancer cases are associated with germline mutation in E-cadherin (CDH1)6 or mismatch repair genes7 (Lynch syndrome), whereas sporadic mismatch repair-deficient gastric cancers have epigenetic silencing of MLH1 in the context of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)8. Molecular profiling of gastric cancer has been performed using gene expression or DNA sequencing9–12, but has not led to a clear biologic classification scheme. The goals of this study by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were to develop a robust molecular classification of gastric cancer and to identify dysregulated pathways and candidate drivers of distinct classes of gastric cancer.
TL;DR: Evaluated data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment, as well as across multiple cancer types.
Abstract: The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune system. However, tumours are rarely rejected spontaneously, reflecting their ability to maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 or CD274), which is expressed on many cancer and immune cells, plays an important part in blocking the 'cancer immunity cycle' by binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 (CD80), both of which are negative regulators of T-lymphocyte activation. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptors suppresses T-cell migration, proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic mediators, and restricts tumour cell killing. The PD-L1-PD-1 axis protects the host from overactive T-effector cells not only in cancer but also during microbial infections. Blocking PD-L1 should therefore enhance anticancer immunity, but little is known about predictive factors of efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, activity and biomarkers of PD-L1 inhibition using the engineered humanized antibody MPDL3280A. Here we show that across multiple cancer types, responses (as evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1) were observed in patients with tumours expressing high levels of PD-L1, especially when PD-L1 was expressed by tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, responses were associated with T-helper type 1 (TH1) gene expression, CTLA4 expression and the absence of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in baseline tumour specimens. Together, these data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment.
Eric A. Collisson1, Joshua D. Campbell2, Angela N. Brooks3, Angela N. Brooks2 +315 more•Institutions (41)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report molecular profiling of 230 resected lung adnocarcinomas using messenger RNA, microRNA and DNA sequencing integrated with copy number, methylation and proteomic analyses.
Abstract: Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Here we report molecular profiling of 230 resected lung adenocarcinomas using messenger RNA, microRNA and DNA sequencing integrated with copy number, methylation and proteomic analyses. High rates of somatic mutation were seen (mean 8.9 mutations per megabase). Eighteen genes were statistically significantly mutated, including RIT1 activating mutations and newly described loss-of-function MGA mutations which are mutually exclusive with focal MYC amplification. EGFR mutations were more frequent in female patients, whereas mutations in RBM10 were more common in males. Aberrations in NF1, MET, ERBB2 and RIT1 occurred in 13% of cases and were enriched in samples otherwise lacking an activated oncogene, suggesting a driver role for these events in certain tumours. DNA and mRNA sequence from the same tumour highlighted splicing alterations driven by somatic genomic changes, including exon 14 skipping in MET mRNA in 4% of cases. MAPK and PI(3)K pathway activity, when measured at the protein level, was explained by known mutations in only a fraction of cases, suggesting additional, unexplained mechanisms of pathway activation. These data establish a foundation for classification and further investigations of lung adenocarcinoma molecular pathogenesis.
TL;DR: An unprecedented ZT of 2.6 ± 0.3 at 923 K is reported in SnSe single crystals measured along the b axis of the room-temperature orthorhombic unit cell, which highlights alternative strategies to nanostructuring for achieving high thermoelectric performance.
Abstract: The thermoelectric effect enables direct and reversible conversion between thermal and electrical energy, and provides a viable route for power generation from waste heat The efficiency of thermoelectric materials is dictated by the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT (where Z is the figure of merit and T is absolute temperature), which governs the Carnot efficiency for heat conversion Enhancements above the generally high threshold value of 25 have important implications for commercial deployment, especially for compounds free of Pb and Te Here we report an unprecedented ZT of 26 ± 03 at 923 K, realized in SnSe single crystals measured along the b axis of the room-temperature orthorhombic unit cell This material also shows a high ZT of 23 ± 03 along the c axis but a significantly reduced ZT of 08 ± 02 along the a axis We attribute the remarkably high ZT along the b axis to the intrinsically ultralow lattice thermal conductivity in SnSe The layered structure of SnSe derives from a distorted rock-salt structure, and features anomalously high Gruneisen parameters, which reflect the anharmonic and anisotropic bonding We attribute the exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivity (023 ± 003 W m(-1) K(-1) at 973 K) in SnSe to the anharmonicity These findings highlight alternative strategies to nanostructuring for achieving high thermoelectric performance
TL;DR: The results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China’s PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.
Abstract: Rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. In response to the extremely severe and persistent haze pollution experienced by about 800 million people during the first quarter of 2013 (refs 4, 5), the Chinese State Council announced its aim to reduce concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres) by up to 25 per cent relative to 2012 levels by 2017 (ref. 6). Such efforts however require elucidation of the factors governing the abundance and composition of PM2.5, which remain poorly constrained in China. Here we combine a comprehensive set of novel and state-of-the-art offline analytical approaches and statistical techniques to investigate the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an during January 2013. We find that the severe haze pollution event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation, which contributed 30-77 per cent and 44-71 per cent (average for all four cities) of PM2.5 and of organic aerosol, respectively. On average, the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) are found to be of similar importance (SOA/SIA ratios range from 0.6 to 1.4). Our results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from, for example, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China's PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.
TL;DR: This capacitance report reports a method of producing two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid that offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid.
Abstract: Safe and powerful energy storage devices are becoming increasingly important. Charging times of seconds to minutes, with power densities exceeding those of batteries, can in principle be provided by electrochemical capacitors--in particular, pseudocapacitors. Recent research has focused mainly on improving the gravimetric performance of the electrodes of such systems, but for portable electronics and vehicles volume is at a premium. The best volumetric capacitances of carbon-based electrodes are around 300 farads per cubic centimetre; hydrated ruthenium oxide can reach capacitances of 1,000 to 1,500 farads per cubic centimetre with great cyclability, but only in thin films. Recently, electrodes made of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2, a member of the 'MXene' family), produced by etching aluminium from titanium aluminium carbide (Ti3AlC2, a 'MAX' phase) in concentrated hydrofluoric acid, have been shown to have volumetric capacitances of over 300 farads per cubic centimetre. Here we report a method of producing this material using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid. The resulting hydrophilic material swells in volume when hydrated, and can be shaped like clay and dried into a highly conductive solid or rolled into films tens of micrometres thick. Additive-free films of this titanium carbide 'clay' have volumetric capacitances of up to 900 farads per cubic centimetre, with excellent cyclability and rate performances. This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report, and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid.
TL;DR: A concise overview of N-heterocyclic carbenes in modern chemistry is provided, summarizing their general properties and uses and highlighting how these features are being exploited in a selection of pioneering recent studies.
Abstract: The successful isolation and characterization of an N-heterocyclic carbene in 1991 opened up a new class of organic compounds for investigation. From these beginnings as academic curiosities, N-heterocyclic carbenes today rank among the most powerful tools in organic chemistry, with numerous applications in commercially important processes. Here we provide a concise overview of N-heterocyclic carbenes in modern chemistry, summarizing their general properties and uses and highlighting how these features are being exploited in a selection of pioneering recent studies.
TL;DR: It is found that large-scale genomic analysis can identify nearly all known cancer genes in these cancer types and 33 genes that were not previously known to be significantly mutated in cancer, including genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, genome stability, chromatin regulation, immune evasion, RNA processing and protein homeostasis.
Abstract: Although a few cancer genes are mutated in a high proportion of tumours of a given type (.20%), most are mutated at intermediate frequencies (2–20%). To explore the feasibility of creating a comprehensive catalogue of cancer genes, we analysed somatic point mutations in exome sequences from 4,742 human cancers and their matched normal-tissue samples across 21 cancer types. We found that large-scale genomic analysis can identify nearly all known cancer genes in these tumour types. Our analysis also identified 33 genes that were not previously known to be significantly mutated in cancer, including genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, genome stability, chromatin regulation, immune evasion, RNA processing and protein homeostasis. Down-sampling analysis indicates that larger sample sizes will reveal many more genes mutated at clinically important frequencies. We estimate that near-saturation may be achieved with 600– 5,000 samples per tumour type, depending on background mutation frequency. The results may help to guide the next stage of cancer genomics. Comprehensive knowledge of the genes underlying human cancers is a critical foundation for cancer diagnostics, therapeutics, clinical-trial design and selection of rational combination therapies. It is now possible to use genomic analysis to identify cancer genes in an unbiased fashion, based on the presence of somatic mutations at a rate significantly higher than the expected background level. Systematic studies have revealed many new cancer genes, as well as new classes of cancer genes 1,2 . They have also made clear that, although some cancer genes are mutated at high frequencies, most cancer genes in most patients occur at intermediate frequencies (2–20%) or lower. Accordingly, a complete catalogue of mutations in this frequency class will be essential for recognizing dysregulated pathways and optimal targets for therapeutic intervention. However, recent work suggests major gaps in our knowledge of cancer genes of intermediate frequency. For example, a study of 183 lung adenocarcinomas 3 found that 15% of patients lacked even a single mutation affecting any of the 10 known hallmarks of cancer, and 38% had 3 or fewer such mutations. In this paper, we analysed somatic point mutations (substitutions and small insertion and deletions) in nearly 5,000 human cancers and their matched normal-tissue samples (‘tumour–normal pairs’) across 21 tumour types. The questions that we examine here are: first, whether large-scale genomic analysis across tumour types can reliably identify all known cancer genes; second, whether it will reveal many new candidate cancer genes; and third, how far we are from having a complete catalogue of cancer genes (at least those of intermediate frequency). We used rigorous statistical methods to enumerate candidate cancer genes and then carefully inspected each gene to identify those with strong biological connections to cancer and mutational patterns consistent with the expected function. The analysis reveals nearly all known cancer genes and revealed 33 novel candidates, including genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, genome stability, chromatin regulation, immune evasion, RNA processing and protein homeostasis. Importantly, the data show that the
TL;DR: Understanding this novel RNA crosstalk will lead to significant insight into gene regulatory networks and have implications in human development and disease.
Abstract: Recent reports have described an intricate interplay among diverse RNA species, including protein-coding messenger RNAs and non-coding RNAs such as long non-coding RNAs, pseudogenes and circular RNAs. These RNA transcripts act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) or natural microRNA sponges — they communicate with and co-regulate each other by competing for binding to shared microRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNAs that are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Understanding this novel RNA crosstalk will lead to significant insight into gene regulatory networks and have implications in human development and disease.
John N. Weinstein1, Rehan Akbani1, Bradley M. Broom1, Wenyi Wang1 +293 more•Institutions (30)
TL;DR: Ch Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities.
Abstract: Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data- mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: http://www.nature.com/authors/editorial_policies/license.html#termsThis paper is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike license, and the online version of the paper is freely available to all readers.
TL;DR: The progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years is analyzed, and the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact are discussed.
Abstract: Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.
University of Copenhagen1, University Hospital Regensburg2, University of Birmingham3, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill4, Harvard University5, Aarhus University6, University of Edinburgh7, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory8, European Bioinformatics Institute9, Karolinska Institutet10, VU University Medical Center11
TL;DR: It is shown that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity.
Abstract: Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that tumours expressing PD-L1-positive tumour-infiltrating immune cells had particularly high response rates, and patients with UBC, who are often older and have a higher incidence of renal impairment, may be better able to tolerate MPDL3280A versus chemotherapy.
Abstract: There have been no major advances for the treatment of metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) in the last 30 years. Chemotherapy is still the standard of care. Patient outcomes, especially for those in whom chemotherapy is not effective or is poorly tolerated, remain poor. One hallmark of UBC is the presence of high rates of somatic mutations. These alterations may enhance the ability of the host immune system to recognize tumour cells as foreign owing to an increased number of antigens. However, these cancers may also elude immune surveillance and eradication through the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called CD274 or B7-H1) in the tumour microenvironment. Therefore, we examined the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A, a systemic cancer immunotherapy, for the treatment of metastatic UBC. MPDL3280A is a high-affinity engineered human anti-PD-L1 monoclonal immunoglobulin-G1 antibody that inhibits the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 (PDCD1) and B7.1 (CD80). Because PD-L1 is expressed on activated T cells, MPDL3280A was engineered with a modification in the Fc domain that eliminates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity at clinically relevant doses to prevent the depletion of T cells expressing PD-L1. Here we show that MPDL3280A has noteworthy activity in metastatic UBC. Responses were often rapid, with many occurring at the time of the first response assessment (6 weeks) and nearly all were ongoing at the data cutoff. This phase I expansion study, with an adaptive design that allowed for biomarker-positive enriched cohorts, demonstrated that tumours expressing PD-L1-positive tumour-infiltrating immune cells had particularly high response rates. Moreover, owing to the favourable toxicity profile, including a lack of renal toxicity, patients with UBC, who are often older and have a higher incidence of renal impairment, may be better able to tolerate MPDL3280A versus chemotherapy. These results suggest that MPDL3280A may have an important role in treating UBC-the drug received breakthrough designation status by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2014.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai1, Carnegie Mellon University2, Harvard University3, University of Toronto4, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute5, University of Pittsburgh6, Nagoya University7, University of Freiburg8, King's College London9, Vanderbilt University10, University of Santiago de Compostela11, King Abdulaziz University12, University of Utah13, Duke University14, Memorial University of Newfoundland15, Trinity College, Dublin16, University of Pennsylvania17, University of Illinois at Chicago18, Boston Children's Hospital19, Columbia University20, German Cancer Research Center21, University College London22, Kaiser Permanente23, Broad Institute24, Cardiff University25, Complutense University of Madrid26, Newcastle University27, Baylor College of Medicine28, University of California, San Francisco29, RWTH Aachen University30, National Health Service31, McMaster University32, Saarland University33, Karolinska Institutet34, National Institutes of Health35, University of Helsinki36, Emory University37
TL;DR: Using exome sequencing, it is shown that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate of < 0.05, plus a set of 107 genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR < 0.30).
Abstract: The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. Using exome sequencing, here we show that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, plus a set of 107 autosomal genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR < 0.30). These 107 genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, incur de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects. Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways. These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones.
TL;DR: It is shown that m6A is selectively recognized by the human YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) ‘reader’ protein to regulate mRNA degradation and established the role of YTH DF2 in RNA metabolism, showing that binding of Y THDF2 results in the localization of bound mRNA from the translatable pool to mRNA decay sites, such as processing bodies.
Abstract: N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal (non-cap) modification present in the messenger RNA of all higher eukaryotes. Although essential to cell viability and development, the exact role of m(6)A modification remains to be determined. The recent discovery of two m(6)A demethylases in mammalian cells highlighted the importance of m(6)A in basic biological functions and disease. Here we show that m(6)A is selectively recognized by the human YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) 'reader' protein to regulate mRNA degradation. We identified over 3,000 cellular RNA targets of YTHDF2, most of which are mRNAs, but which also include non-coding RNAs, with a conserved core motif of G(m(6)A)C. We further establish the role of YTHDF2 in RNA metabolism, showing that binding of YTHDF2 results in the localization of bound mRNA from the translatable pool to mRNA decay sites, such as processing bodies. The carboxy-terminal domain of YTHDF2 selectively binds to m(6)A-containing mRNA, whereas the amino-terminal domain is responsible for the localization of the YTHDF2-mRNA complex to cellular RNA decay sites. Our results indicate that the dynamic m(6)A modification is recognized by selectively binding proteins to affect the translation status and lifetime of mRNA.
Johns Hopkins University1, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine2, University of Toronto3, University of La Frontera4, Imperial College London5, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research6, Armed Forces Medical College7, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences8, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology9, University of Maryland, Baltimore10
TL;DR: A draft map of the human proteome is presented using high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry to discover a number of novel protein-coding regions, which includes translated pseudogenes, non-c coding RNAs and upstream open reading frames.
Abstract: The availability of human genome sequence has transformed biomedical research over the past decade. However, an equivalent map for the human proteome with direct measurements of proteins and peptides does not exist yet. Here we present a draft map of the human proteome using high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. In-depth proteomic profiling of 30 histologically normal human samples, including 17 adult tissues, 7 fetal tissues and 6 purified primary haematopoietic cells, resulted in identification of proteins encoded by 17,294 genes accounting for approximately 84% of the total annotated protein-coding genes in humans. A unique and comprehensive strategy for proteogenomic analysis enabled us to discover a number of novel protein-coding regions, which includes translated pseudogenes, non-coding RNAs and upstream open reading frames. This large human proteome catalogue (available as an interactive web-based resource at http://www.humanproteomemap.org) will complement available human genome and transcriptome data to accelerate biomedical research in health and disease.
TL;DR: It is estimated that LGD mutation in about 400 genes can contribute to the joint class of affected females and males of lower IQ, with an overlapping and similar number of genes vulnerable to contributory missense mutation.
Abstract: Whole exome sequencing has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the genetic architecture of human disease. Here we apply it to more than 2,500 simplex families, each having a child with an autistic spectrum disorder. By comparing affected to unaffected siblings, we show that 13% of de novo missense mutations and 43% of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations contribute to 12% and 9% of diagnoses, respectively. Including copy number variants, coding de novo mutations contribute to about 30% of all simplex and 45% of female diagnoses. Almost all LGD mutations occur opposite wild-type alleles. LGD targets in affected females significantly overlap the targets in males of lower intelligence quotient (IQ), but neither overlaps significantly with targets in males of higher IQ. We estimate that LGD mutation in about 400 genes can contribute to the joint class of affected females and males of lower IQ, with an overlapping and similar number of genes vulnerable to contributory missense mutation. LGD targets in the joint class overlap with published targets for intellectual disability and schizophrenia, and are enriched for chromatin modifiers, FMRP-associated genes and embryonically expressed genes. Most of the significance for the latter comes from affected females.
TL;DR: The mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions are covered.
Abstract: Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bring about the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families, collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Synthetic versions of these mediators have potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, the mediators evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms, and enhance microbial clearance. Although they have been identified in inflammation resolution, specialized pro-resolving mediators are conserved structures that also function in host defence, pain, organ protection and tissue remodelling. This Review covers the mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions.
TL;DR: Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases.
Abstract: Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet–environment– health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.
TL;DR: A brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse, using enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain.
Abstract: Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease.
TL;DR: The haematopoietic stem cell niche remains incompletely defined and beset by competing models, and outstanding questions concern the cellular complexity of the niche, the role of the endosteum and functional heterogeneity among perivascular microenvironments.
Abstract: Niches are local tissue microenvironments that maintain and regulate stem cells. Haematopoiesis provides a model for understanding mammalian stem cells and their niches, but the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche remains incompletely defined and beset by competing models. Recent progress has been made in elucidating the location and cellular components of the HSC niche in the bone marrow. The niche is perivascular, created partly by mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial cells and often, but not always, located near trabecular bone. Outstanding questions concern the cellular complexity of the niche, the role of the endosteum and functional heterogeneity among perivascular microenvironments.
TL;DR: This optoelectronic performance is achieved by inserting an insulating layer between the quantum dot layer and the oxide electron-transport layer to optimize charge balance in the device and preserve the superior emissive properties of the quantum dots.
Abstract: Solution-processed optoelectronic and electronic devices are attractive owing to the potential for low-cost fabrication of large-area devices and the compatibility with lightweight, flexible plastic substrates. Solution-processed light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using conjugated polymers or quantum dots as emitters have attracted great interest over the past two decades. However, the overall performance of solution-processed LEDs--including their efficiency, efficiency roll-off at high current densities, turn-on voltage and lifetime under operational conditions-remains inferior to that of the best vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. Here we report a solution-processed, multilayer quantum-dot-based LED with excellent performance and reproducibility. It exhibits colour-saturated deep-red emission, sub-bandgap turn-on at 1.7 volts, high external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.5 per cent, low efficiency roll-off (up to 15.1 per cent of the external quantum efficiency at 100 mA cm(-2)), and a long operational lifetime of more than 100,000 hours at 100 cd m(-2), making this device the best-performing solution-processed red LED so far, comparable to state-of-the-art vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. This optoelectronic performance is achieved by inserting an insulating layer between the quantum dot layer and the oxide electron-transport layer to optimize charge balance in the device and preserve the superior emissive properties of the quantum dots. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to high-performance, all-solution-processed quantum-dot-based LEDs ideal for next-generation display and solid-state lighting technologies.
Harvard University1, Broad Institute2, Monash University3, Kyoto University4, Genentech5, Vanderbilt University6, New York University7, NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital8, Second Military Medical University9, University of Queensland10, University of Toronto11, University of Groningen12, University of Tartu13, Beijing Jiaotong University14, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai15, Radboud University Nijmegen16, Medisch Spectrum Twente17, Leiden University18, University of Paris19, French Institute of Health and Medical Research20, University of Alabama at Birmingham21, University of Amsterdam22, GlaxoSmithKline23, University of Cambridge24, Hanyang University25, Spanish National Research Council26, Complutense University of Madrid27, Umeå University28, Boston University29, Council on Education for Public Health30, McGill University31, National Health Service32, University of Manchester33, University of Pittsburgh34, University of California, San Francisco35, Karolinska Institutet36, North Shore-LIJ Health System37, University of Chicago38, University of Tokyo39
TL;DR: A genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery, and sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis.
Abstract: A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)1. Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ~10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2, 3, 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation5, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci6 and pathway analyses7, 8, 9—as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes—to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.
TL;DR: The experimental realization of the Haldane model and the characterization of its topological band structure are reported, using ultracold fermionic atoms in a periodically modulated optical honeycomb lattice and a direct extension to realize spin-dependent topological Hamiltonians is proposed.
Abstract: The Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice is a paradigmatic example of a Hamiltonian featuring topologically distinct phases of matter. It describes a mechanism through which a quantum Hall effect can appear as an intrinsic property of a band structure, rather than being caused by an external magnetic field. Although physical implementation has been considered unlikely, the Haldane model has provided the conceptual basis for theoretical and experimental research exploring topological insulators and superconductors. Here we report the experimental realization of the Haldane model and the characterization of its topological band structure, using ultracold fermionic atoms in a periodically modulated optical honeycomb lattice. The Haldane model is based on breaking both time-reversal symmetry and inversion symmetry. To break time-reversal symmetry, we introduce complex next-nearest-neighbour tunnelling terms, which we induce through circular modulation of the lattice position. To break inversion symmetry, we create an energy offset between neighbouring sites. Breaking either of these symmetries opens a gap in the band structure, which we probe using momentum-resolved interband transitions. We explore the resulting Berry curvatures, which characterize the topology of the lowest band, by applying a constant force to the atoms and find orthogonal drifts analogous to a Hall current. The competition between the two broken symmetries gives rise to a transition between topologically distinct regimes. By identifying the vanishing gap at a single Dirac point, we map out this transition line experimentally and quantitatively compare it to calculations using Floquet theory without free parameters. We verify that our approach, which allows us to tune the topological properties dynamically, is suitable even for interacting fermionic systems. Furthermore, we propose a direct extension to realize spin-dependent topological Hamiltonians.
TL;DR: A mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome and a public, high-performance, in-memory database for real-time analysis of terabytes of big data, called ProteomicsDB are presented, which enables navigation of proteomes, provides biological insight and fosters the development of proteomic technology.
Abstract: Proteomes are characterized by large protein-abundance differences, cell-type- and time-dependent expression patterns and post-translational modifications, all of which carry biological information that is not accessible by genomics or transcriptomics. Here we present a mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome and a public, high-performance, in-memory database for real-time analysis of terabytes of big data, called ProteomicsDB. The information assembled from human tissues, cell lines and body fluids enabled estimation of the size of the protein-coding genome, and identified organ-specific proteins and a large number of translated lincRNAs (long intergenic non-coding RNAs). Analysis of messenger RNA and protein-expression profiles of human tissues revealed conserved control of protein abundance, and integration of drug-sensitivity data enabled the identification of proteins predicting resistance or sensitivity. The proteome profiles also hold considerable promise for analysing the composition and stoichiometry of protein complexes. ProteomicsDB thus enables navigation of proteomes, provides biological insight and fosters the development of proteomic technology.
Alistair R. R. Forrest, Hideya Kawaji, Michael Rehli1, J Kenneth Baillie2 +277 more•Institutions (63)
TL;DR: For example, the authors mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body.
Abstract: Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body We find that few genes are truly 'housekeeping', whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research
Max Planck Society1, University of California, Berkeley2, Broad Institute3, Harvard University4, University of Washington5, National Institutes of Health6, University of California, Santa Cruz7, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich8, Emory University9, Fondation Jean Dausset Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain10, Allen Institute for Brain Science11, Russian Academy of Sciences12, Howard Hughes Medical Institute13
TL;DR: It is shown that interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene and a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans is established.
Abstract: We present a high-quality genome sequence of a Neanderthal woman from Siberia. We show that her parents were related at the level of half-siblings and that mating among close relatives was common among her recent ancestors. We also sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal from the Caucasus to low coverage. An analysis of the relationships and population history of available archaic genomes and 25 present-day human genomes shows that several gene flow events occurred among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, possibly including gene flow into Denisovans from an unknown archaic group. Thus, interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, the high-quality Neanderthal genome allows us to establish a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.