New Journal of Physics
About: New Journal of Physics is an academic journal published by IOP Publishing. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Physics & Quantum. It has an ISSN identifier of 1367-2630. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 12814 publications have been published receiving 467193 citations. The journal is also known as: NJP.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The first algorithm that finds both overlapping communities and the hierarchical structure is presented, based on the local optimization of a fitness function, enabling different hierarchical levels of organization to be investigated.
Abstract: Many networks in nature, society and technology are characterized by a mesoscopic level of organization, with groups of nodes forming tightly connected units, called communities or modules, that are only weakly linked to each other. Uncovering this community structure is one of the most important problems in the field of complex networks. Networks often show a hierarchical organization, with communities embedded within other communities; moreover, nodes can be shared between different communities. Here, we present the first algorithm that finds both overlapping communities and the hierarchical structure. The method is based on the local optimization of a fitness function. Community structure is revealed by peaks in the fitness histogram. The resolution can be tuned by a parameter enabling different hierarchical levels of organization to be investigated. Tests on real and artificial networks give excellent results.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors constructed representatives of topological insulators and superconductors for all five classes and in arbitrary spatial dimension d, in terms of Dirac Hamiltonians.
Abstract: It has recently been shown that in every spatial dimension there exist precisely five distinct classes of topological insulators or superconductors. Within a given class, the different topological sectors can be distinguished, depending on the case, by a or a topological invariant. This is an exhaustive classification. Here we construct representatives of topological insulators and superconductors for all five classes and in arbitrary spatial dimension d, in terms of Dirac Hamiltonians. Using these representatives we demonstrate how topological insulators (superconductors) in different dimensions and different classes can be related via 'dimensional reduction' by compactifying one or more spatial dimensions (in 'Kaluza–Klein'-like fashion). For -topological insulators (superconductors) this proceeds by descending by one dimension at a time into a different class. The -topological insulators (superconductors), on the other hand, are shown to be lower-dimensional descendants of parent -topological insulators in the same class, from which they inherit their topological properties. The eightfold periodicity in dimension d that exists for topological insulators (superconductors) with Hamiltonians satisfying at least one reality condition (arising from time-reversal or charge-conjugation/particle–hole symmetries) is a reflection of the eightfold periodicity of the spinor representations of the orthogonal groups SO(N) (a form of Bott periodicity). Furthermore, we derive for general spatial dimensions a relation between the topological invariant that characterizes topological insulators and superconductors with chiral symmetry (i.e., the winding number) and the Chern–Simons invariant. For lower-dimensional cases, this formula relates the winding number to the electric polarization (d=1 spatial dimensions) or to the magnetoelectric polarizability (d=3 spatial dimensions). Finally, we also discuss topological field theories describing the spacetime theory of linear responses in topological insulators (superconductors) and study how the presence of inversion symmetry modifies the classification of topological insulators (superconductors).
TL;DR: Peruzzo et al. as mentioned in this paper developed a variational adiabatic ansatz and explored unitary coupled cluster where they established a connection from second order unitary cluster to universal gate sets through a relaxation of exponential operator splitting.
Abstract: Many quantum algorithms have daunting resource requirements when compared to what is available today. To address this discrepancy, a quantum-classical hybrid optimization scheme known as 'the quantum variational eigensolver' was developed (Peruzzo et al 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4213) with the philosophy that even minimal quantum resources could be made useful when used in conjunction with classical routines. In this work we extend the general theory of this algorithm and suggest algorithmic improvements for practical implementations. Specifically, we develop a variational adiabatic ansatz and explore unitary coupled cluster where we establish a connection from second order unitary coupled cluster to universal gate sets through a relaxation of exponential operator splitting. We introduce the concept of quantum variational error suppression that allows some errors to be suppressed naturally in this algorithm on a pre-threshold quantum device. Additionally, we analyze truncation and correlated sampling in Hamiltonian averaging as ways to reduce the cost of this procedure. Finally, we show how the use of modern derivative free optimization techniques can offer dramatic computational savings of up to three orders of magnitude over previously used optimization techniques.
TL;DR: This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene.
Abstract: This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology—an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research—is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene— helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non- equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.
TL;DR: In this article, an atom-thin, ordered, two-dimensional multi-phase film was grown in situ through germanium molecular beam epitaxy using a gold surface as a substrate.
Abstract: We have grown an atom-thin, ordered, two-dimensional multi-phase film in situ through germanium molecular beam epitaxy using a gold (111) surface as a substrate. Its growth is similar to the formation of silicene layers on silver (111) templates. One of the phases, forming large domains, as observed in scanning tunneling microscopy, shows a clear, nearly flat, honeycomb structure. Thanks to thorough synchrotron radiation core-level spectroscopy measurements and advanced density functional theory calculations we can identify it as a ?3????3 R(30?) germanene layer in conjunction with a ?7????7 R(19.1?) Au(111) supercell, presenting compelling evidence of the synthesis of the germanium-based cousin of graphene on gold.