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Showing papers in "NHRD Network journal in 2023"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors explored the dynamics of employment relations in the Indian information technology (IT) industry in the context of an ongoing technological revolution and found that the following four forces drive the employment relations: (1) labour laws, (2) compensation and HR, (3) unions and organisations, and (4) health and workplace security.
Abstract: This article aims to explore the dynamics of employment relations (ER) in the Indian information technology (IT) industry in the context of an ongoing technological revolution. The study utilises the grounded theory approach to draw insights from 32 professionals including project/product managers, senior management representatives and employees from junior to mid-career level currently working in the IT industry. Findings indicate that the following four forces drive the ER in the Indian IT industry: (1) labour laws, (2) compensation and HR, (3) unions and organisations, and (4) health and workplace security. Labour laws need to be updated to suit the requirements of knowledge-based professions. Compensation and HR management styles vary widely due to the disparity and heterogeneity of work. There is scope for a non-politicised union in the industry. The health and security of IT professionals need attention. Findings suggest the changing concepts of workspaces in IT, dilution of HR in IT due to increased outsourcing and the rise of independent workers in future. This article makes theoretical and conceptual contributions to the ER literature. It captures the driving forces of ER in the Indian IT industry. The article also contributes to decent work, convergence–divergence paradigm and outsourcing in Human Resource Management.

1 citations


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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors studied the case of Bandhan Bank as a case of strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) and found that three significant strategic forces, viz., embedded culture of risk-taking, more robust connection with stakeholders and regular honing of internal capabilities, further shape the experiences of CSR stakeholders.
Abstract: The current study looks at the case of Bandhan Bank as a case of strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR). Bandhan Bank Ltd.’s five flagship CSR programmes (THP, BHP, BEP, EUP and BFLP) target the diverse needs of communities in the poorest of poor and underprivileged segments and give them a valuable experience of an improved lifestyle are discussed in detail. The three significant strategic forces, viz., embedded culture of risk-taking, more robust connection with stakeholders and regular honing of internal capabilities, further shape the experiences of CSR stakeholders. These eventually became responsible and loyal customers of the bank.

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TL;DR: In this article , a personal reflection of my recent transition to Social Investments function after being in the HR function for almost 30+ years, which has helped me to look at how the elements and science of HR contribute significantly to the success of any CSR intervention.
Abstract: Very often CSR is presumed to be more of philanthropy, focussed more on funding/donations, and so on. Whilst it may be still there and also needed, CSR is much more evolved than that. Done properly, it is as rigorous as running a business project involving a multi-disciplinary approach. Given that this is a NHRD Publication on the theme of CSR and HR, the article attempts to illustrate how a CSR intervention also has the play of HR systems and processes. The article is a personal reflection of my recent transition to Social Investments function after being in the HR function for almost 30+ years, which has helped me to look at how the elements and science of HR contribute significantly to the success of any CSR intervention.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors discuss the role of human resource professionals in helping a company achieve its corporate social responsibility (CSR) objectives, including health, well-being, gender equality, diversity, work-life balance, and training.
Abstract: Human resource professionals have a major role to play to help a company achieve its corporate social responsibility (CSR) objectives. They have the tools and the opportunity to leverage employee commitment to, and engagement in, the firm’s CSR strategy. Although HRM oversees employee-related aspects, CSR helped to develop socially responsible practices. CSR inspired HRM, key HR aspects, namely health–well-being, gender equality–diversity, work–life balance and training–development can be addressed from the CSR perspective. CSR can contribute to long term, sustainable HR solutions. Integrating CSR and HRM promotes responsible people practices. There is emerging evidence that if effectively implemented, CSR can have considerable impact in motivating, developing and retaining staff. People prefer to work for companies that make a difference; corporate values, infused with CSR, generate conscience. A strong employer brand aligned with employee values and concerns is becoming recognised as one of the best ways of retaining talent with employees proud to work for a business that is highly regarded. As management plays an important role in understanding and delivering on key CSR objectives, it is vital to make CSR an integral part of management training programmes. As CSR increasingly becomes part of the business agenda in future, it will become a natural agenda for the HR practitioner.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors tried to understand the need for CSR within SMEs and engagement in CSR by taking in-depth interviews with SMEs, including the structure of CSR conducted by SMEs.
Abstract: In developed countries, a significant amount of research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) has taken. Since the concept of CSR has evolved in developed countries, the organisations in these countries were the earliest to be aware of the CSR relevance to sustainable development. Nowadays CSR has gained significance for organization globally. On the other hand, there needs to be more research on CSR in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially in India. Literature lags behind the social reality and diversity, specifically in the case of CSR in SMEs. The author has tried to understand the need for CSR within SMEs and engagement in CSR by taking in-depth interviews with SMEs. It includes the structure of CSR conducted by SMEs, the formal and informal structure of CSR by SMEs, whether they assess the need of the community, causes they support, identifying beneficiaries, funding of CSR initiatives and stakeholders.

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TL;DR: Sourav Mukherji as discussed by the authors has been looking at inclusivity, where he wanted to study how businesses can positively impact the lives of the poor, specifically, I have been trying to find answers to how businesses address issues of inequality.
Abstract: Sourav Mukherji: Since 2009, I have been looking at inclusivity, where I wanted to study how businesses can positively impact the lives of the poor. Specifically, I have been trying to find answers to how businesses address issues of inequality. Largely the inspiration came from the globally recognized work of Md. Younus and Prof. C.K. Prahalad .In India, I had the fortune of looking at somebody like Harish Hande, a social entrepreneur and the founder of SELCO, from very close quarters. I wrote case studies on similar inclusive business models and studied the Arvind Eye Care model, Narayan Hrudayalaya, and other initiatives. Over the years, we have observed two significant trends. First, we all grew up seeing poverty and inequality around us in India. Therefore, those of us who are privileged, and most enlightened Indian organizations take some initiatives to do something for the poor, such as giving donations, support schools, support education, support health care or education of girlchild.

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TL;DR: The world has moved on from industrial relations to employee relations as discussed by the authors , and people in enterprises today are multi-generational and have grown equally complex as well as facing bewildering choices before them.
Abstract: The world has moved on from industrial relations to employee relations. Enterprises have grown in complexity with technology outpacing people. People in enterprises today are multi-generational and have grown equally complex as well as facing bewildering choices before them. Mere engagement tools stopped giving effective results. How to reach into their inner selves help them understand themselves and their choices to act upon is the role of line and HR today.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited as mentioned in this paper discusses a case in point, where progressive industrial relations (IR) practices have shown demonstrable results in the changing context.
Abstract: Employee relations in India has been changing with the changing context. The industry has come a long way since independence. The paradigm has changed at an even faster pace over the last decade due to fundamental shifts in technology and socio-economic factors. The onslaught of COVID also brought in tectonic shifts in this field. Rise in the proportion of middle-class, democratisation of information technology, automation and industrial revolution 2.0, focus on ESG, steps towards improving the ease of doing business are other important changes driving the paradigm shifts in employee relations. The industry is now moving from restrictive industrial relations (IR) practices to more collaborative and progressive practices that look at workers and unions as partners rather than adversaries. The article discusses a case in point, Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited, where progressive IR practices have shown demonstrable results in the changing context.

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TL;DR: The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2022) as mentioned in this paper was held in Denver, CO, USA, in June 2022, and was the world's major event on microwave technologies.
Abstract: This Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (TMTT) is comprised of the extended papers from the 2022 IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Society (IEEE MTT-S) International Microwave Symposium (IMS2022), held in Denver, CO, USA, in June 2022. The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium is the world's major event on microwave technologies annually organized by the IEEE MTT-S as the society's premier flagship conference. The conference represents a unique opportunity to bring together researchers and practitioners with diverse technical backgrounds to share the most recent advances in MHz-to-THz technologies and systems. After two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, IMS2022 came back to being an in-person-only event that was held on June 19–24, 2022, at the Colorado Convention Center, Denver.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the role of high-performance sustainable work practices in implementing corporate sustainability strategy to achieve ESG outcomes is discussed using the sustainable HRM perspective, where the authors introduce a role of sustainable work practice in implementing CS strategy.
Abstract: Today, companies are inclined to contribute to sustainability by focusing on corporate sustainability (CS) strategies which lead to environment, social and governance (ESG) outcomes. In order to implement the CS strategies, companies have to design practices across domains such as finance, operations, marketing and human resources to facilitate the ESG outcomes. Using the sustainable HRM perspective, in this brief article, we introduce the role of high-performance sustainable work practices in implementing CS strategy to achieve ESG outcomes.

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TL;DR: In this article , the role of human resource management (HRM) in driving socially responsible and sustainable initiatives in organisations is investigated and the findings show the role that HRM plays in implementing following SDG goals.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to find out the role of human resource management (HRM) in driving socially responsible and sustainable initiatives in organisations. The annual reports of two major Indian companies, Tata Steel and ITC were studied with specific focus on their HR policies and practices, business responsibility and sustainability activities and analysed by the authors. The findings show the role that HRM plays in implementing following SDG goals. The paper is an interdisciplinary study viewing the role of HRM in CSR and sustainability and extends and broadens the area of research by an in-depth study of two established companies in India.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors used the wages of regular workers and contract labourers and the wage gap between the two groups to come up with a framework for understanding why contract laborers continued to help firms in India's manufacturing sector as well by not moving the elasticity of labour demand and demand of substitution of labour upward concerning all other inputs to the production during the post-liberalisation era.
Abstract: When manufacturing firms employed labour on a low-wage contract in big numbers during the post-reform in India, the demand for cheap contract labourers increased and contract labourers were prepared to work for lower wages as they were not unionised and could not bargain for higher wages. So, have regular workers tried to organise their contractual counterparts so that latter could negotiate higher wages? By helping contract labourers, have regular workers lost the premium wages that they were able to negotiate? In this article, I used wages of regular workers and contract labourers and the wage gap between the two groups to come up with a framework for understanding why contract labourers continued to help firms in India’s manufacturing sector as well by not moving the elasticity of labour demand and demand of substitution of labour upward concerning all other inputs to the production during the post-liberalisation era. I posit four different scenarios to speculate how improved labour flexibility made one of the two sections of workers prosper at the cost of the other section’s hardships.

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TL;DR: The authors in this paper argue that Industry 5.0 is not a revolution but an evolution of the manufacturing process, which is characterized by the integration of various technologies such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and robotics.
Abstract: The article argues that industry is coming alive to its social purpose, with considerations like equity, environmental impact and ethics. It starts with the history of industrial revolutions from 0.0 to 4.0, detailing their impact on society. It goes on to introduce the concept of Industry 5.0, which is built on the principles of human centricity, sustainability and resilience. The author explains the implications of Industry 5.0 to society, leadership, and HR. He argues that Industry 5.0 is not a revolution but an evolution of the manufacturing process, which is characterized by the integration of various technologies such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and robotics. He concludes by discussing how individuals can adapt to the requirements of Industry 5.0. The article points to Industry 5.0 becoming more humane with greater responsibility for equity, justice, and sustainability.

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TL;DR: The authors make a compelling case for ER as a research activity, an organisational habit and a way of reflexive thinking, and make the case for an effective emotionally intelligent transparent HR-lifecycle with a well-thought-out employee voice mechanism.
Abstract: This critical reflective paper draws upon my reading, studying and teaching employment relations (ER) and human resource management (HRM) over the years, from a sociological perspective. I make a compelling case for ER as a research activity, an organisational habit and a way of reflexive thinking. There is a false perception that ER is outdated. Indifferent to fads, ER endeavours to see clearly and speak the truth fearlessly and excavate the challenges and possibilities of the socio-economic exchange within any employment relationship. ER’s real strength is its granular holistic, multi-layered understanding of the totality of the wage-effort bargain. It has always been interdisciplinary because it draws from a vast canvas of sociology, economics, political economy and even psychology. Tracing its trajectory, I map the context in which ER evolved from Fordism to Post-Fordism, how HRM tried to take its place, and why it cannot do what ER does. It is only with this critical sceptical inquisitive spirit of ER that an effective emotionally intelligent transparent HR-lifecycle with a well-thought-out employee voice mechanism can craft better workplaces. ER in India speak for gig workers and other casualised employment and intervenes urgently on their behalf by bringing their concerns to academic discussion and advocating change. In conjunction with critical management studies, the sociology of work and ER in India must go to the nub of inequality. It must reach out to broader constituencies to mitigate workplace inequalities in different situational and longitudinal work contexts.

Journal ArticleDOI
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyze the evolution of industrial relations (IR) into employee relations (ER) with changing industrial landscape and workforce dynamics and explore role of various stakeholders including employers, leadership, employees and legislations in evolution of employee relations.
Abstract: The article critically analyses evolution of industrial relations (IR) into employee relations (ER) with changing industrial landscape and workforce dynamics. Role of various stakeholders including employers, leadership, employees and legislations in evolution of employee relations has been explored. It covers influence of critical factors shaping IR and ER in post-independence India from its transition from an agrarian economy to industrial and emergence of a dominant service economy. Role of leadership at different levels and response strategy of organisations have been changing over period with clear patterns. Effect of economic liberalisation and new economic policy on management of employee relations has also been explored. Based on trends of the past, forecasting has been made regarding form and shape of ER in near future. In summary, this article attempts to analyse historical development of IR and ER, Trade Unions, Collectivism in India and identify important factors that led to its current state of existence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors highlight that ER is assuming a new mould and big shift, from a transactional approach to job and job roles to a rounded view on employee overall development and growth in the organisation, which includes consideration, importance of relationship and humaneness.
Abstract: Employee relations (ER) is under the spotlight again! One of the dynamic concepts in the management literature, its definition has followed organisations’ evolution, nature of work, the role of employees and their relationship with their companies. The uncertain business landscape has created myriad factors like talent shortage, technological advancements, demand for new skills and multigenerational workforce, as a result, organisations are witnessing a tectonic shift in their employment model, thus, persuading them to revisit their employee value proposition and philosophy in managing ER. Using a case study as a reference point, the article highlights that ER is assuming a new mould and big shift—from a transactional approach to job and job roles to a rounded view on employee’s overall development and growth in the organisation, which includes consideration, importance of relationship and humaneness.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors provide a broader perspective on the role HR should play in CSR and Sustainability as well as its impact beyond organisational boundaries and the overall orientation of the HR leadership to ensure that it recognises the criticality of CSR, and its own role in facilitating this charter in an organisation as a key metric for the function itself.
Abstract: Although Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been an extremely critical pillar for many years now, the role that the human resources function plays in facilitating a more socially responsible and sustainable organisation remains unclear. In practice, this lack of clarity is due to the multiple factors including not integrating the human resources (HR) and CSR functions. This article provides a broader perspective on the role HR should play in CSR and Sustainability as well as its impact beyond organisational boundaries. The overall orientation of the HR leadership to ensure that it recognises the criticality of CSR and its own role in facilitating this charter in an organisation as a key metric for the function itself, is an important step in this direction.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Employee relations (ER) in India are impacted by seven relevant labour laws as discussed by the authors and these seven along with twenty-two other labour laws have been subsumed into four Labour Codes passed by the Parliament in 2019 and 2020.
Abstract: Employee relations (ER) in India are impacted by seven relevant labour laws. These seven along with twenty-two other labour laws have been subsumed into four Labour Codes passed by the Parliament in 2019 and 2020. Once the Labour Codes are made operational, they will certainly impact ER in the country. Employee relations are enterprise specific; however, seven issues likely to emerge because of the changes are highlighted. The Labour Codes offer benefits, as well as deprive certain advantages to both the employers and the trade unions. Managements and trade unions must learn to develop amicable solutions to their ER problems through social dialogue.