Open access•Journal•ISSN: 2311-553X
About: Non-Coding RNA is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): RNA & microRNA. It has an ISSN identifier of 2311-553X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 265 publication(s) have been published receiving 3356 citation(s).
Juliane Cristina Ribeiro Fernandes1, Stephanie Maia Acuña1, Juliana Ide Aoki1, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter1 +1 more•Institutions (1)
17 Feb 2019-Non-Coding RNA
Abstract: The identification of RNAs that are not translated into proteins was an important breakthrough, defining the diversity of molecules involved in eukaryotic regulation of gene expression. These non-coding RNAs can be divided into two main classes according to their length: short non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The lncRNAs in association with other molecules can coordinate several physiological processes and their dysfunction may impact in several pathologies, including cancer and infectious diseases. They can control the flux of genetic information, such as chromosome structure modulation, transcription, splicing, messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, mRNA availability, and post-translational modifications. Long non-coding RNAs present interaction domains for DNA, mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins, depending on both sequence and secondary structure. The advent of new generation sequencing has provided evidences of putative lncRNAs existence; however, the analysis of transcriptomes for their functional characterization remains a challenge. Here, we review some important aspects of lncRNA biology, focusing on their role as regulatory elements in gene expression modulation during physiological and disease processes, with implications in host and pathogens physiology, and their role in immune response modulation.
26 Jun 2017-Non-Coding RNA
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of evolutionarily-conserved small, regulatory non-coding RNAs, 19–3 nucleotides in length, that negatively regulate protein coding gene transcripts’ expression. miR-146 (146a and 146b) and miR-155 are among the first and most studied miRs for their multiple roles in the control of the innate and adaptive immune processes and for their deregulation and oncogenic role in some tumors. In the present review, we have focused on the recent acquisitions about the key role played by miR-146a, miR-146b and miR-155 in the control of the immune system and in myeloid tumorigenesis. Growing experimental evidence indicates an opposite role of miR-146a with respect to miR-155 in the fine regulation of many steps of the immune response, acting at the level of the various cell types involved in innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. The demonstration that miR-155 overexpression plays a key pathogenic role in some lymphomas and acute myeloid leukemias has led to the development of an antagomir-based approach as a new promising therapeutic strategy.
23 Feb 2017-Non-Coding RNA
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized vesicles secreted from virtually all cell types and are thought to transport proteins, lipids and nucleic acids including non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between cells. Since, ncRNAs are central to transcriptional regulation during developmental processes; eukaryotes might have evolved novel means of post-transcriptional regulation by trans-locating ncRNAs between cells. EV-mediated transportation of regulatory elements provides a novel source of trans-regulation between cells. In the last decade, studies were mainly focused on microRNAs; however, functions of long ncRNA (lncRNA) have been much less studied. Here, we review the regulatory roles of EV-linked ncRNAs, placing a particular focus on lncRNAs, how they can foster dictated patterns of trans-regulation in recipient cells. This refers to envisaging novel mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, cellular reprogramming and genomic instability elicited in recipient cells, ultimately permitting the generation of cancer initiating cell phenotypes, senescence and resistance to chemotherapies. Conversely, such trans-regulation may introduce RNA interference in recipient cancer cells causing the suppression of oncogenes and anti-apoptotic proteins; thus favoring tumor inhibition. Collectively, understanding these mechanisms could be of great value to EV-based RNA therapeutics achieved through gene manipulation within cancer cells, whereas the ncRNA content of EVs from cancer patients could serve as non-invasive source of diagnostic biomarkers and prognostic indicators in response to therapies.
24 Apr 2019-Non-Coding RNA
Abstract: The central nervous system can respond to threat via the induction of an inflammatory response. Under normal circumstances this response is tightly controlled, however uncontrolled neuroinflammation is a hallmark of many neurological disorders. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are important for regulating many cellular processes. The ability of microRNAs to modulate inflammatory signaling is an area of ongoing research, which has gained much attention in recent years. MicroRNAs may either promote or restrict inflammatory signaling, and either exacerbate or ameliorate the pathological consequences of excessive neuroinflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the mode of regulation for several important and well-studied microRNAs in the context of neuroinflammation, including miR-155, miR-146a, miR-124, miR-21 and let-7. Furthermore, the pathological consequences of miRNA deregulation during disorders that feature neuroinflammation are discussed, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Prion diseases, Japanese encephalitis, Herpes encephalitis, ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. There has also been considerable interest in the use of altered microRNA signatures as biomarkers for these disorders. The ability to modulate microRNA expression may even serve as the basis for future therapeutic strategies to help treat pathological neuroinflammation.
Topics: Neuroinflammation (52%)
Amanda Salviano-Silva1, Sara Cristina Lobo-Alves1, Rodrigo Coutinho de Almeida1, Danielle Malheiros1 +1 more•Institutions (1)
30 Jan 2018-Non-Coding RNA
Abstract: A significant proportion of mammalian genomes corresponds to genes that transcribe long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Throughout the last decade, the number of studies concerning the roles played by lncRNAs in different biological processes has increased considerably. This intense interest in lncRNAs has produced a major shift in our understanding of gene and genome regulation and structure. It became apparent that lncRNAs regulate gene expression through several mechanisms. These RNAs function as transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulators through binding to histone-modifying complexes, to DNA, to transcription factors and other DNA binding proteins, to RNA polymerase II, to mRNA, or through the modulation of microRNA or enzyme function. Often, the lncRNA transcription itself rather than the lncRNA product appears to be regulatory. In this review, we highlight studies identifying lncRNAs in the homeostasis of various cell and tissue types or demonstrating their effects in the expression of protein-coding or other non-coding RNA genes.