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Showing papers in "Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment in 2003"


Journal ArticleDOI
S. Agostinelli1, John Allison2, K. Amako3, J. Apostolakis4, Henrique Araujo5, P. Arce4, Makoto Asai6, D. Axen4, S. Banerjee7, G. Barrand, F. Behner4, Lorenzo Bellagamba8, J. Boudreau9, L. Broglia10, A. Brunengo8, H. Burkhardt4, Stephane Chauvie, J. Chuma11, R. Chytracek4, Gene Cooperman12, G. Cosmo4, P. V. Degtyarenko13, Andrea Dell'Acqua4, G. Depaola14, D. Dietrich15, R. Enami, A. Feliciello, C. Ferguson16, H. Fesefeldt4, Gunter Folger4, Franca Foppiano, Alessandra Forti2, S. Garelli, S. Gianì4, R. Giannitrapani17, D. Gibin4, J. J. Gomez Y Cadenas4, I. González4, G. Gracia Abril4, G. Greeniaus18, Walter Greiner15, Vladimir Grichine, A. Grossheim4, Susanna Guatelli, P. Gumplinger11, R. Hamatsu19, K. Hashimoto, H. Hasui, A. Heikkinen20, A. S. Howard5, Vladimir Ivanchenko4, A. Johnson6, F.W. Jones11, J. Kallenbach, Naoko Kanaya4, M. Kawabata, Y. Kawabata, M. Kawaguti, S.R. Kelner21, Paul R. C. Kent22, A. Kimura23, T. Kodama24, R. P. Kokoulin21, M. Kossov13, Hisaya Kurashige25, E. Lamanna26, Tapio Lampén20, V. Lara4, Veronique Lefebure4, F. Lei16, M. Liendl4, W. S. Lockman, Francesco Longo27, S. Magni, M. Maire, E. Medernach4, K. Minamimoto24, P. Mora de Freitas, Yoshiyuki Morita3, K. Murakami3, M. Nagamatu24, R. Nartallo28, Petteri Nieminen28, T. Nishimura, K. Ohtsubo, M. Okamura, S. W. O'Neale29, Y. Oohata19, K. Paech15, J Perl6, Andreas Pfeiffer4, Maria Grazia Pia, F. Ranjard4, A.M. Rybin, S.S Sadilov4, E. Di Salvo8, Giovanni Santin27, Takashi Sasaki3, N. Savvas2, Y. Sawada, Stefan Scherer15, S. Sei24, V. Sirotenko4, David J. Smith6, N. Starkov, H. Stoecker15, J. Sulkimo20, M. Takahata23, Satoshi Tanaka30, E. Tcherniaev4, E. Safai Tehrani6, M. Tropeano1, P. Truscott31, H. Uno24, L. Urbán, P. Urban32, M. Verderi, A. Walkden2, W. Wander33, H. Weber15, J.P. Wellisch4, Torre Wenaus34, D.C. Williams, Douglas Wright6, T. Yamada24, H. Yoshida24, D. Zschiesche15 
TL;DR: The Gelfant 4 toolkit as discussed by the authors is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter, including a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits.
Abstract: G eant 4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements, over a wide energy range starting, in some cases, from 250 eV and extending in others to the TeV energy range. It has been designed and constructed to expose the physics models utilised, to handle complex geometries, and to enable its easy adaptation for optimal use in different sets of applications. The toolkit is the result of a worldwide collaboration of physicists and software engineers. It has been created exploiting software engineering and object-oriented technology and implemented in the C++ programming language. It has been used in applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, accelerator design, space engineering and medical physics.

18,904 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
S. Fukuda1, Y. Fukuda1, T. Hayakawa1, E. Ichihara1  +183 moreInstitutions (28)
TL;DR: Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons as discussed by the authors, which collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency.
Abstract: Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.

708 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Shin-ichi Kurokawa1, Eiji Kikutani1
TL;DR: An overview of the KEKB accelerators is given as an introduction of the following articles in this issue, first by summarizing the basic features of the machines, and then describing the improvements of the performance since the start of the physics experiment.
Abstract: An overview of the KEKB accelerators is given as an introduction of the following articles in this issue, first by summarizing the basic features of the machines, and then describing the improvements of the performance since the start of the physics experiment.

611 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is a semiconductor device consisting of many photon microcounters (10 3 mm 2 ) positioned on a common Si substrate as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is a semiconductor device consisting of many photon microcounters (10 3 mm 2 ) positioned on a common Si substrate. SiPM operates in a limited Geiger mode and has single photoelectron gain (10 6 ) and photon detection efficiency (20%) similar to vacuum PMT. Main SiPM features are described and a number of examples of its possible applications are demonstrated, such as scintillator fiber readout, scintillator tiles+WLS readout, imaging Cherenkov counter timing. These SiPM applications are based on experimental test data and SiPM performance is compared with other photodetectors (PMT, APD, HPD, VLPC). r 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

607 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
K. H. Ackermann1, N. Adams2, C. Adler3, Zubayer Ahammed4  +423 moreInstitutions (31)
TL;DR: An introduction to the STAR detector and a brief overview of the physics goals of the experiment can be found in this article, where the authors also present a detailed overview of their experiments.
Abstract: An introduction to the STAR detector and a brief overview of the physics goals of the experiment are presented.

581 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as discussed by the authors is used to record the collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and provides complete coverage around the beam-line, and complete tracking for charged particles within ± 1.8 units of pseudo-rapidity of the center of mass frame.
Abstract: The STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is used to record the collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The TPC is the central element in a suite of detectors that surrounds the interaction vertex. The TPC provides complete coverage around the beam-line, and provides complete tracking for charged particles within ± 1.8 units of pseudo-rapidity of the center-of-mass frame. Charged particles with momenta greater than

579 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
K. Adcox1, S. S. Adler2, M. Aizama3, N. N. Ajitanand4  +601 moreInstitutions (42)
TL;DR: The PHENIX detector as mentioned in this paper is designed to perform a broad study of A-A, p-A and p-p collisions to investigate nuclear matter under extreme conditions, and is used to study systematic variations with species and energy as well as to measure the spin structure of the nucleon.
Abstract: The PHENIX detector is designed to perform a broad study of A-A, p-A, and p-p collisions to investigate nuclear matter under extreme conditions A wide variety of probes, sensitive to all timescales, are used to study systematic variations with species and energy as well as to measure the spin structure of the nucleon Designing for the needs of the heavy-ion and polarized-proton programs has produced a detector with unparalleled capabilities PHENIX measures electron and muon pairs, photons, and hadrons with excellent energy and momentum resolution The detector consists of a large number of subsystems that are discussed in other papers in this volume The overall design parameters of the detector are presented (C) 2002 Elsevier Science BV All rights reserved

447 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bernhard Mecking1, G. S. Adams2, S. Ahmad3, E. Anciant  +171 moreInstitutions (27)
TL;DR: The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) as mentioned in this paper is used to study photo-and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle.
Abstract: The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10 34 nucleon cm −2 s −1 . These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

418 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical and experimental results from front coated, back coated, and "sandwich" designs are presented in this article, where design considerations that maximize the efficiency and performance of such devices are discussed.
Abstract: Semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors provide a compact technology for neutron detection and imaging. Such devices can be produced by externally coatingsemiconductor-charg ed-particle detectors with neutron reactive films that convert free neutrons into charged-particle reaction products. Commonly used films for such devices utilize the 10 B(n,a) 7 Li reaction or the 6 Li(n,a) 3 H reaction, which are attractive due to the relatively high energies imparted to the reaction products. Unfortunately, thin film or ‘‘foil’’ type thermal neutron detectors suffer from self-absorption effects that ultimately limit neutron detection efficiency. Design considerations that maximize the efficiency and performance of such devices are discussed. Theoretical and experimental results from front coated, back coated, and ‘‘sandwich’’ designs are presented. r 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 29.40.W

342 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured the texture of a round-robin limestone standard and extracted orientation distribution data from TOF diffraction spectra with different methods (Rietveld harmonic method, Rietvedeld direct method, automatic fitting of individual peak intensities), and the results compare favorably with results obtained on the same sample measured at other facilities.
Abstract: The new neutron time-of-flight (TOF) diffractometer HIPPO (High-Pressure-Preferred Orientation) at LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) is described and results for quantitative texture analysis of a standard sample are discussed. HIPPO overcomes the problem of weak neutron scattering intensities by taking advantage of the improved source at LANSCE, a short flight path (9 m) and a novel three-dimensional arrangement of detector banks with 1360 3He tubes, on five conical rings with scattering angles ranging from 2θ=10° to 150°. Flux at the sample is on the order of 107 neutrons cm−2 s−1. A large sample chamber (75 cm diameter well) can accommodate ancillary equipment such as an automatic sample changer/goniometer used in this study. This instrument was used to measure the texture of a round-robin limestone standard and extract orientation distribution data from TOF diffraction spectra with different methods (Rietveld harmonic method, Rietveld direct method, automatic fitting of individual peak intensities), and the results compare favorably. Also, there is good agreement with results obtained on the same sample measured at other facilities, but with greatly reduced measuring time for HIPPO.

335 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The KASCADE experiment as mentioned in this paper was designed to measure air showers of primary cosmic-ray energies in the PeV region and to investigate the knee phenomenon in the all-particle energy spectrum.
Abstract: KASCADE has been designed to measure air showers of primary cosmic-ray energies in the PeV region and to investigate the knee phenomenon in the all-particle energy spectrum. Several observations are measured simultaneously for each event by different detector systems. The experiment started to take data in 1996 and has been completed and extended since then. The individual detector systems and their performances are described. Also, the experience in long-term operation of the experiment and the interplay between different components is outlined.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the γ/α ratio for the microCurie to milliCurie range was measured using γ-ray spectroscopy for fission fragments in equilibrium with the source.
Abstract: Sealed 252 Cf sources in the microCurie to milliCurie range are routinely used in industry and research. At present, no reliable analytical method is available for precise determination of the activity. Very strong sources can be analyzed by neutron counting but the error is large. We propose to use γ-ray spectroscopy for such analysis. In particular, high-energy γ rays (above 1 MeV ) of fission fragments in equilibrium with the source are very convenient because they have little absorption in materials surrounding the source. It is found that the 1435.8-keV γ-ray of 138 Cs and the 1596.5-keV γ-ray of 140 La are well isolated and sufficiently above the background under these peaks. We have measured the γ/α ratio for the 252 Cf with an uncertainty of better than 5%. The experiment involved the preparation of several thin 252 Cf sources, alpha pulse height analysis, determination of α decay rate, and the measurement of γ singles spectrum with a well-shielded germanium spectrometer. The measured ratio and the γ-ray spectroscopy of unknown samples can provide the activity of 252 Cf in these samples.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe how suitably doped semiconductor scintillators could provide a combination of high light output, short decay time, and linearity of response that approach fundamental limits.
Abstract: The past half century has witnessed the discovery of many new inorganic scintillator materials and numerous advances in our understanding of the basic physical processes governing the transformation of ionizing radiation into scintillation light. Whereas scintillators are available with a good combination of physical properties, none provides the desired combination of stopping power, light output, and decay time. A review of the numerous scintillation mechanisms of known inorganic scintillators reveals why none of them is both bright and fast. The mechanisms of radiative recombination in wide-band gap direct semiconductors, however, remain relatively unexploited for scintillators. We describe how suitably doped semiconductor scintillators could provide a combination of high light output, short decay time, and linearity of response that approach fundamental limits.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The MCNP-PoliMi 1 code as discussed by the authors was developed from the standard MCNP code to simulate each neutron-nucleus interaction as closely as possible, which can be tailored to model specific detector characteristics.
Abstract: The Monte-Carlo simulation of correlation measurements that rely on the detection of fast neutrons and photonsfrom fission requires that particle interactions in each history be described as closely as possible. The MCNP-PoliMi 1 code has been developed from the standard MCNP code to simulate each neutron–nucleus interaction as closely aspossible.Inparticular,neutroninteractionandphotonproductionaremadecorrelatedandcorrectneutronandphotonfission multiplicities have been implemented. The code output consists in relevant information about each collision, forexample the type of collision, the collision target, the energy deposited, and the position of the interaction. A post-processing code has also been developed and can be tailored to model specific detector characteristics. These featuresmake MCNP-PoliMi a versatile tool to simulate particle interactions and detection processes. The application of theMCNP-PoliMi code to simulate neutron and gamma ray detection in a plastic scintillator is presented.r 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a system for automatic sampling, processing, and analysis of atmospheric radioxenon has been developed, which is performed using activated charcoal and molecular sieves at ambient temperature.
Abstract: A system for automatic sampling, processing, and analysis of atmospheric radioxenon has been developed. From an air sample of about 7 m 3 collected during 12 h , 0.5 cm 3 of xenon is extracted, and the atmospheric activities from the four xenon isotopes 133 Xe , 135 Xe , 131m Xe , and 133m Xe are determined with a beta–gamma coincidence technique. The collection is performed using activated charcoal and molecular sieves at ambient temperature. The sample preparation and quantification are performed using preparative gas chromatography. The system was tested under routine conditions for a 5-month period, with average minimum detectable concentrations below 1 mBq / m 3 for all four isotopes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects, both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered.
Abstract: Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

Journal ArticleDOI
A. Valassi1
TL;DR: In this paper, a procedure used to combine the correlated results of different high-energy physics experiments is reviewed in order to provide the best combined estimate of each measured quantity, where correlations may also exist between the result of different experiments, for instance if they rely on the use of the same theoretical models.
Abstract: Measurements of different physical quantities are often correlated when they are performed by the same experiment, using the same data or the same detector. Correlations may also exist between the results of different experiments, for instance if they rely on the use of the same theoretical models. All these correlations must be properly taken into account to provide the best combined estimate of each measured quantity. A procedure used to combine the correlated results of different high-energy physics experiments is reviewed in this paper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the key architectural and technological differences that impact the photon detection performances and gave the future directions for CMOS detectors evolution. But their focus was on the performance of photon detection.
Abstract: CCD and CMOS detectors each have strengths and weaknesses coming from their architecture or their fabrication process. This paper reviews their key architectural and technological differences that impact the photon detection performances and gives the future directions for CMOS detectors evolution.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Mythen detector (Microstrip system for time-resolved experiments) has been built for the powder diffraction Station of the Material Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source to meet these requirements.
Abstract: Time-resolved experiments in powder diffraction are limited by the long time required to record spectra with current detectors. A major improvement can be made by using a massively parallel X-ray detection system together with a fast read out. The Mythen detector (Microstrip system for time-resolved experiments) has been built for the Powder Diffraction Station of the Material Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source to meet these requirements. The specifically developed read out chip (Mythen chip), the detector system and first measurements are shown.

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Beddo1, E. Bielick1, T. Fornek1, V. Guarino1, D. Hill1, K. Krueger1, Thomas LeCompte1, D. Lopiano1, H. M. Spinka1, D. G. Underwood1, A. Yokosawa1, Robert S. Brown2, W. Christie2, T. J. Hallman2, T. Ljubicic2, D. Padrazo2, Yu. Ivanshin, I.A. Savin, V.S. Shvetsov, R.Ya. Zul'karneev, J. Balewski3, L. C. Bland3, W. Hunt3, W. W. Jacobs3, A. Klyachko3, M. Planinic3, S. V. Razin3, T. Rinckel3, K. Solberg3, J. Sowinski3, E.J. Stephensen3, S. E. Vigdor3, S. W. Wissink3, S.A. Akimenko, A. A. Derevschikov, A. S. Konstantinov, V.A. Leontiev, Yu A. Matulenko, Yu Melnick, A. P. Meschanin, N. Mikhalin, N. G. Minaev, L. V. Nogach, S. B. Nurushev, K. E. Shestermanov, A.V. Vasiliev, A. E. Yakutin, F. S. Bieser4, J. Carroll4, H. F. Chen4, K. Filimonov4, B. Holmes4, J. Hunter4, Richard C. Jared4, J. Klay4, B. Krieger4, T. Merrick4, J. Marx4, R. Minor4, G. Risk4, P. Salz4, Chinh Vu4, M. B. Tonjes5, A. M. Vander Molen5, Gary Westfall5, S. Heppelmann6, A. Ogawa6, G. Eppley7, W. J. Llope7, E. Platner7, V. Ghazikhanian8, G. Igo8, S. Trentalange8, O. D. Tsai8, C. A. Whitten8, N.I. Belikov9, S. Bennett9, A. Bordiukov9, Subhasis Chattopadhyay9, Thomas Michael Cormier9, M. M. de Moura9, A. Egorov9, Y. Filippov9, W. Funk9, Yu. M. Goncharenko9, O. A. Grachov9, V. Kormilitsyne9, V. Lavrentiev9, O. Lesovoy9, Q. Li9, A. I. Pavlinov9, Vladimir Petrov9, I. Pirogov9, F. Pompei9, J. Riso9, V. L. Rykov9, G. Shamsoutdinov9, A. Stolpovsky9, Alexandre Alarcon Do Passo Suaide9, A. Vilkov9, Sergey Voloshin9, Q. Wang9 
TL;DR: The STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter (STAR) is an electromagnetic calorimeter with a two-dimensional (2D) lattice, which was designed and fabricated by.
Abstract: Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of the STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter are presented.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: AGILE (Light Imager for Gamma-ray Astrophysics) is the first small scientific mission of ASI, the Italian Space Agency, which is planned to be operational in the years 2003-2006, a period in which no other gamma-ray mission in the same energy range is foreseen as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: AGILE (Light Imager for Gamma-ray Astrophysics) is the first small scientific mission of ASI, the Italian Space Agency. It is a light ( 100 kg for the scientific instrument) satellite for the detection of γ-ray sources in the energy range 30 MeV – 50 GeV within a large field of view ( 1 4 of the sky). It is planned to be operational in the years 2003–2006, a period in which no other gamma-ray mission in the same energy range is foreseen. AGILE is made of a silicon tungsten tracker, a CsI(Tl) minicalorimeter (1.5X0), an anticoincidence system of segmented plastic scintillators and a X-ray imaging detector sensitive in the 10– 40 keV range. The tracker consists of 14 planes, each of them made of two layers of 16 single-sided, AC coupled, 410 μm thick, 9.5×9.5 cm 2 silicon detectors with a readout pitch of 242 μm and a floating strip. The readout ASIC is the TAA1, an analog-digital, low noise, self-triggering ASIC used in a very low power configuration ( μW / channel ) with full analog readout. The trigger of the satellite is given by the tracker. The total number of readout channels is around 43 000. We present a detailed description of the tracker, its trigger and readout logic, its assembly procedures and the prototype performance in several testbeam periods at the CERN PS.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of recent developments in compound semiconductor detectors is presented, highlighting the latest spectroscopic performance from devices fabricated from a range of wide bandgap materials.
Abstract: Recent developments in compound semiconductor detectors are reviewed, highlighting the latest spectroscopic performance from devices fabricated from a range of wide bandgap materials. Cadmium zinc telluride and cadmium telluride continue to dominate the field, with a range of prototype imaging detectors under development, principally for nuclear medicine and X-ray astronomy applications. Improvements in material quality and supply plus metal–semiconductor contact technologies are discussed, as is the continued development of single polarity charge sensing electrode structures. Other material systems are also reviewed, covering the latest results from intermediate-Z materials such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide, and high-Z materials including mercuric iodide and thallium bromide. The technological challenges of these materials are summarised and the prospects for future imaging array detectors highlighted.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review is presented of some recent developments in the field of inorganic scintillators for medical-imaging detectors, in particular detectors for fluoroscopy, X-ray computed tomography and positron emission tomography.
Abstract: A review is presented of some recent developments in the field of inorganic scintillators for medical-imaging detectors, in particular detectors for fluoroscopy, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A second high current accelerator of 400 kV has been installed at the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, called LUNA II as discussed by the authors, which measured the absolute energy, energy spread, and long-term energy stability.
Abstract: A second high current accelerator of 400 kV has been installed at the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, called LUNA II. We describe this new facility as well as measurements of the proton beam characteristics: absolute energy, energy spread, and long-term energy stability. The absolute energy was determined to a precision of 7300 eV at Ep ¼ 130–400 keV using the energy of the capture g-ray transition of 12 Cðp;gÞ 13 N as well as resonance energies at Ep ¼ 309–389 keV of 23 Naðp;gÞ 24 Mg; 26 Mgðp;gÞ 27 Al; and 25 Mgðp;gÞ 26 Al: The resonance studies led to a proton energy

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DAΦNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) is a beam transfer line optimized for the production of electron or positron bunches, in a wide range of multiplicities and down to single-electron mode, in the energy range between 50 and 800 MeV as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The DAΦNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) is a beam transfer line optimized for the production of electron or positron bunches, in a wide range of multiplicities and down to single-electron mode, in the energy range between 50 and 800 MeV . The typical pulse duration is 10 ns and the maximum repetition rate is 50 Hz . The facility design has been optimized for detector calibration purposes. The BTF has been successfully commissioned in February 2002 and started operation in the same year in November. The schemes of operation, the commissioning results, as well as the first users’ experience are reported here.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fragment separator, the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou, has been constructed at the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou and in operation since January 1998 as mentioned in this paper, and the features of the structure and performance are described in detail.
Abstract: A fragment separator, the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou, has been constructed at the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou and in operation since January 1998. In this paper, the features of the structure and performance are described in detail. Some early stage results are presented also.

Journal ArticleDOI
Olivier Limousin1
TL;DR: The CdTe gamma-ray camera IBIS/ISGRI, on board the INTEGRAL satellite launched in October 2002, is currently the largest spectro-imager of this type in the world as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The CdTe gamma-ray camera IBIS/ISGRI, on board the INTEGRAL satellite launched in October 2002, is currently the largest spectro-imager of this type in the world. The development of this detector, for research in the field of astrophysics, has provided the opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of massive integration of CdTe nuclear detectors, taking advantage of the CdTe good spectral performances and high modularity. Many other groups in the world work also to further develop detectors using this material in view of improving its spectral performances (crystal quality, electrode geometry and type, electronics and filtering, etc.), the spatial resolution (pixelization of monolithic crystals) and the detection efficiency at high energy (thickness). In this review, I will detail the main directions in which to strive in order to explore these fields in the upcoming years through examples of techniques or applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Monte Carlo calculations were used to optimize the parameters of a 280 cm3 n-type Ge semiconductor photon detector with an accuracy of about 0.2% from 50 to 1400 keV.
Abstract: Precise measured data and an extensive set of Monte Carlo calculations have been combined to optimize the parameters for a 280 cm3 n-type Ge semiconductor photon detector, with the outcome that the Monte Carlo calculations now provide a very precise detector efficiency curve. The detector position and its length were determined from a set of measurements that included an axial scan. Measurements of the relative efficiencies based on radionuclides with accurately known relative photon emission rates were combined with efficiencies calculated by a Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code to adjust the detector diameter, internal deadlayer thickness, and the effective external deadlayer thickness. Our results show that, in a well-studied situation, it is possible to use Monte Carlo calculations to aid in the determination of a Ge detector's efficiency with an accuracy of about 0.2% from 50 to 1400 keV.

Journal ArticleDOI
X. Llopart1, M. Campbell1
TL;DR: The Medipix2 chip as mentioned in this paper is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256×256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals.
Abstract: The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256×256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The chip is designed and manufactured in a six-metal 0.25 μm CMOS technology. This paper describes several electrical measurements which have been carried out on the chip prior to detector bump bonding using a dedicated readout system. Threshold linearity and variation has been measured for both electron and hole collection. The noise is ∼100e − RMS and the threshold can be adjusted to ∼120e − RMS for both polarities. The minimum operating threshold is ∼1000e − .

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical comparison of the existing detector concepts by means of detailed GEANT simulations revealed large differences in neutron sensitivity, and based on these simulations, an optimized detector was developed and successfully tested.
Abstract: Hydrogen-free scintillators are indispensable for determining the small, resonance-dominated neutron capture cross-sections of light and neutron magic nuclei, data which are needed for advanced reactor concepts, for transmutation of radioactive wastes as well as for astrophysical scenarios of neutron capture nucleosynthesis. A critical comparison of the existing detector concepts by means of detailed GEANT simulations revealed large differences in neutron sensitivity. Based on these simulations, an optimized detector was developed and successfully tested. Compared to a commercial detector, the neutron sensitivity of this solution is more than an order of magnitude lower, thus allowing even extremely small capture/scattering ratios to be measured reliably.