Journal•ISSN: 0168-583X

# Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms

Elsevier BV

About: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Ion & Ion implantation. It has an ISSN identifier of 0168-583X. Over the lifetime, 35461 publications have been published receiving 484309 citations. The journal is also known as: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section B, Beam interactions with materials and atoms & Nuclear instruments & methods in physics research. Section B, Beam interactions with materials and atoms.

Topics: Ion, Ion implantation, Ion beam, Irradiation, Electron

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01 Jun 2010-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms

TL;DR: SRIM as discussed by the authors is a software package concerning the stopping of ion/atom collisions, and individual interatomic potentials have been included for all ion and atom collisions in the SRIM package.

Abstract: SRIM is a software package concerning the S topping and R ange of I ons in M atter. Since its introduction in 1985, major upgrades are made about every six years. Currently, more than 700 scientific citations are made to SRIM every year. For SRIM-2010 , the following major improvements have been made: (1) About 2800 new experimental stopping powers were added to the database, increasing it to over 28,000 stopping values. (2) Improved corrections were made for the stopping of ions in compounds. (3) New heavy ion stopping calculations have led to significant improvements on SRIM stopping accuracy. (4) A self-contained SRIM module has been included to allow SRIM stopping and range values to be controlled and read by other software applications. (5) Individual interatomic potentials have been included for all ion/atom collisions, and these potentials are now included in the SRIM package. A full catalog of stopping power plots can be downloaded at www.SRIM.org . Over 500 plots show the accuracy of the stopping and ranges produced by SRIM along with 27,000 experimental data points. References to the citations which reported the experimental data are included.

6,906 citations

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01 Jun 1985-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms

TL;DR: Estimates of the number of arithmetic operations used by the program for any simulation to demonstrate the tradeoffs between accuracy, computation time, and algorithm sophistication are provided.

Abstract: A computer program which simulates Rutherford backscattering spectra is currently in use at Cornell University and other institutions. Straggling and detector resolution are among the effects included. Samples are considered to be made up of a finite number of layers, each with uniform composition. The emphasis in the mathematics is on accuracy beyond that of iterated surface approximation methods. Thicker layers can thus be analyzed without a net loss in accuracy. The mathematical description of the sample can then have fewer layers and fewer calculations are required. This paper provides estimates of the number of arithmetic operations used by the program for any simulation to demonstrate the tradeoffs between accuracy, computation time, and algorithm sophistication.

2,551 citations

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01 May 2007-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the ICN and NIST 10 Be AMS standards with a known number of 10 Be atoms in both Si detectors and Be foil targets, and concluded that the 9 Be(n,γ) neutron cross section is 7.8 ± 0.23mb, without taking into account the uncertainty in the neutron irradiation.

Abstract: The increased detection sensitivity offered by AMS has dramatically expanded the utility of 10 Be. As these applications become more sophisticated attention has focused on the accuracy of the 10 Be standards used to calibrate the AMS measurements. In recent years it has become apparent that there is a discrepancy between two of the most widely used 10 Be AMS standards, the ICN 10 Be standard and the NIST 10 Be standard. The ICN (ICN Chemical & Radioisotope Division) 10 Be AMS standard was calibrated by radioactive decay counting. Dilutions, ranging from 5 × 10 −13 to 3 × 10 −11 10 Be/Be, have been prepared and are extensively used in many AMS laboratories. The NIST 10 Be standard, prepared at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is calibrated by mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurements. To provide an independent calibration of the 10 Be standards we implanted a known number of 10 Be atoms in both Si detectors and Be foil targets. The 10 Be concentrations in these targets were measured by AMS. The results were compared with both the ICN and NIST AMS standards. Our 10 Be measurements indicate that the 10 Be/ 9 Be isotopic ratio of the ICN AMS standard, which is based on a 10 Be half-life of 1.5 × 10 6 yr, is 1.106 ± 0.012 times lower than the nominal value. Since the decay rate of the ICN standard is well determined, the decrease in 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio requires that the 10 Be half-life be reduced to (1.36 ± 0.07) × 10 6 yr. The quoted uncertainty includes a ±5% uncertainty in the activity measurement carried out by ICN. In a similar fashion, we determined that the value of the NIST 10 Be standard (SRM4325) is (2.79 ± 0.03) × 10 −11 10 Be/ 9 Be, within error of the certified value of (2.68 ± 0.14) × 10 −11 . The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) internal standards were also included in this study. We conclude that the 9 Be(n, γ) neutron cross section is 7.8 ± 0.23 mb, without taking into account the uncertainty in the neutron irradiation.

1,265 citations

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01 Sep 2013-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms

TL;DR: The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin–Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

1,097 citations

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01 Sep 1989-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms

TL;DR: The GUPIXWIN program as discussed by the authors has been extended with a Monte Carlo code to provide detector efficiency values that are more accurate than those of the previous approximate analytical formula, and a new batch mode facility is designed to handle two-detector PIXE, with one detector measuring major elements and the other simultaneously measuring trace elements.

Abstract: Following the introduction of GUPIXWIN in 2005, a number of upgrades have been made in the interests of extending the applicability of the program. Extension of the proton upper energy limit to 5 MeV facilitates the simultaneous use of PIXE with other ion beam analysis techniques. Also, the increased penetration depth enables the complete PIXE analysis of paintings. A second database change is effected in which recently recommended values of L-subshell fluorescence and Coster–Kronig yields are adopted. A Monte Carlo code has been incorporated in the GUPIX package to provide detector efficiency values that are more accurate than those of the previous approximate analytical formula. Silicon escape peak modeling is extended to the back face of silicon drift detectors. An improved description of the attenuation in dura-coated beryllium detector windows is devised. Film thickness determination is enhanced. A new batch mode facility is designed to handle two-detector PIXE, with one detector measuring major elements and the other simultaneously measuring trace elements.

978 citations