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JournalISSN: 0168-583X

Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms 

About: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Ion & Ion implantation. It has an ISSN identifier of 0168-583X. Over the lifetime, 34983 publication(s) have been published receiving 452255 citation(s). more

Topics: Ion, Ion implantation, Ion beam more
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: SRIM is a software package concerning the S topping and R ange of I ons in M atter. Since its introduction in 1985, major upgrades are made about every six years. Currently, more than 700 scientific citations are made to SRIM every year. For SRIM-2010 , the following major improvements have been made: (1) About 2800 new experimental stopping powers were added to the database, increasing it to over 28,000 stopping values. (2) Improved corrections were made for the stopping of ions in compounds. (3) New heavy ion stopping calculations have led to significant improvements on SRIM stopping accuracy. (4) A self-contained SRIM module has been included to allow SRIM stopping and range values to be controlled and read by other software applications. (5) Individual interatomic potentials have been included for all ion/atom collisions, and these potentials are now included in the SRIM package. A full catalog of stopping power plots can be downloaded at . Over 500 plots show the accuracy of the stopping and ranges produced by SRIM along with 27,000 experimental data points. References to the citations which reported the experimental data are included. more

5,498 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Lawrence Doolittle1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Estimates of the number of arithmetic operations used by the program for any simulation to demonstrate the tradeoffs between accuracy, computation time, and algorithm sophistication are provided. more

Abstract: A computer program which simulates Rutherford backscattering spectra is currently in use at Cornell University and other institutions. Straggling and detector resolution are among the effects included. Samples are considered to be made up of a finite number of layers, each with uniform composition. The emphasis in the mathematics is on accuracy beyond that of iterated surface approximation methods. Thicker layers can thus be analyzed without a net loss in accuracy. The mathematical description of the sample can then have fewer layers and fewer calculations are required. This paper provides estimates of the number of arithmetic operations used by the program for any simulation to demonstrate the tradeoffs between accuracy, computation time, and algorithm sophistication. more

2,510 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The increased detection sensitivity offered by AMS has dramatically expanded the utility of 10 Be. As these applications become more sophisticated attention has focused on the accuracy of the 10 Be standards used to calibrate the AMS measurements. In recent years it has become apparent that there is a discrepancy between two of the most widely used 10 Be AMS standards, the ICN 10 Be standard and the NIST 10 Be standard. The ICN (ICN Chemical & Radioisotope Division) 10 Be AMS standard was calibrated by radioactive decay counting. Dilutions, ranging from 5 × 10 −13 to 3 × 10 −11 10 Be/Be, have been prepared and are extensively used in many AMS laboratories. The NIST 10 Be standard, prepared at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is calibrated by mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurements. To provide an independent calibration of the 10 Be standards we implanted a known number of 10 Be atoms in both Si detectors and Be foil targets. The 10 Be concentrations in these targets were measured by AMS. The results were compared with both the ICN and NIST AMS standards. Our 10 Be measurements indicate that the 10 Be/ 9 Be isotopic ratio of the ICN AMS standard, which is based on a 10 Be half-life of 1.5 × 10 6 yr, is 1.106 ± 0.012 times lower than the nominal value. Since the decay rate of the ICN standard is well determined, the decrease in 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio requires that the 10 Be half-life be reduced to (1.36 ± 0.07) × 10 6 yr. The quoted uncertainty includes a ±5% uncertainty in the activity measurement carried out by ICN. In a similar fashion, we determined that the value of the NIST 10 Be standard (SRM4325) is (2.79 ± 0.03) × 10 −11 10 Be/ 9 Be, within error of the certified value of (2.68 ± 0.14) × 10 −11 . The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) internal standards were also included in this study. We conclude that the 9 Be(n, γ) neutron cross section is 7.8 ± 0.23 mb, without taking into account the uncertainty in the neutron irradiation. more

1,126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
John Campbell1, N. I. Boyd1, N. Grassi, Patrick Bonnick1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Following the introduction of GUPIXWIN in 2005, a number of upgrades have been made in the interests of extending the applicability of the program. Extension of the proton upper energy limit to 5 MeV facilitates the simultaneous use of PIXE with other ion beam analysis techniques. Also, the increased penetration depth enables the complete PIXE analysis of paintings. A second database change is effected in which recently recommended values of L-subshell fluorescence and Coster–Kronig yields are adopted. A Monte Carlo code has been incorporated in the GUPIX package to provide detector efficiency values that are more accurate than those of the previous approximate analytical formula. Silicon escape peak modeling is extended to the back face of silicon drift detectors. An improved description of the attenuation in dura-coated beryllium detector windows is devised. Film thickness determination is enhanced. A new batch mode facility is designed to handle two-detector PIXE, with one detector measuring major elements and the other simultaneously measuring trace elements. more

928 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Lawrence Doolittle1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Nonlinear least squares techniques have been applied to Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), allowing routine multivariable fits of simulated spectra to experimental data. Once a qualitatively correct simulation is made, this algorithm varies parameters of the simulation to obtain quantitative results. Optimization is done according to a maximum likelihood chi-squared definition, so that the best fit values of parameters and their uncertainties can be determined. Convergence of the algorithm is rapid for practical problems, allowing a typical four-variable fit to be accomplished in 30 seconds on a VAX 11/750. This algorithm allows confident treatment of spectra which might otherwise be considered too complex. An implementation of the algorithm is incorporated as part of an RBS analysis and simulation package, making it readily available for routine RBS analysis. more

927 citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Eduardo Alves

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