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Showing papers in "Nutrition Today in 2010"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ginger has been a part of healing strategies in Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East for centuries for treatment of such disorders as arthritis, stomach upset, asthma, diabetes, and menstrual irregularities.
Abstract: G inger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a member of the Zingiberaceae family of plants. The plant is native to Asia but is now cultivated in the West Indies, Africa, India, and other tropical regions. The underground stem (rhizome) is used for preparation of ginger and can be obtained in colors varying from white to brown, depending on whether the exterior is scraped off and how it is initially treated. This rhizome can be processed into a powder, syrup, volatile oil, and oleoresin. Its use in culinary applications dates as far back as the 13th century. Among all spices, it exhibits one of the greatest diversity of uses, such as in dietary supplements, beverages (such as ginger ales), and food products (such as in curry powder, confectionaries, soups, jams, and baked goods). It has been a part of healing strategies in Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East for centuries for treatment of such disorders as arthritis, stomach upset, asthma, diabetes, and menstrual irregularities, to name a few. The rhizome contains fats, carbohydrates, protein, fiber, water, and volatile oil. The quality and quantity of biologically active constituents of ginger depend on its cultivation practices and postharvest treatment. The chemical components of the ginger rhizome can vary considerably, depending on the location of cultivation and whether the product is fresh, dried, or processed. The pungency of fresh ginger results from a group of phenols, the gingerols, of which [6]-gingerol is most abundant. Fresh ginger also may contain a 5-deoxy derivative of ginger called paradol. Dry ginger, on the other hand, exhibits a pungency due to the shogaols, which are dehydrated forms of gingerols resulting from thermal processing. Ginger also contains about 1% to 3% volatile oil that imparts a distinctive odor to ginger and which is composed mainly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, including camphene, borneol, zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene, and bisabolene. Monoterpenes are compounds that contain 10-carbon skeleton often arranged in a ring. Sesquiterpenoids have a 15-carbon skeleton. Besides the pungent phenolic compounds (gingerols and shogaols), there are also bioactive diarylheptanoids and zingerone that are believed to contribute to its purported health benefits. Despite the widespread use of ginger and the numerous studies into its actions, there is limited information on bioavailability of the ginger components

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined a variety of the influences affecting the development of the American ideal body image perceptions at different stages of the life cycle and found that the identified influences might have similar effects on the population in other countries that purchase American products, watch American television and movies, listen to American music, read American periodicals, and visit our country.
Abstract: B ody image refers to a subjective concept of one’s physical appearance based on self-observation and the reaction of others. ‘‘Ideal’’ body image is the phrase used to refer to the body size determined by one’s cultural group to epitomize beauty and/or success in achievement of the optimum physical state as defined by that group. The ‘‘ideal’’ body image can vary between cultural groups, within ethnic groups, and within any other group to which one belongs. Where do Americans derive their perception of ideal body image? What are some of the factors that influence the perception of ideal body image as one develops along the life span? How can health professionals, parents, teachers, and friends affect the development of healthy, positive body images among American youth? This article examines a variety of the influences affecting the development of the American ideal body image perceptions at different stages of the life cycle. The identified influences might have similar effects on the population in other countries that purchase American products, watch American television and movies, listen to American music, read American periodicals, and visit our country. The globalization of today’s marketplace hastens the popularity of selected role models and the pursuit of the ideal body image in vogue at the time. Understanding the factors influencing the development of a healthy body image is of interest to many disciplines, educators, and target groups throughout the world. Body Image Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on the current scientific literature, oregano extracts and individual constituents consistently have demonstrated antimicrobial actions in vitro toward food-borne pathogens, although the capacity to counter human infections is not well studied.
Abstract: Oregano is an herb that has been cultivated for centuries in the Mediterranean area, although it now can be found on most continents. Actually, there is not simply one \"oregano,\" but rather several species that may contribute to the oregano used for culinary purposes. Origanum vulgare (also referred to as Spanish thyme and wild marjoram), a member of the plant family Lamiaceae, is generally the spice variety sold as oregano in Europe and the United States. Medicinal uses for oregano date back to the ancient Greek and Roman empires where applications of the leaves were used to treat such maladies as skin sores and relieve aching muscles and as an antiseptic. Oregano also has been used in traditional medicines for such ailments as asthma, cramping, diarrhea, and indigestion. In Greece, an oregano infusion is still used as a folk remedy against colds and upset stomach and to maintain general health. Based on the current scientific literature, oregano extracts and individual constituents consistently have demonstrated antimicrobial actions in vitro toward food-borne pathogens, although the capacity to counter human infections is not well studied. Oregano contains several potent antioxidants that may contribute to the findings in preliminary studies that oregano exhibits benefits toward the cardiovascular and nervous systems, relieves symptoms of inflammation, and modulates blood sugar and lipids. Well-controlled human studies substantiating these health effects are lacking

48 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Curcumin, an orange-yellow powder that has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, may contribute to curcumin’s potential to prevent such conditions as cancer, Alzheimer disease, heart disease, and arthritis, to name a few.
Abstract: The spice turmeric, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L, has been used for centuries in food preparation and in traditional medicines to treat numerous diseases and conditions. The primary biologically active constituent of turmeric is the polyphenol, curcumin, an orange-yellow powder that has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which, in part, may contribute to curcumin’s potential to prevent such conditions as cancer, Alzheimer disease, heart disease, and arthritis, to name a few. Clinical confirmation of these putative benefits is limited, however, and progress in establishing the in vivo efficacy in humans especially at typical dietary intakes is constrained by the poor bioavailability of this hydrophobic molecule. Strategies to improve absorption and distribution of curcumin in foods and findings from ongoing clinical studies should improve our understanding of how curcumin can best be used to improve human health. Nutr Today. 2010;45(5):216–225

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary evidence in cell culture studies suggests that black pepper contains antioxidant constituents and possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and the strength of the evidence is graded.
Abstract: The black pepper (Piper nigrum L) vine and its extracts have been used as a folk medicine in a variety of cultures and are the source of the most commonly used spice worldwide. The chemical piperine is a major bioactive component present in black pepper (and white pepper as well) that has numerous reported physiological and drug-like actions. The scientific literature provides evidence that black pepper may have health benefits, particularly in enhancing digestive tract function. There is suggestive evidence that black pepper piperine may have nervous system benefits and may influence body energy usage in rats. Preliminary evidence in cell culture studies suggests that black pepper contains antioxidant constituents and possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. An overview of major uses for black pepper is presented here, and the strength of the evidence is graded

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Key elements of research should include accurate methods of assessing and modifying hydration state, an adequate number of subjects, appropriate behavioral tasks to detect subtle effects of dehydration, and inclusion of rigorous control conditions.
Abstract: Although adequate hydration is essential for optimal brain function, research addressing relationships between hydration status and human behavior and cognitive function is limited. The few published studies in this area are inconclusive and contradictory. The impact of variations in hydration status, which can be substantial as humans go about their daily activities, on brain function and behavior is not known and may impact quality of life. Furthermore, vulnerable populations such as children, elderly people, and individuals with illnesses may be at higher risk of degradation in cognitive function from dehydration. A variety of difficult methodological issues have impeded progress in this area. For example, there are several methods to achieve dehydration in humans, each with different strengths and weakness. Accurately assessing and modifying human hydration status and consistently achieving desired levels of dehydration in a controlled manner are problematic. It is difficult to select appropriate behavioral tasks that detect relatively subtle changes in cognitive performance and mood resulting from moderate levels of dehydration. Generating experimental designs that include hydrated control conditions and double-blind testing poses substantial challenges to investigators. Additional well-controlled research is essential if progress is to be made and understanding gained of the effects of dehydration on cognitive function. Key elements of research should include accurate methods of assessing and modifying hydration state, an adequate number of subjects, appropriate behavioral tasks to detect subtle effects of dehydration, and inclusion of rigorous control conditions

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is interesting to discuss available recommendations for water intake and their reliability, because no study is available on the long-term health effects of the quantity and/or the quality of fluids ingested.
Abstract: Water is quantitatively by far the No. 1 nutrient in our diet. Of course, this can vary, depending on the amount and the quality of food and drink one consumes, but approximately 50% of what we eat and drink every day is water (CIQUAL, Table CIQUAL 2008, composition nutritionnelle des aliments, 2008

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mounting interest and activity globally have been seen in developing comprehensive mechanisms to provide consumers with information about the nutritional quality of foods and beverages at the point of purchase, either on product packaging or shelf tags in retail settings, also known as front-of-pack nutrition labeling systems.
Abstract: In this day and age, American consumers are more interested in health and nutrition than ever before, and with our technologically advanced world, nutrition information from a wide variety of sources is increasingly available. According to the 2009 International Food Information Council Foundation Food & Health Survey, 67% of consumers agree that reading or hearing about the relationship between food and health is of interest, but 42% also agree that food and health information is confusing and conflicting. As a result, for many health and nutrition experts, the process of developing science-based dietary recommendations that are clear to consumers is top of mind. Experts increasingly recognize that having good tools to help consumers apply dietary guidance is as important as the recommendations themselves. The US government is currently updating nutrition recommendations through the development of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. It is also looking at how to most effectively use consumer tools, including the Nutrition Facts panel (NFP), to present recommendations to the public and is interested in the role that nutrition symbols play in consumers' dietary choices. Consumers report using many aspects of information on food packages when making purchase decisions, including the NFP, and they are most likely to report consulting it when purchasing a product for the first time. However, ethnographic research shows that consumers do not actually use the NFP as frequently as they report doing so but are more likely to use it when, among other factors, nutrition information is present on the front of the package. Still, understanding and applying nutrition information, particularly to evaluate the nutrient content of individual foods and beverages in the context of a daily diet, seem to be lacking. Mounting interest and activity globally have been seen in developing comprehensive mechanisms to provide consumers with information about the nutritional quality of foods and beverages at the point of purchase, either on product packaging or shelf tags in retail settings, also known as front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labeling systems. Several types of FOP systems have emerged: • Fact-based systems provide FOP information that brings to the front panel information that is provided in the NFP. • Better-for-you systems use symbols to indicate how a product ranks against a defined set of nutritional criteria. • Graded better-for-you systems also use symbols, but with indicators to convey good, better, and best nutritional quality. • Numerical rating systems use numbers to rank the overall nutritional quality of a food or beverage. • Color-coded systems use colors to provide at-a-glance information about the levels of individual nutrients in a food or beverage. There are a variety of approaches with respect to communicating nutritional quality and nutrient quantity. The US Food and Drug Administration is devoting increased attention to the use of FOP labeling and will play a large role in shaping the future of this approach. Options must be carefully thought out and thoroughly tested with consumers to maximize effectiveness and usefulness in maintaining overall diet quality over time and, ultimately, positively impacting health. In addition, it is imperative that appropriate education accompany any programs developed for the public

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Accumulated data from the most rigorous of study types, crossover experiments, and randomized and controlled trials indicate that drinking water results in lower total energy intake and higher rates of fat oxidation than other beverages.
Abstract: T he public is confronted with conflicting messages about weight management. Beverage guidelines are no exception. Not drinking caloric beverages is, for example, described as essential for weight loss, while drinking noncaloric beverages, such as water, is described as ridiculous for weight loss. Moreover, the scientific literature recommends drinking water and other beverages including low-fat milk and small quantities of fruit juice, at the same time as criticizing beverage recommendations as lacking an adequate evidence base. The paragraphs that follow describe a strong evidence base for recommending drinking water for weight management. Accumulated data from the most rigorous of study types, crossover experiments, and randomized and controlled trials indicate that drinking water results in lower total energy intake and higher rates of fat oxidation than other beverages. Advice to drink water is associated with reduced weight gain in children and weight loss in dieting adults.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basic elements of water physiology in relation to health are reviewed, placing emphasis on the assessment of water requirements and fluid balance.
Abstract: Water is the most abundant molecule in the human body that undergoes continuous recycling. Numerous functions have been recognized for body water, including its function as a solvent, as a means to remove metabolic heat, and as a regulator of cell volume and overall function. Tight control mechanisms have evolved for precise control of fluid balance, indicative of its biological importance. However, water is frequently overlooked as a nutrient. This article reviews the basic elements of water physiology in relation to health, placing emphasis on the assessment of water requirements and fluid balance. Current recommendations are also discussed

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The American Medical Association and other groups call for health-promoting foods to be served in hospitals and other healthcare facilities, and ways to accomplish this goal are described.
Abstract: The American Medical Association and other groups call for health-promoting foods to be served in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. This article describes ways to accomplish this goal.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary observation supports the interest of an approach based on primary prevention using voluntary increase in water-based fluid consumption in small-fluid-volume (SFV) drinkers.
Abstract: Water homeostasis depends on fluid intake and maintenance of body water balance by adjustment of renal excretion under the control of arginine vasopressin hormone. The human kidney manages more efficiently fluid excess than fluid deficit. As a result, no overhydration is observed in healthy individu

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Compared with non-rice eaters, rice eaters are less likely to have risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome; they are morelikely to have an overall better diet quality.
Abstract: Evidence from the most recent (1999-2004) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides new information on the relationship between rice consumption and food group/nutrient intake and certain health parameters in children and adults. Of 25 374 eligible participants, 5213 were identified

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Emerging research is revealing even more important relationships between nutrition and oral health issues and chronic health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and immune-compromising conditions.
Abstract: Oral problems can affect and be affected by both diet and systemic nutrition. Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent disease of children: 7 times more common than hay fever and five times more common than childhood asthma. The mouth is an early indicator of general health and nutritional status; clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional and other health problems frequently appear first in the oral cavity. Conversely, oral problems can have profound effects on nutritional status. Emerging research is revealing even more important relationships between nutrition and oral health issues and chronic health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and immune-compromising conditions. Health care professionals should help their patients by asking patients about oral health concerns and referring patients for dental consults when indicated. Promoting good oral health as well as good nutrition is essential to optimal overall health status

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper describes the process experienced in Mexico from the characterizations of beverage consumption to the development of national beverage recommendation guidelines.
Abstract: The paper describes the process experienced in Mexico from the characterizations of beverage consumption to the development of national beverage recommendation guidelines

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the process of milk pasteurization and the dangers associated with unpasteurized milk consumption and provide evidence that there is no nutritional advantage to consuming unpasteurized milk.
Abstract: Milk and dairy products are important components of a healthy diet because they provide a wealth of nutritional benefits. However, unpasteurized milk or dairy products can be excellent vehicles for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms, which have been scientifically shown to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in individuals who consume unpasteurized milk products. As a result, milk produced in the United States undergoes extensive and rigorous safety and quality tests before it enters the market place, ensuring that US milk and dairy products are among the safest and most regulated foods in the world. This article describes the process of milk pasteurization and the dangers associated with unpasteurized milk consumption and provides evidence that there is no nutritional advantage to consuming unpasteurized milk

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is troubling that many studies provide evidence that acute and chronic sleep loss may initiate hormonal irregularities and Insulin and Glucose Imbalance.
Abstract: S everal groups in the American population, including college students, swing-shift workers, and parents of small children, struggle to get regular or adequate sleep. The National Sleep Foundation recommends 8 hours of sleep per night. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, however, the percentage of Americans who slept 6 hours or less each night from 1985 to 2006 increased significantly (Centers for Disease Control, unpublished estimates from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey; 2008). Furthermore, greater than 30% of Americans aged 30 to 64 years slept less that 6 hours per night in 2006 (Centers for Disease Control, unpublished estimates from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey; 2008). Given the prevalence of chronic sleep loss in America, it is troubling that many studies provide evidence that acute and chronic sleep loss may initiate hormonal irregularities. Insulin and Glucose Imbalance

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigators have hypothesized that consumption of water, before or during meals, may help overweight individuals manage their body weight by increasing satiety or altering food intake, and suggest that further research is required to discern the subtle interactions between water intake, food energy content, and satiety.
Abstract: H uman metabolism, nutrient transport, circulation, temperature regulation, contraction of skeletal muscles, nerve impulse transmission, regulation of fluid-electrolyte balance, and waste excretion would be impossible without water because it is the medium for all cellular and systemic processes. Thus, total body water is defended by multiple neuroendocrine mechanisms. But even though water is essential to life and optimal human performance, (a) no scientific or clinical consensus exists regarding precise values for the daily water requirements of men and women, and (b) surprisingly, few data exist regarding the hydration status of healthy, free-living, sedentary adults who are not under environmental or physiological stress. This dilemma exists, in part, because human body water balance is complex (ie, residing in interconnected intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments) and dynamic (ie, both volume and concentration change in sinusoidal patterns due to fluid and food intake, excretion, metabolism, and respiration). Unfortunately, the published data that describe human water requirements contain recognized limitations. This means that precise measurements of adult water consumption patterns are needed. During the past decade, increasing international consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has sparked debates about the potential negative health consequences of high-calorie beverages. For example, data spanning the period 1999 to 2001 indicate that beverages accounted for approximately 21% of all calories consumed in the United States. Schulze and colleagues associated a higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with a greater weight gain and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, possibly due to excessive calories and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars. The rapid absorption of glucose induces a sequence of metabolic and hormonal changes that promote excessive food intake. Other research has emphasized a parallel growth of diabetes and sugar consumption in the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as a new hypothesis that excessive fructose intake (ie, in sweetened beverages) and excess uric acid may promote type 2 diabetes. These recent trends prompted one panel of experts to recommend that adults and children should consume fewer sugar-containing beverages and use water as the foundation of a healthy hydration program. From a different perspective, investigators have hypothesized that consumption of water, before or during meals, may help overweight individuals manage their body weight by increasing satiety or altering food intake. One study of women reported that satiety increased during, but not after, a meal if water was consumed before the meal. A subsequent study compared energy intake when water, diet cola, regular cola, orange juice, and 1% milk were consumed with the midday meal. The total energy intake of this meal was greater (P G .0001; mean, 652 kJ) when a caloric beverage was consumed (vs a noncaloric fluid including water), but satiety ratings were not different among the fluids. Although promising, these studies suggest that further research is required to discern the subtle interactions between water intake, food energy content, and satiety. Boschmann and colleagues provide a different focus: water-induced thermogenesis. These investigators measured a 30% increase of metabolic rate after obese men (n = 7) and women (n = 7) consumed 500 mL of water; this increase (ie, approximately 100 kJ) occurred within 10 minutes and reached a maximum at 30 to 40 minutes. Similarly, a 24% increase of metabolic rate was observed when a different sample of obese men (n = 8) and women (n = 8) consumed 500 mL of water; however, no change of metabolic rate was measured when these subjects consumed either 50 mL of water or 500 mL of isotonic saline. These researchers concluded that this inexpensive intervention might be a useful adjunctive treatment for obese individuals, to attain an increase in energy expenditure. Although these were short-term studies, a report evaluated the effects of drinking water on weight loss, in overweight dieting

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although more studies are needed to see which front-of-the-package or on-shelf labeling systems are most effective, it is clear that consumers and health professionals want easier and clearer ways to identify healthful food products for themselves and their families.
Abstract: As nutrition scientists study and debate the causes of obesity and look to improve the quality of the American diet, there is a renewed interest in nutrition resources to help people make more healthful dietary choices at the grocery store. New, voluntary front-of-the-package nutrition labels on food products and new on-shelf labeling systems in grocery stores are emerging as viable tools to help lead consumers to more nutritious diets. Although more studies are needed to see which front-of-the-package or on-shelf labeling systems are most effective, it is clear that consumers and health professionals want easier and clearer ways to identify healthful food products for themselves and their families

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary results suggest that posting calorie information prominently at the point of purchase can increase the number of customers who see and use that information.
Abstract: In 2008, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) adopted a regulation that requires chain restaurants with 15 or more locations nationwide to post calorie information prominently on menu boards and menus. This regulation is intended to help customers make informed choices at the point of purchase. To assess the impact of this calorie labeling requirement, NYC DOHMH is conducting 3 studies to examine changes in (1) customer purchasing behavior, (2) awareness about calorie posting, and (3) menu options at fast-food chains, before and after implementation of the regulation. Preliminary results suggest that posting calorie information prominently at the point of purchase can increase the number of customers who see and use that information. The city's approach to calorie labeling helps provide customers with important information to make food choices. Calorie labeling policies have gained support in jurisdictions across the nation as implementing regulations such as this one can have broad implications at the population level

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The lectures in this supplement to Nutrition Today represent a number of emerging paradigms, from diverse areas such as metabolism, weight gain, human behavior, public health, disease risk, cognition, and human performance, and a few provide evaluations of the benefits of water consumption.
Abstract: S cientists act on the basis of existing paradigms (ie, theoretical frameworks) that describe what is to be observed, the questions that are supposed to be asked, and how the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted. But, when demographic trends foster public health concerns, as obesity and type 2 diabetes are doing today, some researchers view existing paradigms as incomplete or ineffective and explore alternatives to long-standing assumptions (ie, paradigm shifts; see Kuhn). The lectures in this supplement to Nutrition Today represent a number of emerging paradigms, from diverse areas such as metabolism, weight gain, human behavior, public health, disease risk, cognition, and human performance (Figure). All provide evaluations of the benefits of water consumption, and a few compare water to sugar-containing beverages. Some of the most important scientific discoveries and inventions have been greeted by the general public with nonchalance because their qualities and applications appear to be obvious and natural. Water consumption is a fine example. Most adults readily acknowledge the value of water consumption, yet when asked to justify this opinion, they can provide little or no scientific or clinical evidence. The following points provide summaries of such evidence, which appear in the preceding articles.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the United States has not traditionally been a rice-centered culture, the increasing diversity of the US population has resulted in the popularity of rice-based Asian and Latin dishes in mainstream American cuisine.
Abstract: First cultivated thousands of years ago in the area between India and China, rice first arrived in North America in the late 1680s. Lore has it that the captain of a storm-battered ship thanked the Charles Towne, South Carolina, colonists for ship repairs with ‘‘golden seed rice.’’ By 1700, rice was a major crop for the colonists. Rice production gradually moved westward, taking root in today’s midsouth and gulf coast rice-producing areas, and in California’s Sacramento Valley. Today, more than 20 billion pounds of rice are produced each year by approximately 15 000 farmers in 6 US states: Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas. Although producing only 2% of the world’s annual rice supply, the United States is the world’s fourth largest rice exporter. The US rice industry is recognized as an innovative, technologically advanced, conservation-friendly, and dependable supplier of high-quality rice, both in the United States and around the world. Popular worldwide, rice is also popular at home. Consumption has doubled in the last 20 years, according to the USA Rice Federation. Americans consume about 25 lb of rice per year, more than 80% of which is grown domestically. Two of 3 people say they eat rice once a week, and 90% say they eat rice at home and away from home. By contrast, rice consumption in some Asian countries is 130 to 180 lb per capita and 80 to 130 lb in some Latin American countries, mostly milled or partially milled white rice, according to the USA Rice Federation. Although the United States has not traditionally been a rice-centered culture, the increasing diversity of the US population has resulted in the popularity of rice-based Asian and Latin dishes in mainstream American cuisine. The majority of rice consumed here is enriched long-grain white rice. The recent drive to consume whole grains has increased brown rice sales from 45 to 55 million pounds since 2006 (Nielsen ScanTrak Data 2006Y2008; based in part on data reported by Nielsen through its ScanTrak Service for the Rice Category for the 52-week period ending October 3, 2009, for the US market; Nielsen. 2009).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors tracked the history of football player's weights in the National Football League (NFL) and found that from 1920 to 1984, there were never more than 8 players in any season who weighed 300 pounds or more.
Abstract: A merican football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is gaining fans around the world. It is estimated that the 2009 Super Bowl attracted 95.5 million viewers worldwide. As the sport gets bigger, so do the football players. Reporters from the Palm Beach Post tracked the history of football player’s weights in the National Football League (NFL) and found that ‘‘from 1920 to 1984, there were never more than 8 players in any season who weighed 300 pounds or more.’’ On the 2009 rosters of all active players in the NFL, a total of 343 players were listed at 300 lbs or more. The largest player was 6¶7μ and 382 lb (authors reviewed team rosters of all 32 NFL teams for height and weight).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evidence for the early life origins of cardiovascular disease is reviewed and suggestions for nutritionists on how to help prevent it with lifestyle modifications starting at a young age are made.
Abstract: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States today, and its initial phases begin early in life. Many of the risk factors for it can be either controlled or prevented by a healthy lifestyle starting in infancy and carrying on into adulthood. This article reviews the evidence for the early life origins of cardiovascular disease and makes suggestions for nutritionists on how to help prevent it with lifestyle modifications starting at a young age

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The session, "Nutrition Profiling: Global Policies and Perspectives," addressed science-based approaches to nutrient profiling from a global policy perspective in the hope that a better understanding of the implications of nutrient profiling in regulatory, industry, and consumer settings may provide insights for future nutrition policy and consumer guidance.
Abstract: Despite the rising rates of obesity, many Americans are not meeting their dietary needs for essential nutrients. Diets that are energy-rich but nutrient-poor lead to obesity and the underconsumption of several nutrients, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and folic acid. One way to assist the increasingly undernourished yet overfed American consumer in selecting nutrient-rich diets is to develop a science-based system of nutrient profiling that will help clearly identify healthful, nutrient-rich foods. The American Society for Nutrition Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2008 featured a Public Information Committee symposium on nutrient profiling. The session, \"Nutrition Profiling: Global Policies and Perspectives,\" addressed science-based approaches to nutrient profiling from a global policy perspective in the hope that a better understanding of the implications of nutrient profiling in regulatory, industry, and consumer settings may provide insights for future nutrition policy and consumer guidance

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2005 acknowledges the beneficial effects of alcohol, the report alludes to the challenges of maintaining a healthy weight when beverage alcohol is consumed in excess.
Abstract: Today, most of adult AmericansVan estimated 61.4% of those 18 years or older (see table 3.1 of Ref.)Vconsume beer, wine, and distilled spirits at least occasionally. Alcoholic beverages are a quantitatively important source of calories for the 28% of US adults who drink more heavily. Alcohol-containing beverages are a significant source of calories in the diets of the 27.4% of men and 11.2% of women who describe their alcoholic drink intake as either ‘‘moderate’’ (3Y14 drinks per week for men and 3Y7 drinks per week for women) or ‘‘heavy’’ (914 drinks per week for men and 97 drinks per week for women) (see Table 3 of Adams and Schoenborn). Figure 1 describes the per capita consumption of alcohol-containing beverages as compared with other types of beverages in 2005. After soft drinks, which is the fluid product category most widely consumed (35 gallons per capita per year), the category that includes ‘‘beer, wine, and spirits’’ is next (21.3 gallons), followed closely by milk (21.0 gallons). Figure 2 shows that of the 3 major types of alcohol-containing products, beer is by far the product most frequently consumed. The figure also illustrates that per capita consumption of alcohol-containing beverages has declined somewhat in the United States over the past 3 decades. Figure 3 shows how consumption of beer has changed since 1980 as compared to milk, soda and bottled water. Although the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2005 acknowledges the beneficial effects of alcoholVlower all-cause mortality and lower cardiovascular disease mortality when consumed in moderationVthe report alludes to the challenges of maintaining a healthy weight when beverage alcohol is consumed in excess. The DGA 2005 identifies the many health hazards of heavy drinking and the risk of accidents and injury as well as fetal malformations associated with ‘‘less than heavy’’ drinking. Consequently, the DGA takes pains to point out that it is not recommended that anyone


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A s the incidence of diabetes increases to epidemic proportions and the number and kinds of medications available for the management of type 2 diabetes increase, it is important for the dietetic professional to be aware of the interactions between medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and pharmacotherapy.
Abstract: A s the incidence of diabetes increases to epidemic proportions and the number and kinds of medications available for the management of type 2 diabetes increase, it is important for the dietetic professional to be aware of the interactions between medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and pharmacotherapy. This is particularly true as both oral and insulin therapies are being initiated earlier and more aggressively to achieve tight glycemic control. Rather than waiting several weeks or months for the patient to adapt his/her diet and physical activity for glycemic control, clinicians are prescribing medication earlier in the course of the disease to meet the standards for managing hemoglobin A1c. Medications for the management of type 2 diabetes have evolved along with our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Early efforts targeted insulin production with the 1920s introduction of exogenous insulin and the first oral agents, sulfonylureas, in the 1950s. Until the introduction of medications in the 1990s, which targeted insulin resistance, all available medications marketed in the United States directly affected insulin levels. Over the last 10 years, development of new medications has targeted intestinal hormones as another avenue for maintaining euglycemia, or the normal concentration of glucose in the blood. As we continue to move forward in our understanding of this complicated, endemic disease, there will be continued development of medications with novel mechanisms that affect many pathways in the regulation of blood glucose. There are now 6 classes of oral agents used to treat type 2 diabetes: sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, !-glucosidase inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. Each medication class has important nutrition considerations and implications to be considered when providing diabetes

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A very powerful cooling system in which water plays a major role is developed, which can sustain prolonged exposures to heat and the ability to perform exercise and if not properly replaced, fluid loss under the form of sweat results in dehydration.
Abstract: Water is the first ingredient of life. In the comfortable environment in which we live, with an ample supply of water, we forget that our ancestors lived in an environment where water was scarce, and the weather was hot. We therefore developed a very powerful cooling system in which water plays a major role. The importance of this system is best illustrated when we are exposed to exercise and heat, separately and even more when both are combined. In these situations, the primary way to get rid of the heat generated or received from the environment is through the secretion and evaporation of sweat, which is mainly water. Thanks to this cooling system, we can sustain prolonged exposures to heat and we can work in the heat. However, if not properly replaced, fluid loss under the form of sweat results in dehydration. This reduces the ability to regulate body temperature as well as the ability to perform exercise. Under extreme circumstances, which fortunately are not often encountered, dehydration and the increase in body temperature can result in heat stroke, which could be fatal

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The introduction of high-fructose corn syrup in the 1970s in the United States has resulted in a 30% increase in total fructose intake in the last 20 years, associated with a remarkable increase in the rates of obesity and diabetes.
Abstract: The term sugars (carbohydrates) includes a large family of monosaccharides and disaccharides, which are naturally present in (or added to) food or beverages. Sugar is the most common word for saccharose (sucrose); it represents 75% of added sugars, whereas glucose syrup represents only 25% in France. The most commonly used sweetener in the United States is high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose and 45% glucose). The mean sugar content of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) commonly used in the United States is 10 g/100 g (ranging from 4.5 to 16 g/100 g). Sugar-sweetened beverages represent the major source of dietary fructose, as provided in various forms including carbonated soft drinks, juice-based beverages, 100% juices, flavored milk, gourmet coffees, and liquid meal replacement mixtures for weight loss. Fructose is also included in solid foods (pastries, desserts, and a number of processed foods). The introduction of high-fructose corn syrup in the 1970s in the United States has resulted in a 30% increase in total fructose intake in the last 20 years. It is associated with a remarkable increase in the rates of obesity and diabetes.