Oecd Journal: Economic Studies
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
About: Oecd Journal: Economic Studies is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Product market & Productivity. It has an ISSN identifier of 1995-2848. Over the lifetime, 72 publications have been published receiving 2389 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used micro-econometric decomposition techniques to investigate the role of public policy in explaining the increase in homeownership rates in many OECD countries over recent decades.
Abstract: Homeownership rates have increased significantly in many OECD countries over recent decades. Using micro-econometric decomposition techniques, this paper shows that part of this increase can be explained by changes in the characteristics of households, including age, household structure, income and education. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the change in homeownership rates remains unexplained by shifts in household characteristics, leaving a potential role for public policy in explaining developments in homeownership rates. Panel estimates suggest that the relaxation of down-payment constraints on mortgage loans has increased homeownership rates among credit-constrained households over recent decades, resulting in a rise in the aggregate homeownership rate that is comparable with the impact of population ageing. In countries where tax relief on mortgage debt financing is generous, however, the expansionary impact of mortgage market innovations on homeownership is smaller. This is consistent with the tendency for such housing tax relief to be capitalised into real house prices, which may crowd-out some financially constrained households from homeownership at the margin. The impact of housing policies regulating the functioning of the rental market, such as rent regulation and provisions for tenure security, on tenure choice is also explored. JEL classification: R21, R31, G21, H24. Keywords: Housing markets, homeownership, mortgage markets, financial regulation, taxation.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an assessment of the redistributive effect of the main taxes and cash transfers, based on various OECD data sources, a set of policy indicators and a literature review using cluster analysis.
Abstract: Taxes and transfers reduce inequality in disposable income relative to market income The effect varies, however, across OECD countries The redistributive impact of taxes and transfers depends on the size, mix and the progressivity of each component Some countries with a relatively small tax and welfare system (eg Australia) achieve the same redistributive impact as countries characterised by much higher taxes and transfers (eg Germany) because they rely more on income taxes, which are more progressive than other taxes, and on means-tested cash transfers This article provides an assessment of the redistributive effect of the main taxes and cash transfers, based on various OECD data sources, a set of policy indicators and a literature review Using cluster analysis, it also identifies empirically four groups of countries with tax and transfer systems that share broadly similar features
TL;DR: Light is shed on the nature and the strength of the correlation between education and obesity and investigations testing for mediation effects and for the causal nature of the links observed were undertaken to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship.
Abstract: An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides a strong suggestion that such an epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, a better education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. This paper sheds light on the nature and the strength of the correlation between education and obesity. Analyses of health survey data from Australia, Canada, England, and Korea were undertaken with the aim of exploring this relationship. Social gradients in obesity were assessed across the entire education spectrum, overall and in different population sub-groups. Furthermore, investigations testing for mediation effects and for the causal nature of the links observed were undertaken to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between education and obesity.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors assess whether the use of ICT has an impact on student performances as measured in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006, and they find a positive and significant effect of the frequency of computer use on science scores.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess whether the use of ICT has an impact on student performances as measured in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006. After controlling for observable students’ characteristics and self-selection, we did find a positive and significant effect of the frequency of computer use on science scores. In most countries, however, this effect seems larger when computer is used at home rather than at school. This finding questions the effectiveness of educational policies aimed at promoting computer use at school as a tool for learning.
TL;DR: This paper reviewed the empirical evidence on the link between environmental policy stringency and productivity growth, and the various channels through which such impacts can take place, in particular as many of the studies are fragile and context-specific, impeding the generalisation of conclusions.
Abstract: The economic effects of environmental policies are of central interest to policymakers. The traditional approach sees environmental policies as a burden on economic activity, at least in the short to medium term, as they raise costs without increasing output and restrict the set of production technologies and outputs. In contrast, the Porter Hypothesis claims that well-designed environmental policies can provide a ‘free lunch’ – encouraging innovation, bringing about gains in profitability and productivity that can outweigh the costs of the policy. This paper reviews the empirical evidence on the link between environmental policy stringency and productivity growth, and the various channels through which such effects can take place. The results are ambiguous, in particular as many of the studies are fragile and context-specific, impeding the generalisation of conclusions. Practical problems related to data, measurement and estimation strategies are discussed, leading to suggestions how they can be addressed in future research. These include: improving the measurement of environmental policy stringency; investigating into effects of different types of instruments and details of instrument design; exploiting cross-country variation; and the complementary use of different levels of aggregation.