Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases
Scientific Research Publishing
About: Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases is an academic journal published by Scientific Research Publishing. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Diabetes mellitus & Type 2 diabetes. It has an ISSN identifier of 2165-7424. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 231 publications have been published receiving 997 citations. The journal is also known as: OJEMD.
TL;DR: Logistic regression analysis revealed that obesity/overweight, gender, age, diabetes were the most important significant predictors of dyslipidemia and multisectorial intervention strategies are needed targeting the predictors and significant risk factors identified.
Abstract: Data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach, to estimate the prevalence of various types of dyslipidemia and determine their associated factors among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study population included 4490 Saudi adults aged 15 years and older who were selected by a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profile was determined by spectrophotometrically by biochemical methods, high total cholesterol (TC) was defined as TC of 5.2 mmol/L or more, hypertriglyceridemia as serum triglycerides level 1.7 mmol/L or more and. low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as serum HDL-C 0.9 mmol/L or less, LDL-C 3.35 mmol/L or more and TC/HDL ratio 5 or more. Of the 4490 subjects (94.4 % of total sample) included in the final analysis, 51% were females, 23% of study subjects were less than 25years and 11% were 55 or more years of age. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia ranged from about 20% to 40%. The highest prevalence was for triglycerides where about 44% of all subjects were affected. About a fifth of the subjects had high level of total cholesterol. Males had significantly higher prevalence of all types of dyslipidemia than female except LDL-C and TC. Higher dyslipidemia prevalence of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly found in older subjects, illiterates and housekeepers. Lower prevalence rates for HDL-C was significantly observed in retired and youngest subjects. There were significant regional variations and significantly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia among hypertensives, diabetics, obese/overweight, smokers and physically inactive subjects. There were no significant differences according to income or fruits and vegetable consumption. Logistic regression analysis revealed that obesity/overweight, gender, age, diabetes were the most important significant predictors of dyslipidemia. The findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in Saudi Arabia. Multisectorial intervention strategies are needed targeting the predictors and significant risk factors identified.
TL;DR: This review focuses on the evidence supporting a clear association between amyloid-β toxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuronal damage/death in Alzheimer’s disease.
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to reduction in transmission through cholinergic fibers involved in processes of attention, learning, and memory. Mitochondria provide and regulate cellular energy and are crucial for proper neuronal activity and survival. Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in early stages of AD and is involved in AD pathogenesis. This review focuses on the evidence supporting a clear association between amyloid-β toxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuronal damage/death in Alzheimer’s disease. To date, the beta amyloid (Aβ) cascade hypothesis still remains the main pathogenetic model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but its role in the majority of sporadic AD cases is uncertain. Furthermore, the “mitochondrial cascade hypothesis” could explain many of the biochemical, genetic, and pathological features of sporadic AD. This hypothesis promotes mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the basis for Alzheimer’s disease. The mutations could lead to energy failure, increased oxidative stress, and accumulation of Aβ, which in a vicious cycle reinforces the mtDNA damage and oxidative stress.
TL;DR: The use of anti-obese drugs that reduce food intake and improve hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease has been assessed in obesity with drug therapy closely involved either in the prevention or induction of NAFLD and obesity in man.
Abstract: The susceptibility of individuals to obesity has been reported in many developed countries with predisposition of humans to obesity associated with high calorie diets and unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity may closely be involved in cell suicide in various organ diseases with the importance of accelerated aging that requires early intervention with drug therapy to prevent diseases such as non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that has increased in children and reached to approx. 40% of the global population. Obesity is induced by various diets and lifestyle factors such as stress, anxiety and depression which are important to consider with the global increase in obesity and are possibly linked to the rise in individuals with brain disorders that involve neurodegeneration. Xenobiotics such as the endocrine disruptor chemicals that have increased in the environment in various developed countries lead to various chronic endocrine diseases as populations divert towards unhealthy diets and lifestyles with induction of NAFLD and obesity. The amount and nature of food intake that improves and increases liver lipid and xenobiotic metabolism in obese individuals have become important to decrease the risk for increased adiposity in man. High fibre or protein diets that contain leucine may improve liver glucose, lipid and xenobiotic metabolism and require further investigation with xenobiotics such as endocrine disruptors involved in appetite dysregulation and metabolic disorders in developed countries. The use of anti-obese drugs that reduce food intake and improve hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease has been assessed in obesity with drug therapy closely involved either in the prevention or induction of NAFLD and obesity in man.
TL;DR: The polycystic ovary syndrome is defined as a combination of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism and acne) and anovulation (oligomenorrhea, infertility, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding), with or without the presence of poly Cystic ovaries on ultrasound.
Abstract: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined as a combination of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism and acne) and anovulation (oligomenorrhea, infertility, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding), with or without the presence of polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. It represents the main endocrine disorder in the reproductive age, affecting 6% - 15% of women in menacme. It is the most common cause of infertility due to anovulation, and the main source of female infertility. When in the presence of a menstrual disorder, the diagnosis of PCOS is reached in 30% - 40% of patients with primary or secondary amenorrhoea and in 80% of patients with oligomenorrhea. PCOS should be diagnosed and treated early in adolescence due to reproductive, metabolic and oncological complications which may be associated with it. Treatment options include drugs, diet and lifestyle improvement.
TL;DR: The relevant debate regarding a general ban of trans fatty acids (TFA) from the world food market is addressed, because of the cardiovascular risks associated with its consumption.
Abstract: Linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acids (ALA) are considered essential fatty acids (EFA) because they are not produced by the human body. This way, EFAs sources must come from the diet. The primary dietary source of n-3 fatty acids is ALA, found in seeds and seed oils. Other important sources are fish oils such as tuna, salmon and herring. Currently, numerous studies suggest possible benefits of essential fatty acids in human health, such as in cardiovascular, cognitive and eye health, and also during pregnancy and childhood. This paper also discusses the impact of fatty acids in human metabolism, and the available evidence regarding its risks. It addresses the relevant debate regarding a general ban of trans fatty acids (TFA) from the world food market, because of the cardiovascular risks associated with its consumption.