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Showing papers in "Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology in 2017"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the literature on resilience engineering as a safety management approach can be found in this article, where the terms organisational resilience and resilience engineering are clarified, and functionalist and interpretive research frameworks used to analyze articles.
Abstract: This paper reviews the literature on resilience engineering as a safety management approach. Preferred Reporting Items for Reporting Systematic Reviews guidelines were used to search, select and evaluate 46 published works. The terms organisational resilience and resilience engineering are clarified, and functionalist and interpretive research frameworks used to analyze articles. This review suggests there is no universally agreed definition of resilience engineering; but it involves a collective aspect, is multifactorial, multilevel and multidimensional; associated with four key principles (anticipation, response, learning and monitoring) and successful outcomes. The gap between work as imagined and work as performed is an important aspect. Studies on resilience engineering have predominantly involved qualitative investigations; with data collected through site observations, safety audits and surveys. Eight research gaps were identified, and suggestions made on how these gaps can be addressed through empirical research.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a situation in which the ventilation capacity of the fume cupboard in the undergraduate chemistry laboratories at Al-Nahrain University had decreased to an unacceptable level.
Abstract: Scientists at universities across Iraq are actively working to report actual incidents and accidents occurring in their laboratories, as well as structural improvements made to improve safety and security, to raise awareness and encourage openness, leading to widespread adoption of robust Chemical Safety and Security (CSS) practices. This manuscript highlights the importance of periodic maintenance on fume cupboards, and is the fourth in a series of five case studies describing laboratory incidents, accidents, and laboratory improvements. In this study, we describe a situation in which the ventilation capacity of the fume cupboard in the undergraduate chemistry laboratories at Al-Nahrain University had decreased to an unacceptable level. The CSS Committee investigated and found the ducting system had been blocked by plastic sheets and dead birds. All the ducts have since been cleaned, and four extra ventilation fans have been installed to further increase ventilation capacity. By openly sharing what happened along with the lessons learned from the accident, we hope to minimize the possibility of another researcher being injured in a similar incident in the future.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a flame spread experiment on only liquid fuel and liquid fuel/water layer under static liquid fuel was conducted to reveal the flame spreading mechanism of tsunami fire, and the results revealed that the thermal characteristic length is longer and the current characteristic depth of liquid fuel is deeper than that of liquid only fuel.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reveal the flame spreading mechanism of tsunami fire. But the mechanism of tsunami fire is so complex that we couldn’t assess qualitatively. So the basic research on tsunami fire is needed. As a first step, we did flame spread experiment on only liquid fuel and liquid fuel/water layer under static liquid fuel. We measured flame spread rate. As a result, fuel thickness is in range of 5 - 15 mm, and flame spread rate over only liquid fuel is faster than liquid fuel/water layer’s at same fuel thickness. To reveal the gap of the flame spread rate at same liquid fuel thickness, we visualized current distribution by PIV and thermal boundary layer by shadowgraph method. By these results, we revealed that the thermal characteristic length is longer and the current characteristic depth of liquid fuel/water is deeper than that of liquid only fuel.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the integration of safety and health to the current curricula focusing on the engineering programs and their perceptions towards design safety concept and its implementation. But, they concluded that there is no major impediment from the academic sector on the implementation and integration of design safety concepts to the undergraduate curricula.
Abstract: The current and growing construction industry in the country has led to increasing of accidents related to construction workers. In an attempt to decrease accidents on site, the design safety concept is the most suitable measures to date. Though the impact is evident and potential benefits of its implementation are apparent, widespread application of this intervention in the Malaysia’s construction industry is currently lacking especially in the academic sector. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the integration of safety and health to the current curricula focusing on the engineering programmes and their perceptions towards design safety concept and its implementation. The types of design disciplines included in the research study were limited to academicians. A total of 72 respondents received via questionnaire and the responses were scored on a 5-point Likert Scale to express their level of agreement. The results show that the graduates are not equipped with adequate knowledge of safety and health legislation and regulations through the current curricula and disagree that the content of the programmes is adequate. Although majority agree on the positive effect of design safety towards accidents on site, there is still minority who believe that the concept has no significant effect towards site safety. However, this paper concludes that there is no major impediment from the academic sector on the implementation and integration of design safety concept to the undergraduate curricula. The implementation of design safety should be in a well organized structure for effective results towards zeroaccident as well as increases the designers’ value in the construction industry.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study found out that the provision of occupational health and safety in the Windhoek construction industry is in poor status and recommended the development of practical guidelines to improve the occupational Health and safety status in the construction industry.
Abstract: Construction industry remains the dangerous industry in the world, due to the nature of work and the working environment which exposes workers to different types of hazards and occupational accidents. Construction workers are also at risk of developing occupational related health conditions due to the exposure to occupational hazards. A cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive study was conducted to collect the data regarding occupational health and safety status in the construction industry. Data was collected with questionnaires developed based on the literatures and the World Health Organization Healthy workplace model. The study found out that the provision of occupational health and safety in the Windhoek construction industry is in poor status. Furthermore, construction work is mainly for male, young workers aged between 18 to 29 years. The mean age is 31.48 years. The study results also indicated that occupational hazards are prevalent in the construction industry. Nevertheless, most participants indicated that occupational accidents are not common in the construction sites. The study recommended the development of practical guidelines to improve the occupational health and safety status in the construction industry. The recommended guidelines should be implemented in all construction sites.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The flash point of flammable liquid mixture is very important parameter to characterize the ignition and explosion hazards as discussed by the authors, and the measured flash points were compared with the predicted values calculated using the activity coefficient models: Wilson, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL), and UNIversal QUAsi-Chemical (UNIQUAC).
Abstract: The flash point of flammable liquid mixture is very important parameter to characterize the ignition and explosion hazards. Flash points at 101.3 kPa were measured for several binary systems containing p-xylene, including {methanol + p-xylene}, {ethanol + p-xylene}, and {2-propanol and p-xylene}. Experimental measurements were performed using a SETA closed cup flash point tester. The measured flash points were compared with the predicted values calculated using the following activity coefficient models: Wilson, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL), and UNIversal QUAsi-Chemical (UNIQUAC). The results from the NRTL model provided the best comparison to the experimentally determined values.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the evacuation times of a simple room with a single exit with those from a 2D Cellular Automaton (CA) random evacuation model developed by the authors.
Abstract: Building EXODUS software is used to calculate the evacuation times and simulate the evacuation behavior. The results and laws are compared with those from a 2D Cellular Automaton (CA) random evacuation model developed by our group. EXODUS simulation is more reasonable than the CA simulation in the case of evacuation from a simple room, but CA model is more reasonable in the case of evacuation in a long corridor after bottlenecks. As far as the evacuation from a simple room with a single exit is concerned, there is a critical value of exit width. The value of exit width should be bigger than the critical value in order to ensure a dilute pedestrian flow, but the value doesn’t need to be too big. The bigger the original occupant density, the longer the evacuation time is. They can be fitted as a linear relationship. The principle of taking the shortest route is not always useful. If the distribution of occupant density is not uniform at each building part, balancing the use efficiency of each exit should be the main principle in order to improve evacuation efficiency. All the above laws can be obtained both from EXODUS and the CA model.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It can be concluded that HFACS based on Accident Causality Diagram is feasible and it helps to find out the main reasons that lead to accident and thus to take proper measures to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.
Abstract: Accident analysis contributes much to improve the safety management of enterprises. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is an accident analysis method popularly used overseas. Based on HFACS analysis method, this paper presents a new accident analysis method combining HFACS with Accident Causality Diagram. On the basis of the clear description of basic events’ causal relationship in the accident, the new approach applies HFACS to evaluate the basic events leading to accident, which overcomes the deficiency of HFACS that the ultimate analysis result is not clear enough to understand due to the lack of the association between basic events and the events at other levels in the accident. The new method is used to analyze the collision accident of two vehicles in mining area. It can be concluded that HFACS based on Accident Causality Diagram is feasible and it helps to find out the main reasons that lead to accident and thus to take proper measures to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The outcomes of the implementation of SSC resulted in changes in the safety consciousness of the operating team staffs such as their increased responsibility and communication and the improved multidisciplinary teamwork might make them realize a smooth operating progression to shorten the actual operating time.
Abstract: Background: We investigated the changes in consciousness of operating team staffs and the influences on the operating time after the implementation of the surgical safety checklist (SSC) using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: 206 operating team staffs (148 surgeons, 20 anesthesiologists, 38 nurses) replied to the questionnaire survey, and the changes in consciousness were checked before and after the implementation of the SSC. We retrospectively investigated the operating time from medical and anesthesia records at the point 2 months before (pre-implementation (pre-I): n = 656) and 2 months after (post-implementation (post-I): n = 650) the implementation. We compared the scheduled operating time, the actual operating time, and the ratio between the two groups. Results: We received replies from 156 operating team staffs, i.e., the recovery rate was 75.7% (156/206). The operating team staffs were interested in 9 items, which included the self-introduction of members, patient referral, surgical procedure, scheduled operating time, predicted blood loss, important matters in the operation, timing of antibiotics, and important matters in anesthesia, and preparation of required materials and equipment. In the multidisciplinary teamwork, they had increased the consciousness of responsibility and communication. There was no significant difference in the scheduled operating time (post-I: 186.9 ± 131.9; pre-I: 184.8 ± 127.8 minutes) and the actual operating time (post-I: 170.8 ± 148.1 minutes; the pre-I: 174.6 ± 147.3 minutes). However, regarding the ratio of the actual operating time to the scheduled operating time, there was a significant difference (the post-I: 0.90 ± 0.43; the pre-I: 0.95 ± 0.45). Use of the SSC significantly decreased the actual operating time. Conclusion: The outcomes of the implementation of SSC resulted in changes in the safety consciousness of the operating team staffs such as their increased responsibility and communication. The improved multidisciplinary teamwork might make them realize a smooth operating progression to shorten the actual operating time.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the heat feedback amount of a small pool flame experimentally under normal to partial gravity conditions; using the drop tower at Hirosaki University in Japan to obtain arbitrary partial gravity condition, which varied from 1 G to 0.55 G.
Abstract: The height of the pool fire depends on the amount of heat feedback from the flame to the fuel. In order to predict flame height in a partial gravity environment, we investigated the heat feedback amount of a small pool flame experimentally under normal to partial gravity conditions; using the drop tower at Hirosaki University in Japan to obtain arbitrary partial gravity condition, which varied from 1 G to 0.55 G. We performed the measurement of the flame shape with a digital camera. Based on the experiment result, we expected the amount of fuel vapor from the amount of heat feedback of the pool flame calculated and to establish the prediction formula of the flame height in the partial gravity environment.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the performance of fire extinguishing by decentralized fire-fighting agents and showed that fire extinguishment by the decentralized supply is more certain than the centralized supply.
Abstract: One of the central problems in fire safety science and technology is to reduce damage caused by both fires and fire-fighting processes. This paper provides a potential solution to the problem, and it derives from decentralization of fire-fighting agents. In particular, this paper investigates fire extinguishing performance when a fire-fighting agent is supplied to a fire from one direction with one extinguisher and from two directions with two extinguishers. The two methods are called the centralized supply and the decentralized supply, respectively, in this paper. It is demonstrated that the decentralized supply reduces damage caused by both fires and fire-fighting processes. This follows from the facts that fire extinguishment by the decentralized supply is more certain than the centralized supply, and that the decentralized supply requires less total amount of a fire-fighting agent than the centralized supply for fire extinguishment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant variation of the sitting posture of the cyclists could be seen in field which is influenced by the bicycle type and the age group of the cyclist riding the bike.
Abstract: In the scope of COST Action TU1101 a field study of the use of bicycle helmets was carried out and different seating positions of the human body on the cycle were analyzed from photos to identify the vertical vision limit due to the helmet geometry of the cyclists when riding a bicycle. It could be interesting to know if different helmet postures will influence the resulting head impact and head injury situation and which influence parameters are responsible for the decision of the cyclist to use or not to use a helmet. For the study helmet users are compared with non-helmet users, distinguished for different bicycle types. For this purpose a total of 1565 cyclists with and without helmets were photographed and relevant geometrical values such as the angle between seat and handle bar, the decline of the torso or the head posture and the angle of the vertical vision limit were established from the photo analysis. A significant variation of the sitting posture of the cyclist could be seen in field which is influenced by the bicycle type and the age group of the cyclist riding the bike. Even the helmet users showed slight differences in the head posture compared to non-helmet users.