Journal•ISSN: 0091-3286

# Optical Engineering

SPIE

About: Optical Engineering is an academic journal published by SPIE. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Laser & Image processing. It has an ISSN identifier of 0091-3286. Over the lifetime, 18172 publications have been published receiving 275597 citations.

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##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, a Phenomenological Approach to Diode Lasers is presented, where mirrors and Resonators are used for diode luminaries, and coupled-mode theory is applied.

Abstract: Ingredients. A Phenomenological Approach to Diode Lasers. Mirrors and Resonators for Diode Lasers. Gain and Current Relations. Dynamic Effects. Perturbation and Coupled--Mode Theory. Dielectric Waveguides. Photonic Integrated Circuits. Appendices. Index.

2,550 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a novel technique called photometric stereo is introduced, which is to vary the direction of incident illumination between successive images, while holding the viewing direction constant, and it is shown that this provides sufficient information to determine surface orientation at each image point.

Abstract: A novel technique called photometric stereo is introduced. The idea of photometric stereo is to vary the direction of incident illumination between successive images, while holding the viewing direction constant. It is shown that this provides sufficient information to determine surface orientation at each image point. Since the imaging geometry is not changed, the correspondence between image points is known a priori. The technique is photometric because it uses the radiance values recorded at a single image location, in successive views, rather than the relative positions of displaced features. Photometric stereo is used in computer-based image understanding. It can be applied in two ways. First, it is a general technique for deter-mining surface orientation at each image point. Second, it is a technique for determining object points that have a particular surface orientation. These applications are illustrated using synthesized examples.

2,053 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the surface displacement components in laser speckle metrology were measured using a digital image scanner interfaced to a computer. Butt et al. used a boundary integral equation method to calculate surface traction in the contour.

Abstract: Digital imaging techniques are utilized as a measure of surface displacement components in laser speckle metrology. An image scanner which is interfaced to a computer records and stores in memory the laser speckle patterns of an object in a reference and deformed configuration. Subsets of the deformed images are numerically correlated with the references as a measure of surface displacements. Discrete values are determined around a closed contour for plane problems which then become input into a boundary integral equation method in order to calculate surface traction in the contour. Stresses are then calculated within this boundary. The solution procedure is illustrated by a numerical example of a case of uniform tension.

1,617 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of 3-D shape measurement using various optical methods, and a focus on structured light tech- niques where various optical configurations, image acquisition technology, data postprocessing and analysis methods and advantages and limitations are presented.

Abstract: We first provide an overview of 3-D shape measurement us- ing various optical methods. Then we focus on structured light tech- niques where various optical configurations, image acquisition tech- niques, data postprocessing and analysis methods and advantages and limitations are presented. Several industrial application examples are presented. Important areas requiring further R&D are discussed. Finally, a comprehensive bibliography on 3-D shape measurement is included, although it is not intended to be exhaustive. © 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. (S0091-3286(00)00101-X)

1,481 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a model for the probability density function (pdf) of the irradiance fluctuations of an optical wave propagating through a turbulent medium, which is a two-parameter distribution that is based on a doubly stochastic theory of scintillation.

Abstract: We develop a model for the probability density function (pdf) of the irradiance fluctuations of an optical wave propagating through a turbulent medium. The model is a two-parameter distribution that is based on a doubly stochastic theory of scintillation that assumes that small-scale irradiance fluctuations are modulated by large-scale irradi- ance fluctuations of the propagating wave, both governed by indepen- dent gamma distributions. The resulting irradiance pdf takes the form of a generalized K distribution that we term the gamma-gamma distribution. The two parameters of the gamma-gamma pdf are determined using a recently published theory of scintillation, using only values of the refractive-index structure parameter C n (or Rytov variance) and inner scale l 0 provided with the simulation data. This enables us to directly calculate various log-irradiance moments that are necessary in the scaled plots. We make a number of comparisons with published plane wave and spherical wave simulation data over a wide range of turbu- lence conditions (weak to strong) that includes inner scale effects. The gamma-gamma pdf is found to generally provide a good fit to the simu- lation data in nearly all cases tested. © 2001 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumen-

1,033 citations