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Showing papers in "Orientalia Suecana in 2010"


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the introductory formulae in letters of Jews and Christians are discussed, and the focus is on medieval autograph letters in Arabic by Jews to Jews and a small sample of medieval auto-signature letters by Christians to Christians.
Abstract: The basmala , bi-smi llāhi r-ramāni r-ra �ī mi , "in the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate", is deeply rooted in Muslim usage. It is incumbent on every Muslim to begin every act of importance with the basmala , and Muhammad is quoted as saying, "every important affair that one does not begin with 'in the name of God' is void." Frequently the basmala is followed by the taliyya , the blessing for the Prophet and his family. In this way every written discourse in Arabic, including private and business letters, is introduced by the basmala , and at times also by the taliyya . 2 It is therefore of interest to discuss its place in written discourse in Arabic among the non-Muslim subjects. When their arabization gained momentum, they took over the literary forms of the Muslim rulers, including the structure of the letter, al-kitāb. In the present paper, the introductory formulae in letters of Jews and Christians are discussed. The focus is on medieval autograph letters in Arabic by Jews to Jews and a small sample of medieval autograph letters in Arabic by Christians to Christians. 3 The investigation is restricted to letters , as distinct from contracts, receipts, and other types of documents.

9 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a corpus-based contrastive study of impersonals in Swedish based on extracts from five Swedish novels and their translations into German, English, French, and Finnish is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a corpus-based contrastive study of impersonals in Swedish based on extracts from five Swedish novels and their translations into German, English, French, and Finnish. As a first step in the analysis, impersonals were identified with simple formal criteria. All occurrences of non-referential det ‘it’ in the subject slot and all occurrences of the Swedish generalized pronoun man were extracted for further analysis. As a second step, this material was analysed from a functional point of view. It turned out that det appears as a formal subject (or placeholder) in agentless sentences or sentences with low agentivity, whereas man appears as an impersonal subject with general (‘all of mankind’) or vague reference. From a contrastive perspective, it turns out that Finnish in many respects represents a different type than the other languages included in the study, but even if German, English, and French in many cases have rather direct structural equivalents to the Swedish impersonal constructions, the usage patterns differ in a striking way even between these languages.

8 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Siewierska (2008: 3-4) finds that semantic characterizations of impersonality center on two notions, either "the lac... " as discussed by the authors, which is interesting from a typological perspective.
Abstract: Impersonal constructions are interesting from a typological perspective. Siewierska (2008: 3-4) finds that "[t]he semantic characterizations of impersonality centre on two notions", either "the lac ...

3 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the verb system of the Sistani dialect of Iran is investigated. But the verb form is not considered in this paper, since it is a verb-to-verb form.
Abstract: The Sistani dialect, though a dialect of Persian, displays its own manifestations of morpho-syntactic categorieson the verb form. The purpose of this article is to investigate the verb system of th ...

3 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, various theories about Ferdowsi's sources are classified in three groups with reference to their proponents, and then each of these theories is critically and briefly analysed.
Abstract: Mohl, an early editor and translator of the Shāhnāme, began the discussion on Ferdowsi’s sources in the Shāhnāme in 1878. From that time until now, it has been one of main issues of discussion among expertson the Shāhnāme and Iranian culture. One can find various theories on Ferdowsi’s sources in the numerous works and articles which are published ever so often. One of the latest works in this field is Kumiko Yamamoto’s book The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry. In the present article, first, various theories about Ferdowsi’s sources are classified in three groups with reference to their proponents, and then each of these theories is critically and briefly analysed. After a detailed introduction to Kumiko Yamamoto’s work, it is evaluated in view of the different theories proposed for the sources of the Shāhnāme. The present author favours the theory of both oral and written sources in the genesis of the Shāhnāme, and, in light of this, some strengths as well as weaknesses of this work are discussed in this extended review.

2 citations



Journal Article
TL;DR: A preliminary overview of the impersonality category in Avar can be found in this article, where several syntactic constructions with impersonal semantics with respect to referential impersonality, verbal impersonality and null-subject impersonal predicates are discussed.
Abstract: The article presents a preliminary overview of the impersonality category in Avar. On the basis of valency patterns, argument structure, and verb lability I point out several syntactic constructions with impersonal semantics. The term ‘impersonality’ here covers referential impersonals, verbal impersonals, and null-subject impersonal predicates. Avar belongs to the Avar-Andic language group of the Nakh-Daghestanian (or East Caucasian) family and is spoken in the Republic of Daghestan by 814,500 speakers. 1 This figure also includes the Andic, Tsezic, and Archi peoples with a total number of about 40,000 speakers. A significant number of the Avar language speakers live in Azerbaijan where, in accordance with the data of the last Soviet census of 1989, their number was estimated to be 44,100 (Alexeev 2001: 203). The Avars call themselves ma ʕarulal ‘mountaineers’ and their language ma ʕarul mac :’ ‘mountain language’. The unmarked order of constituents in Avar is SOV, although all possible permutations of major constituents are admittable. Talking about the East Caucasian languages, van den Berg (2005: 171) notes: Grammatical relations are not sensitive to the relative order of the verbal arguments in the clause: word order encodes primarily pragmatic functions like topic, focus, givenness, and contrastiveness. SOV is the neutral order, whereas OVS may be used to put the object in focus. To place the subject in focus, OSV order is applied – not SVO. Avar is a language with the ergative alignment: the S/P arguments take the absolutive case, and the A argument is in the ergative case, while the verb agrees with S/P in gender. Verb agreement is realised by single-consonant gender markers which are either prefixal 2 or suffixal (participles). 3 The gender in the singular is marked by the following consonants: w for male human, j for female human, and b for non-human; for example: ba c’ine, wa c’ine, ja c’ine ‘to come’; ba c’arab, wa c’araw, ja c’araj ‘come. PP’. In the plural there are two markers for all the three genders: the prefix rand the suffix -l : ra c’aral ‘ PL of come. PP’. The category of person is not marked on the verb. As material for the article samples of modern Avar prose literature, as well as 1

1 citations



Journal Article
TL;DR: In February 1982, a massacre was carried out by Syrian governmental special forces in the town of Hama as mentioned in this paper, where thousands of people were killed or taken away and thrown into prison.
Abstract: In February 1982 a massacre was carried out by Syrian governmental special forces in the town of Hama. Thousand of people were killed or taken away and thrown into prison. One third of the resident ...

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, impersonal constructions in the Sari and Ziyarat dialects of Mazandarani, a language spoken in the north of Iran, were investigated.
Abstract: The aim of this article is to investigate impersonal constructions in the Sari and Ziyarat dialects ofMazandarani, a language spoken in the north of Iran. The language data used in this study are o ...