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Showing papers in "Ostrich in 1975"


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Territory size was not constant, the largest territories had the greatest area of open grassland probably in order to encompass a sufficient koppie area, and Territory shape in the airspace appeared to be ...
Abstract: Summary Gargeit, V. 1975. The spacing of Black Eagles in the Matopos, Rhodesia. Ostrich 46:1-44. Ten adjacent pairs of Black Eagles Aquila verreauxi in the high density population in the Matopos were studied from September 1970 to the end of April 1973. 1 458 hours were spent observing the behaviour of all Black Eagles in the area encompassed by the study pairs and some of their neighbours. All perches were plotted and all flights recorded. Ground level boundaries were estimated; common boundaries were fixed at half the distance between neighbours' low level flights. Territory size was calculated and a habitat division made between open areas and koppie areas (rocky outcrops). The latter were where the eagles main prey, hyrax Procavidae, lived and were seen. Territory size was not constant, the largest territories had the greatest area of open grassland probably in order to encompass a sufficient koppie area. Koppie areas varied less in size than open areas. Territory shape in the airspace appeared to be ...

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: The populaticn in 1969 appeared to be larger than in 1968, possibly as a result of greater rainfall in 1968/69 than in 1967/68, and the “peck order” of a flock of aviary birds was established.
Abstract: Summary Woodall. P. F. 1975. On the life history of the Bronze Mannikin. Ostrich 46:55-86. A study of the life history of the Bronze Mannikin Lonchura cucullata was conducted in a residential garden near Salisbury, Rhodesia. Notes are given on plumage and moult, and Injuries are also noted. The measurements of 250 adults and 90 immatures and weights of 156 birds are presented. The distribution of the Bronze Mannikin in Rhodesia is plotted and it appears to be sparse below the isohyet of 600 mm mean annual rainfall. It is found in a wide range of vegetation types, and its comparative abundance around Salisbury was compared with 11 other selected species. There seems to be considerable local movement. The populaticn in 1969 appeared to be larger than in 1968, possibly as a result of greater rainfall in 1968/69 than in 1967/68. Six types of calls were recorded. Preening is described and allopreening is discussed. The “peck order” of a flock of aviary birds was established. Roosting habits are described. The ...

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974, showing that the lagoon is a wetland of international importance.
Abstract: Summary Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218. Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola squatarola, Turnstone Arenaria interpres, Knot C. canutus and Sanderling C. alba. Together they formed 95,7% of the population counted. Waders arrived in September and departed in March and April. Overwintering populations of the commoner species were observed. Estimates of the total population size of the lagoon were 41 000–55 000 in summer and 10 500 in winter. These figures are of value for nature conservation and show that the lagoon is a wetland of international importance.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Skead et al. as discussed by the authors investigated the drinking habits of birds in the central Transvaal bushveld and found that the Goldenbreasted buntings congregated at permanent water during the dry winter season when their diet probably consisted largely of dry seeds.
Abstract: Summary Skead, D. M. 1975. Drinking habits of birds in the central Transvaal bushveld. Ostrich 46:139-146. Seventy one species from 25 families are recorded drinking water with short descriptions of their drinking habits. Goldenbreasted Buntings congregated at permanent water during the dry winter season when their diet probably consisted largely of dry seeds. Analysis of Masked Weaver data shows that in the dry season their drinking peaked before noon in June, July and September, but in the afternoon in August. The significance of this is not clear. The drinking technique of the Forktailed Drongo is described, one intermediate between those of doves and most passerines.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Geldenhuys et al. as discussed by the authors determined the incidence and population size of fifteen duck species on nine irrigation lakes in the Orange Free State, South Africa, during August 1972 to July 1973.
Abstract: Summary Geldenhuys, J. N. 1975. Waterfowl (Anatidae) on irrigation lakes in the Orange Free State. Ostrich 46:219-235. The incidence and population size of fifteen duck species were determined on nine irrigation lakes in the Orange Free State, South Africa, during August 1972 to July 1973. Allemanskraal supported the highest average number of Egyptian Goose, South African Shelduck and Yellowbilled Duck. Redbilled Teal and Spurwinged Goose favoured Bloemhof. Cape Shoveller and Cape Teal concentrated on Kalkfontein, and Southern Pochard frequented Erfenis. The most common species were the Egyptian Goose, South African Shelduck, Yellowbilled Duck and Spurwinged Goose, in thit order according to average number of birds per count, Black Duck, Whitefaced Duck, Whistling Duck, Whitebacked Duck, Hottentot Teal, Knobbilled Duck and Maccoa Duck occurred sporadically. Relatively high seasonal population nuctuations were found in the South African Shelduck, Cape Teal, Southern Pochard and to a lesser extent in the Sp...

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: The three indigenous species of Corvus in South Africa are compared in respect of geographical and ecological distribution, status, breeding, food, economic importance and general habits.
Abstract: Summary Winterbottom, J. M. 1975. Notes on the South African spscies of Corvus. Ostrich 46:236-250. The three indigenous species of Corvus in South Africa are compared in respect of geographical and ecological distribution, status, breeding, food, economic importance and general habits. Apart from the limitation of range in albicollis by its nesting requirements, it is extremely difficult to pin-point any factors in which the species so differ as to explain the paradoxes of their distribution.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: The optimum clutch size for the Purple Heron, in terms of fledgling success, is four to a nest, although growth data from nests indicate that the fourth chick in a nest with four is not fed adequately, and the fifth chick inA nest with five dies of starvation.
Abstract: Summary Tomlinson, D. N. S. 1975. Studies of the Purple Heron, Part 3: Egg and chick development. Ostrich 46:157-165. (Part 1, Ostrich 45:175-181; Part 2, Ostrich 45:209-223.) The average clutch size of Ardea purpurea was found to be three eggs, with a mean incubation period of 26 days. Incubation begins immediately the first egg is laid with the result that there is a marked difference in chick size in individual nests. The optimum clutch size in terms of fledgling success, is four to a nest, although growth data from nests indicate that the fourth chick in a nest with four is not fed adequately, and the fifth chick in a nest with five dies of starvation. In agreement with Junor's (1971) results on other herons, food expressed as a percentage of body weight per day was found to level off at 16% which was 225 g of food per bird (adult weight) per day.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Observations extending over 12 years were made on two pairs of African Hawk-Eagles Hieraaetus spilogaster at Essexvale, Rhodesia, showing a progressive decline although both adults still perched in the nest tree a great deal.
Abstract: Summary Steyn, P. 1975. Observations on the African Hawk-Eagle. Ostrich 46:87-105. Observations extending over 12 years were made on two pairs of African Hawk-Eagles Hieraaetus spilogaster at Essexvale, Rhodesia. Details on various aspects of adult behaviour are given, particularly on hunting methods and calls. Nest repair usually took about 4–5 weeks. and limited observations indicated that the male does most of the work. Incubation is done mostly by the female, the male relieving her when he brings prey. The incubation period is 43 ± 1 day. Details are given of parental behaviour during the fedging period; time on the nest showed a progressive decline although both adults still perched in the. nest tree a great deal. The male provided most of the prey. The growth and behaviour of the eaglet Is described; usually the eaglet becomes a “brancher” before its first flight which, in four cases, occurred between 61–71 days. Post-of edping attachment to the nest lasted about three weeks in one case. Frief menti...

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Morphological differences between male and female are discussed, a double-brooded breeding season is indicated, the development of chicks is described, and the moult cycle is indicated.
Abstract: Summary Schmitt, M. B. 1975. Observations on the Black Crake in the Southern Transvaal. Ostrich 46:129-138. During a four-year study period, several pairs of Black Crakes Porzana flavirostris and their progeny have been studied on a vlei in the southern Transvaal. Morphological differences between male and female are discussed, a double-brooded breeding season is indicated, the development of chicks is described, and the moult cycle is indicated. The Black Crake moults all flight feathers simultaneously and during its breeding season.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
C. B. Frith1
01 Dec 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Details are presented of the nesting of a pair of Malagasy Coucals on Aldabra, with incidental observations of other pairs and nests that are very similar to that of the black Coucal Centropus grillii of Africa.
Abstract: Summary Frith, C. B. 1975. Field observations on Centropus toulou insularis on Aldabra Atoll. Ostrich 46:251-257. Details are presented of the nesting of a pair of Malagasy Coucals on Aldabra, with incidental observations of other pairs and nests. Courtship and copulation behaviour is very similar to that of the black Coucal Centropus grillii of Africa. Both sexes net build and incubate the eggs but these activities are performed very predominately by the male. Eggs are white and average 27,5 x 23.5 mm and 8,3 g. Two complete clutches of two and one of thee egg; were found and a doubtful early record of a four egg clutch is considered unlikely. There was an interval of at least 9 days between the laying of the two egg;, which hatched 7–8 days apart, incubation commencing with the first egg. The incubation of the second egg was 14 days, and the fledging period of both young about 19 days. Nestlings in the chamber produce a snake-like hissing noise, excrete a foul-smelling sticky fluid when handled and burs...

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: It was suggested that the success of one adult pair in raising two chicks was partly occasioned by the chicks' ages being only four days apart, and by the unusually rich food supply available from nearby human activities.
Abstract: Summary Mundy. P. J. & Cook. A. W. 1975. Hatching and rearing of two chicks by the Hooded Vulture. Ostrich 46:45-50 The single-egg clutches of 10 pairs of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus were doubled by the addition of one egg to each in the breeding season of 1971/72 at Sokoto, Nigeria. Three pairs hatched both eggs and a further two pairs hatched one egg each. Only one pair raised both chicks to fledging and, apart from a depressed weight gain and tail growth of the younger “sibling”, the chicks grew at approximately the average rate for the species. The average rate was determined by following 27 normal nests in the study area. There was no evidence of aggression between the “siblings”. It was suggested that the success of one adult pair in raising two chicks was partly occasioned by the chicks' ages being only four days apart, and by the unusually rich food supply available from nearby human activities.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: The diet of the Hadedah Ibis in Victoria East, Cape Province is described, indicating that the birds can survive in dry areas where the hardness of the ground would prevent probing for the collection of food.
Abstract: Summary Raseroka, B. H. 1974. Diet of the Hadedah Ibis. Ostrich 45:51-54. The diet of the Hadedah Ibis in Victoria East, Cape Province is described. 60% of the weight of the diet is composed of animals obtainable from the surface of the soil, indicating that the birds can survive in dry areas where the hardness of the ground would prevent probing for the collection of food.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: The Hadedah Ibis Lostrychia hagedash is a common species in the Eastern Cape Province and Normally three eggs are laid, but survival of the nestlings until they can leave the nest is low.
Abstract: Summary Raseroka, B H 1975 Breeding of the Hadedah Ibis Ostrich 46:208-212 The Hadedah Ibis Lostrychia hagedash is a common species in the Eastern Cape Province Nest construction and nesting are described Normally three eggs are laid, but survival of the nestlings until they can leave the nest is low

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Overlap between the breeding and moulting seasons occurred and evidence was obtained of incubating birds with active primary moult.
Abstract: Summary Cooper, J. 1975. Primary moult, weight and breeding cycles of the Rock Pigeon on Dassen Island. Ostrich 46:154-156. The primary moult season of the adult Rock Pigeon Columba guinea on Dassen Island is spread over at least nine months. Individual duration is estimated at eight months. Adult birds were heaviest in the winter months outside the breeding season. Overlap between the breeding and moulting seasons occurred and evidence was obtained of incubating birds with active primary moult. Juveniles were lighter than adults. Adults fed on the mainland and probably made daily flights there.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: B breeding, adult and nestling behaviour, nests and sites, seasonal movements and few mating displays were seen and none away from the nest.
Abstract: Summary Scott, J. A. 1975. Observations on the breeding of the Woollynecked Stork. Ostrich 46: 201–207. Little is known about the breeding of the Woollynecked Stork Ciconia episcopus in Africa. This paper discusses breeding, adult and nestling behaviour, nests and sites. Seasonal movements are discussed briefly. Eight nests were studied during 1970 to 1974. At one nest incubation was established at 30 to 31 days and the fledging period 55 to 65 days. No feeding of the young was observed at any time, though one eight hour observation period was undertaken. Few mating displays were seen and none away from the nest.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: The colouration of the mouth interior of birds with adult plumage has been examined in ten species of estrildid finches occurring in eastern Zaire Republic and it is attempted to correlate these patterns with systematic relationships and with types of social behaviour.
Abstract: Summary Kunkel, P. & Kunkel, I. 1975. Palate pigmentation in adults and subadults of some African Estrididae, with special reference to the persistency of juvenile mouth-markings. 46:147-153. The colouration of the mouth interior of birds with adult plumage has been examined in ten species of estrildid finches occurring in eastern Zaire Republic. Three types have been found: in a Cryptospiza and a Nesocharis species as well as in Estrilda astrild adult bill interiors are pale, and the juvenile palate designs fade out slowly; in two Spermestes species, Estrilda nonnula and at least one Lagonosticta species, the bill interior is black or dark slate, and the juvenile spots and lines are merged into this pigmentation; only in Spermophaga the juvenile palate design is fully conserved in adults as it is, according to former papers, in Uraeginthus. It is attempted to correlate these patterns with systematic relationships and with types of social behaviour.


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1975-Ostrich
TL;DR: Vernon, C. J. as discussed by the authors presented a report on ringing activities in southern Africa from July 1973 to June 1974, where a total of 51 561 birds of 451 species were ringed and are analysed according to distribution of ringers, groups of species and recovery rates.
Abstract: Summary Vernon, C. J. 1975. Seventeenth ringing report for southern African. Ostrich 46:125-128. A report on ringing activities in southern Africa from July 1973 to June 1974 is presented. A total of 51 561 birds of 451 species were ringed and are analysed according to distribution of ringers, groups of species and recovery rates. A list of those birds living longer than ten years is given. Analyses are needed of the most frequently ringed species in order to give greater purpose to future ringing.